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Encyclopedia > Tremor
Symptom/Sign: Tremor
Classifications and external resources
ICD-10 R25.1
ICD-9 781.0
DiseasesDB 27742
MeSH D014202

Tremor is an unintentional, somewhat rhythmic, muscle movement involving to-and-fro movements (oscillations) of one or more parts of the body. It is the most common of all involuntary movements and can affect the hands, arms, head, face, vocal cords, trunk, and legs. Most tremors occur in the hands. In some people, tremor is a symptom of another neurological disorder. The most common form of tremor, however, occurs in otherwise healthy people. Although tremor is not life-threatening, it can be embarrassing to some people and make it harder to perform daily tasks. A symptom is a manifestation of a disease, indicating the nature of the disease, which is noticed by the patient. ... In medicine, a sign is a feature of disease as detected by the doctor during physical examination of a patient. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // R00-R99 - Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified (R00-R09) Symptoms and signs involving the circulatory and respiratory systems (R00) Abnormalities of heart beat (R000) Tachycardia, unspecified (R001) Bradycardia, unspecified (R002) Palpitations (R008) Other and unspecified abnormalities of heart beat (R01) Cardiac murmurs and other... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Tremors is a 1990 comedic monster film about a group of people from a small Nevada town fighting subterranean worm-creatures dubbed Graboids. It was directed by Ron Underwood, and stars Kevin Bacon, Fred Ward, Finn Carter, Michael Gross and Reba McEntire. ... Tremor may mean: Tremor - shaking or stereotypical movement of the hand or other parts of the body (originally medical) Tremors are also the shaking movements of earthquakes. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ...

Contents

Causes

Tremor is generally caused by problems in parts of the brain or spinal cord that control muscles throughout the body or in particular areas, such as the hands. Neurological disorders or conditions that can produce tremor include multiple sclerosis, stroke, traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases that damage or destroy parts of the brainstem or the cerebellum. Other causes include the use of some drugs (such as amphetamines, caffeine, corticosteroids, and drugs used for certain psychiatric disorders), alcohol abuse or withdrawal, mercury poisoning, overactive thyroid or liver failure. Tremors can be an indication of hypoglycemia, along with palpitations, sweating and anxiety. A magnesium and Vitamin B1 deficency has also been known to cause a tremor or shaking, soon resolved when the nutrients are taken. Read magnesium in biology. Some forms of tremor are inherited and run in families, while others have no known cause. Tremors can also be caused by some spider bites i.e. the redback spider of Australia. For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Traumatic brain injury (TBI), traumatic injuries to the brain, also called intracranial injury, or simply head injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes brain damage. ... Neurodegenerative disease (Greek νέυρο-, néuro-, nerval and Latin dēgenerāre, to decline or to worsen) is a condition in which cells of the brain and spinal cord are lost. ... The brain stem is the stalk of the brain below the cerebral hemispheres. ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor control. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... It has been suggested that Acrodynia be merged into this article or section. ... Liver failure is the final stage of liver disease. ... Hypoglycemia (hypoglycaemia in British English) is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. ... Magnesium ions (Mg2+) in cellular biology are usually in almost all senses opposite to Ca2+ ions, because they are bivalent too, but have larger atomic radius. ...


Characteristics may include a rhythmic shaking in the hands, arms, head, legs, or trunk; shaky voice; difficulty writing or drawing; or problems holding and controlling utensils, such as a fork. Some tremors may be triggered by or become exaggerated during times of stress or strong emotion, when the individual is physically exhausted, or during certain postures or movements.


Tremor may occur at any age but is most common in middle-aged and older persons. It may be occasional, temporary, or occur intermittently. Tremor affects men and women equally.


Etiologies

Tremor is most commonly classified by clinical features and cause or origin. Some of the better known forms of tremor, with their symptoms, include the following:

  • Essential tremor (sometimes called benign essential tremor) is the most common of the more than 20 types of tremor. Although the tremor may be mild and nonprogressive in some people, in others, the tremor is slowly progressive, starting on one side of the body but affecting both sides within 3 years. The hands are most often affected but the head, voice, tongue, legs, and trunk may also be involved. Head tremor may be seen as a “yes-yes” or “no-no” motion. Essential tremor may be accompanied by mild gait disturbance. Tremor frequency may decrease as the person ages, but the severity may increase, affecting the person’s ability to perform certain tasks or activities of daily living. Heightened emotion, stress, fever, physical exhaustion, or low blood sugar may trigger tremors and/or increase their severity. Onset is most common after age 40, although symptoms can appear at any age. It may occur in more than one family member. Children of a parent who has essential tremor have a 50 percent chance of inheriting the condition. Essential tremor is not associated with any known pathology.
  • Parkinsonian tremor is caused by damage to structures within the brain that control movement. This resting tremor, which can occur as an isolated symptom or be seen in other disorders, is often a precursor to Parkinson's disease (more than 25 percent of patients with Parkinson’s disease have an associated action tremor). The tremor, which is classically seen as a “pill-rolling” action of the hands that may also affect the chin, lips, legs, and trunk, can be markedly increased by stress or emotions. Onset of parkinsonian tremor is generally after age 60. Movement starts in one limb or on one side of the body and usually progresses to include the other side.
  • Dystonic tremor occurs in individuals of all ages who are affected by dystonia, a movement disorder in which sustained involuntary muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive motions and/or painful and abnormal postures or positions. Dystonic tremor may affect any muscle in the body and is seen most often when the patient is in a certain position or moves a certain way. The pattern of dystonic tremor may differ from essential tremor. Dystonic tremors occur irregularly and often can be relieved by complete rest. Touching the affected body part or muscle may reduce tremor severity (a geste antagoniste). The tremor may be the initial sign of dystonia localized to a particular part of the body.
  • Cerebellar tremor (also known as "intention tremor") is a slow, broad tremor of the extremities that occurs at the end of a purposeful movement, such as trying to press a button or touching a finger to the tip of one’s nose. Cerebellar tremor is caused by lesions in or damage to the cerebellum resulting from stroke, tumor, or disease such as multiple sclerosis or some inherited degenerative disorder. It can also result from chronic alcoholism or overuse of some medicines. In classic cerebellar tremor, a lesion on one side of the brain produces a tremor in that same side of the body that worsens with directed movement. Cerebellar damage can also produce a “wing-beating” type of tremor called rubral or Holmes’ tremor — a combination of rest, action, and postural tremors. The tremor is often most prominent when the affected person is active or is maintaining a particular posture. Cerebellar tremor may be accompanied by other manifestations of ataxia, including dysarthria (speech problems), nystagmus (rapid, involuntary rolling of the eyes), gait problems and postural tremor of the trunk and neck.
  • Psychogenic tremor (also called hysterical tremor) can occur at rest or during postural or kinetic movement. The characteristics of this kind of tremor may vary but generally include sudden onset and remission, increased incidence with stress, change in tremor direction and/or body part affected, and greatly decreased or disappearing tremor activity when the patient is distracted. Many patients with psychogenic tremor have a conversion disorder or another psychiatric disease.
  • Orthostatic tremor is characterized by fast (>12Hz) rhythmic muscle contractions that occur in the legs and trunk immediately after standing. Cramps are felt in the thighs and legs and the patient may shake uncontrollably when asked to stand in one spot. No other clinical signs or symptoms are present and the shaking ceases when the patient sits or is lifted off the ground. The high frequency of the tremor often makes the tremor look like rippling of leg muscles while standing. Orthostatic tremor may also occur in patients who have essential tremor.
  • Rubral tremor is characterized by coarse slow tremor which is present at rest, at posture and with intention. This tremor is associated with conditions which affect the red nucleus in the midbrain, classically unusual strokes.
  • Physiologic tremor occurs in every normal individual and has no clinical significance. It is rarely visible to the eye and may be heightened by strong emotion (such as anxiety or fear), physical exhaustion, hypoglycemia, hyperthyroidism, heavy metal poisoning, stimulants, alcohol withdrawal or fever. It can be seen in all voluntary muscle groups and can be detected by extending the arms and placing a piece of paper on top of the hands. Enhanced physiologic tremor is a strengthening of physiologic tremor to more visible levels. It is generally not caused by a neurological disease but by reaction to certain drugs, alcohol withdrawal, or medical conditions including an overactive thyroid and hypoglycemia. It is usually reversible once the cause is corrected.

Tremor can result from other conditions as well. Alcoholism, excessive alcohol consumption, or alcohol withdrawal can kill certain nerve cells, resulting a tremor known as asterixis. Conversely, small amounts of alcohol may help to decrease familial and essential tremor, but the mechanism behind this is unknown. Tremor in peripheral neuropathy may occur when the nerves that supply the body’s muscles are traumatized by injury, disease, abnormality in the central nervous system, or as the result of systemic illnesses. Peripheral neuropathy can affect the whole body or certain areas, such as the hands, and may be progressive. Resulting sensory loss may be seen as a tremor or ataxia (inability to coordinate voluntary muscle movement) of the affected limbs and problems with gait and balance. Clinical characteristics may be similar to those seen in patients with essential tremor. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Parkinsonism describes the common symptoms of Parkinsons disease - tremor, rigidity, akinesia or bradykinesia and postural instability. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder in which sustained muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures. ... A geste antagoniste is a physical gesture or position (such as touching ones chin) which serves to temporarily interrupt dystonia. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ... For other uses, see Ataxia (disambiguation). ... Look up dysarthria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Nystagmus is involuntary eye movement that can be part of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), with the eyes moving first in the direction of the lesioned side (slow phase) followed by a quick correction (fast phase) to the opposite side or away from the lesioned side. ... Psychology is an academic and applied field involving the study of the human mind, brain, and behavior. ... Conversion Disorder is a DSM-IV diagnosis which describes neurological symptoms such as extreme weakness, paralysis, sensory disturbance, seizure and/or attacks that may resemble a known organic disease such as epilepsy or dystonia, but which cannot be currently attributed to neurological disease. ... In medicine, Orthostatic refers to the state of standing. ... Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... Hypoglycemia (hypoglycaemia in British English) is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. ... Hyperthyroidism (or overactive thyroid gland) is the clinical syndrome caused by an excess of circulating free thyroxine (T4) or free triiodothyronine (T3), or both. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... Asterixis (Greek a, not + stÄ“rixis, fixed position) is a flapping tremor of the wrist upon extension (dorsiflexion), sometimes said to resemble a bird flapping its wings. Also called liver flap, it can be a sign of hepatic encephalopathy (damage to brain cells due to inability of the liver to... Peripheral neuropathy is the term for damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system, which may be caused either by diseases of the nerve or from the side-effects of systemic illness. ...


Diagnosis

During a physical exam a doctor can determine whether the tremor occurs primarily during action or at rest. The doctor will also check for tremor symmetry, any sensory loss, weakness or muscle atrophy, or decreased reflexes. A detailed family history may indicate if the tremor is inherited. Blood or urine tests can detect thyroid malfunction, other metabolic causes, and abnormal levels of certain chemicals that can cause tremor. These tests may also help to identify contributing causes, such as drug interaction, chronic alcoholism, or another condition or disease. Diagnostic imaging using computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging may help determine if the tremor is the result of a structural defect or degeneration of the brain. CAT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around... MRI redirects here. ...


The doctor will perform a neurological exam to assess nerve function and motor and sensory skills. The tests are designed to determine any functional limitations, such as difficulty with handwriting or the ability to hold a utensil or cup. The patient may be asked to place a finger on the tip of her or his nose, draw a spiral, or perform other tasks or exercises. The neurological examination is the physical examination of the nervous system. ...


The doctor may order an electromyogram to diagnose muscle or nerve problems. This test measures involuntary muscle activity and muscle response to nerve stimulation. Electromyography (EMG) is a medical technique for measuring muscle response to nervous stimulation. ...


Categories

The degree of tremor should be assessed in four positions. The tremor can then be classified by which position most accentuates the tremor: [1]

Position Name Description
At rest Resting tremors Tremors that are worse at rest include Parkinsonian syndromes and essential tremor if severe. This includes drug-induced tremors from blockers of dopamine receptors such as haloperidol and other antipsychotic drugs.
During contraction (eg a tight fist while the arm is resting and supported) Contraction tremors Tremors that are worse during supported contraction include essential tremor and also cerebellar and exaggerated physiologic tremors such as a hyperadrenergic state or hyperthyroidism[1]. Drugs such as adrenergics, anti-cholinergics, and xanthines can exaggerate physiologic tremor.
During posture (eg with the arms elevated against gravity such as in a 'bird-wing' position) Posture tremors Tremors that are worse with posture against gravity include essential tremor and exaggerated physiologic tremors[1].
During intention (eg finger to nose test) Intention tremors Intention tremors are tremors that are worse during intention, e.g. as the patient's finger approaches a target, including cerebellar disorders.

The dopamine receptors are a class of G-protein coupled receptors with dopamine as their endogenous ligand. ... Haloperidol (sold under the tradenames Aloperidin, Bioperidolo, Brotopon, Dozic, Duraperidol (Germany), Einalon S, Eukystol, Haldol, Halosten, Keselan, Linton, Peluces, Serenace, Serenase, Sigaperidol) is a conventional, or typical, butyrophenone antipsychotic drug. ... The term antipsychotic is applied to a group of drugs used to treat psychosis. ... An adrenergic is a drug, or other substance, which has effects similar to, or the same as, epinephrine (adrenaline). ... An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds (such as Dicyclomine) which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. ... Xanthines are a group of alkaloids that are commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in treating the symptoms of asthma. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Intention tremor is a dyskinetic disorder characterized by voluntary withering in an attempt to coordinate delicate movements, caused by slow proprioception and coordination. ...

Treatment

There is no cure for most tremors. The appropriate treatment depends on accurate diagnosis of the cause. Some tremors respond to treatment of the underlying condition. For example, in some cases of psychogenic tremor, treating the patient’s underlying psychological problem may cause the tremor to disappear.


Medications

Symptomatic drug therapy is available for several forms of tremor:

  • Cerebellar tremor typically does not respond to medical treatment.
  • Dystonic tremor may respond to Valium, anticholinergic drugs, and intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin. Botulinum toxin is also prescribed to treat voice and head tremors and several movement disorders.
  • Primary orthostatic tremor sometimes is treated with a combination of Valium and primidone.
  • Enhanced physiologic tremor is usually reversible once the cause is corrected. If symptomatic treatment is needed, beta blockers can be used.

Levodopa (INN) or L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine) is an intermediate in dopamine biosynthesis. ... Pergolide is an ergoline-based dopamine receptor agonist used for the treatment of Parkinsons disease. ... Bromocriptine (barnd names include Parlodel), an ergoline derivative, is a dopamine agonist that is used in the treatment of pituitary tumors and Parkinsons disease. ... Requip (ropinirole) is so far the only medication in the United States with an FDA approved indication for the treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome. ... Molecule of amantadine Amantadine, 1-adamantane amine, is an antiviral drug that was approved by the FDA in 1976 for the treatment of influenza type A in adults. ... An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. ... Propranolol (INN) (IPA: ) is a non-selective beta blocker mainly used in the treatment of hypertension. ... Nadolol (Corgard) is a non-selective beta-blocker used in the treatment of high blood pressure and chest pain. ... Beta blockers or beta-adrenergic blocking agents are a class of drugs used to treat a variety of cardiovascular conditions and some other diseases. ... Primidone is an anticonvulsant of the pyrimidinedione[4] class whose active metabolites, phenobarbital (major) and phenylethylmalonamide (PEMA) (minor), are also anticonvulsants. ... The anticonvulsants, sometimes also called antiepileptics, belong to a diverse group of pharmaceuticals used in prevention of the occurrence of epileptic seizures. ... Levodopa (INN) or L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine) is an intermediate in dopamine biosynthesis. ... An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. ... Diazepam, brand names: Valium, Seduxen, in Europe Apozepam, is a 1,4-benzodiazepine derivative, which possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. ... Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... Diazepam, brand names: Valium, Seduxen, in Europe Apozepam, is a 1,4-benzodiazepine derivative, which possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. ... Primidone is an anticonvulsant of the pyrimidinedione[4] class whose active metabolites, phenobarbital (major) and phenylethylmalonamide (PEMA) (minor), are also anticonvulsants. ... Beta blockers or beta-adrenergic blocking agents are a class of drugs used to treat a variety of cardiovascular conditions and some other diseases. ...

Lifestyle

Eliminating tremor “triggers” such as caffeine and other stimulants from the diet is often recommended. For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ...


Physical therapy may help to reduce tremor and improve coordination and muscle control for some patients. A physical therapist will evaluate the patient for tremor positioning, muscle control, muscle strength, and functional skills. Teaching the patient to brace the affected limb during the tremor or to hold an affected arm close to the body is sometimes useful in gaining motion control. Coordination and balancing exercises may help some patients. Some therapists recommend the use of weights, splints, other adaptive equipment, and special plates and utensils for eating. Physical therapy (or physiotherapy[1]) is the provision of services to people and populations to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. ...


Surgery

Surgical intervention such as thalamotomy and deep brain stimulation may ease certain tremors. These surgeries are usually performed only when the tremor is severe and does not respond to drugs.


Thalamotomy, involving the creation of lesions in the brain region called the thalamus, is quite effective in treating patients with essential, cerebellar, or parkinsonian tremor. This in-hospital procedure is performed under local anesthesia, with the patient awake. After the patient’s head is secured in a metal frame, the surgeon maps the patient’s brain to locate the thalamus. A small hole is drilled through the skull and a temperature-controlled electrode is inserted into the thalamus. A low-frequency current is passed through the electrode to activate the tremor and to confirm proper placement. Once the site has been confirmed, the electrode is heated to create a temporary lesion. Testing is done to examine speech, language, coordination, and tremor activation, if any. If no problems occur, the probe is again heated to create a 3-mm permanent lesion. The probe, when cooled to body temperature, is withdrawn and the skull hole is covered. The lesion causes the tremor to permanently disappear without disrupting sensory or motor control. First introduced in the 1950s, thalamotomy is an invasive procedure, primarily effective for tremors such as those associated with Parkinsons Disease (PD), where a selected portion of the thalamus is surgically destroyed (ablated). ...


Deep brain stimulation (DBS) uses implantable electrodes to send high-frequency electrical signals to the thalamus. The electrodes are implanted as described above. The patient uses a hand-held magnet to turn on and turn off a pulse generator that is surgically implanted under the skin. The electrical stimulation temporarily disables the tremor and can be “reversed,” if necessary, by turning off the implanted electrode. Batteries in the generator last about 5 years and can be replaced surgically. DBS is currently used to treat parkinsonian tremor and essential tremor. In neurotechnology, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical treatment involving the implantation of a medical device called a brain pacemaker, which sends electrical impulses to specific parts of the brain. ...


The most common side effects of tremor surgery include dysarthria (problems with motor control of speech), temporary or permanent cognitive impairment (including visual and learning difficulties), and problems with balance. Look up dysarthria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


See also

Shivering is a human bodily function in response to cold. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Jankovic J, Fahn S. Physiologic and pathologic tremors. Diagnosis, mechanism, and management. Ann Intern Med. 1980;93:460-5. PMID 7001967
is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A symptom is a manifestation of a disease, indicating the nature of the disease, which is noticed by the patient. ... In medicine, a sign is a feature of disease as detected by the doctor during physical examination of a patient. ... The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are nerves called neurons. ... The musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system) is an organ system that gives animals the ability to physically move using the muscles and skeletal system. ... // R00-R99 - Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified (R00-R09) Symptoms and signs involving the circulatory and respiratory systems (R00) Abnormalities of heart beat (R000) Tachycardia, unspecified (R001) Bradycardia, unspecified (R002) Palpitations (R008) Other and unspecified abnormalities of heart beat (R01) Cardiac murmurs and other... A spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ, or a similarly sudden contraction of an orifice. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Twitching. ... Athetosis is a continuous stream of slow, sinuous, writhing movements, typically of the hands and feet. ... Persons suffering from peripheral neuropathy experience numbness and tingling in their hands and feet. ... Explain the dystonias connected with motor coordination. ... For other uses, see Ataxia (disambiguation). ... Cerebellum (in blue) of the human brain Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) is a genetic disease with multiple types, each of which could be considered a disease in its own right. ... Sensory ataxia both a symptom and a sign in neurology. ... Dysmetria (Greek: dificult to measure) is a symptom exhibited by patients after cerebellar injury. ... Dysdiadochokinesia is the medical term for an inability to perform rapid, alternating movements. ... Hypotonia is a condition of abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle), often involving reduced muscle strength. ... Diseases and other conditions that increase action potential frequency cause unwanted contraction of muscles. ... Meningism is the triad of nuchal rigidity, photophobia (intolerance of bright light) and headache. ... Hyperreflexia is defined as overactive or overresponsive reflexes. ... The words Opisthotonos or opisthotonus stem from the Greek language, opistho for behind and tonos for tension. ... A woman with malaria displaying decerebrate posturing, with arms extended at her sides. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tremor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (291 words)
Tremor is the rhythmic, oscillating shaking movement of the whole body or just a certain part of it, caused by problems of the neurons responsible from muscle action.
Tremor may occur as an isolated symptom and usually of idiopathic (unknown) cause (essential tremor) or a part of the symptom constellation of another disorder (e.g.
Tremors may occur at rest (Parkinson's disease), during voluntary movements (cerebellar lesions) or during excessive activity of muscles (essential tremor, hyperthyroidism).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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