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Encyclopedia > Treaty of Windsor

The Treaty of Windsor signed on 16 June 1522 was made between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Henry VIII of England. Its main clause was the invasion of France. June 16 is the 167th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (168th in leap years), with 198 days remaining. ... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... Charles (February 24, 1500 – September 21, 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles V) from 1519-1558; he was also King of Spain from 1516-1556, officially as Charles I of Spain, although often referred to as Charles V (Carlos Quinto or Carlos V) in Spain and Latin America. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ...


The treaty affirmed an agreement to joint military operations between England and the Holy Roman Empire against France with each party providing at least 40,000 men. Charles agreed to compensate England for the pensions that would be lost because of conflict with France and to pay the past debts that would be forfeit. To seal the alliance Henry's only daughter Mary was affianced to her cousin the young emperor. The crown of the Holy Roman Empire (2nd half of the 10th century), now held in the Vienna Schatzkammer. ... Mary I Queen of England and Ireland Mary I (February 18, 1516–November 17, 1558) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from July 6, 1553 (de jure) or July 19, 1553 (de facto) until her death. ...


Because Henry was still unconvinced of the wisdom of this treaty he deferred all actions to the summer of 1524 although a few months later, when it became clear that Charles was having significant military success, Henry enthusistically recommended the immediate invasion of France. Events March 1, 1524/5 - Giovanni da Verrazano lands near Cape Fear (approx. ...


This was the second treaty of this name. An earlier Treaty of Windsor was agreed with Portugal in 1386. The English–Portuguese alliance was renewed in 1386 with the Treaty of Windsor and the marriage of João I of Aviz with Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt. ... Events Battle of Sempach: Swiss safeguard independence from Hapsburg rule End of reign of Poland by Lithuania and Poland. ...


Background

Charles V and Francis I of France were in competition over the title of Holy Roman Emperor. Charles was concerned that France would secure the support of England against him. He was so concerned that when he heard of an impending meeting between Henry VIII and Francis I in 1520 he left Spain to seek a meeting with Henry even though the Castilians were rebelling. Although Henry was flattered by this, he disapproved of the military decision to abandon a rebellion unresolved and did not change his plans to visit France. Francis I (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 – July 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (French: le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Events January 18 - King Norway defeats the Swedes at Lake Asunde. ... A former kingdom of Spain, Castile comprises the two regions of Old Castile in north-western Spain, and New Castile in the centre of the country. ...


Henry warned Charles not to start a war with France and he did wait a while. Charles V and Francis I of France went to undeclared war in 1521 after some years of political manoeuvring. Both sides claimed that the other was the sole aggressor. Robert Knecht has shown that the war started unintentionally. Francis I (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 – July 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (French: le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther. ...


France was allied to the papacy and claimed that it only needed England to abstain from the conflict rather than enter a full alliance. Francis called on Henry VIII to mediate a peace conference and Charles agreed to this. Cardinal Wolsey acted as Henry's agent in the ensuing negotiations at Calais, which focussed upon assigning blame for the conflict. Both sides continued to fight whilst the negotiations took place. Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (c. ... This article is about the French city. ...


Henry VIII was keen to go to war himself and this conflict offered him an opportunity to take England to war against its old enemy: France. He enjoyed Charles' humility towards him and had Wolsey's counsel that Charles would follow Henry's advice and thus afford him de facto control of most of Christendom. By August 1521 England and Spain had drafted a treaty but Wolsey advised Henry to delay its signing until they were certain that Charles had the funds and military strength to win the war. By mid November Charles was becoming impatient and his aunt Margaret of Austria warned Henry that he might rashly change his mind. Charles suggested a second state visit to England conditional on the public announcement of the alliance. De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Christendom, in the widest sense, refers to Christianity as a territorial phenomenon: those countries where most people are Christians, or nominal Christians, are part of Christendom. ... Archduchess Margaretha of Austria (10 January 1480-1 December 1530) was Regent of The Netherlands. ...


Henry compromised by entering a secret agreement with Charles and the papacy in November 1521. This stated that the military campaign would start in March 1523 with details of the joint operation to be agreed during Charles' visit to England. On 29 May 1522 England challenged France to war and Charles arrived in England a few days later. Events April - Battle of Villalors - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ...


References

  • Robert J Knecht, Francis I, (Cambridge: University Press, 1994)
  • Mia J. Rodriguez-Salgado, 'Good brothers and perpetual allies: Charles V and Henry VIII', in A. Kohler (ed.), Karl V 2000, (Vienna, 2000)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Treaty of Windsor 1386 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (184 words)
The English–Portuguese alliance was renewed in 1386 with the Treaty of Windsor and the marriage of King John I of Portugal (House of Aviz) with Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt.
With the victory at the Battle of Aljubarrota, John I was recognized as the undisputed King of Portugal, putting an end to the interregnum and anarchy of the 1383–1385 Crisis.
The treaty, which remains valid at the present time, established a pact of mutual support between the countries.
Treaty of Windsor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (94 words)
The most famous one is the treaty of 1522.
Treaty of Windsor (1175) - see Norman Ireland
This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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