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Encyclopedia > Treaty of Washington (1826)
Opothleyahola
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Opothleyahola

The 1826 Treaty of Washington was a settlement between the United States government and the Creek National Council of Native Americans, led by their spokesman Opothleyahola. The Creeks ceded much of their land in the State of Georgia to the Federal government. The Creeks are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, Amerindians, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... Portrait of Opothleyahola during the 1830s Opothleyahola (also spelled Opothle Yohola, Hu-pui-hilth Yahola, and Hopoeitheyohola) was a Muscogee Creek Indian chief, noted as a brilliant orator and spokesperson of the Upper Creek Council. ... State nickname: Peach State / Empire State of the South Other U.S. States Capital Atlanta Largest city Atlanta Governor Sonny Perdue Official languages English Area 154,077 km² (24th)  - Land 150,132 km²  - Water 3,945 km² (2. ...


The Creeks were a loose confederation of tribes with diverse customs and histories. Over several decades, they had ceded small portions of their vast lands to the Federal government in a variety of treaties and agreements. They had been allies with the British in the War of 1812. The 1814 Treaty of Fort Jackson which ended the Creek War stipulated that the Creeks would cede 23 million acres of prime land to the Southern states, leaving the Creeks a tract around the Chattahoochee River. The Creek Confederacy enacted a law that made further land cessions a capital offense. However, by mid-1820s, both political parties in Georgia favored the total removal of the Indians to the west. Democrat Governor George Troup aggressively moved to resolve the situation. The War of 1812 was a conflict fought in North America between the United States and Great Britain from 1812 to 1815. ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Treaty of Fort Jackson, also known as the Treaty with the Creeks, 1814 was signed on August 9, 1814 at Fort Jackson near Wetumpka, Alabama following the defeat of the Red Stick ( Upper Creek) resistance by United States forces at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend on the banks of... The Creek War of 1813-1814 began as a civil war within the Creek Nation. ... The Chattahoochee River runs from the Chattahoochee Spring in the mountains of northeast Georgia, southwestward by Atlanta and through its suburbs, then turns southward to form the southern half of the Georgia/Alabama state line. ... Events and Trends Nationalistic independence movements helped reshape the world during this decade: Greece declares independence from the Ottoman Empire (1821). ... Indian Removal refers to the nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States to relocate American Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States. ... George M. Troup George Michael Troup (September 8, 1780 – April 26, 1856) was an American politician who served as the Governor of Georgia during the mid-1820s. ...


The Lower Creek Council, a small faction led by Troup's first cousin, William McIntosh, signed the Treaty of Indian Springs on February 13, 1825, ceding a large amount of Creek territory to the United States. However, the other chiefs and warriors (particularly the Upper Creeks) protested this agreement, stating that the signatories did not have the authority to speak for the entire Creek Nation. They assassinated McIntosh on May 31 for violating their law banning land cessions. William McIntosh, also known as White Warrior, was the leader of the friendly Creek, organized by Benjamin Hawkins, to support the Georgia and Tennessee militia during the Creek War. ... Treaty of Indian Springs - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1825 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining, as the last day of May. ...


New President John Quincy Adams did not consider the treaty to be valid, and pressured Troup to stop white incursions into Indian lands. Creek leaders were summoned to Washington, D.C. to negotiate a peaceful agreement. A new treaty was negotiated between the government and a wide-spread gathering of various Creek leaders, unified under their spokesman, Opothleyahola. It voided the Treaty of Indian Springs and ceded to the United States all the land belonging to the Creeks on the east side of the Chattahoochee River for a one-time payment of $217,600 and an annual annuity of $20,000. The treaty stipulated that the signers of the Treaty of Indian Springs would have the same privileges as those who signed the new treaty, and made funding allowances for the Lower Creeks under the late William McIntosh to send a 5-person deputation to explore lands west of the Mississippi River for potential resettlement. The government would then fund the relocation, as well as providing for a full year's subsistence, a full-time Federal Indian Agent, interpreter, blacksmith and wheelwright. The treaty provided financial renumeration for the damages caused by the infighting between McIntosh's Lower Creeks and the rest of the Creek Nation. The Creeks legally retained possession of all their lands until January 1, 1827, after which they would retain a small portion on the Alabama-Georgia border. Seal of the President of the United States The President of the United States is the head of state of the United States. ... Order: 6th President Vice President: John Caldwell Calhoun Term of office: March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829 Preceded by: James Monroe Succeeded by: Andrew Jackson Date of birth: July 11, 1767 Place of birth: Braintree, Massachusetts Date of death: February 23, 1848 Place of death: Washington, D.C. First Lady... Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C., Washington, the Nations Capital, or the District, and historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United States of America, and as such, the word Washington is often used as a... Length 6,270 km Elevation of the source 450 m Average discharge Saint Louis¹: 5,500 m³/s Vicksburg²: 16,800 m³/s Baton Rouge³: 12,800 m³/s Area watershed 2,980,000 km² Origin Lake Itasca Mouth Gulf of Mexico Basin countries United States (98. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1827 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... State nickname: Camellia State, The Heart of Dixie¹, Yellowhammer State Other U.S. States Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Governor Bob Riley (R) Official languages English Area 84,360 mi²/135,765 km² (30th)  - Land 81,664 mi²/131,426 km²  - Water 2,696 mi²/4,338 km² (3. ...


The treaty was signed on January 24, 1826. A supplementary article signed on March 31, 1826, corrected some errors and stipulated the exact delineation of the boundary between Georgia and the Creek reserve. The Federal government agreed to pay the Creeks $30,000 for yet another piece of land (what became Carroll County). January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1826 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years), with 275 days remaining, as the final day of March. ... 1826 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Carroll County is a county located in the Georgia and was named for Charles Carroll of Maryland, at that time the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence. ...


Not pleased with the new treaty and under intense pressure from expansionists, Governor Troup ordered the land surveyed for a lottery, including the piece that was to remain in Creek hands. The president intervened with Federal troops, but Troup called out the state militia, and Adams, fearful of a civil war, conceded. The government allowed Troup to quickly renegotiate the agreement and seize all remaining Creek lands in the state. By 1827, the Creeks were gone from Georgia. Within eight years, most of them would be relocated from Alabama to the designated Indian Territory (modern Oklahoma). A militia is a group of citizens organized to provide paramilitary service. ... A civil war is a war in which the competing parties are segments of the same country or empire. ... 1827 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Unassigned Lands - 1885 Unassigned Lands, or Oklahoma, were in the center of the lands ceded to the United States by the Creek (Muskogee), and Seminole Indians following the Civil War and on which no other tribes had been settled. ... Oklahoma is a South Central state of the United States (with strong midwestern and western influences) and its U.S. postal abbreviation is OK; others abbreviate the states name Okla. ...


References

  • Text of the 1826 Treaty of Washington
  • Text of the Supplementary Article to the 1826 Treaty of Washington
  • Brief history of the relations between Georgia and the Creeks

  Results from FactBites:
 
GeorgiaInfo - Carl Vinson Institute of Government (771 words)
/A/ WHEREAS a treaty was concluded at the Indian Springs, on the twelfth day of February last, between Commissioners on the part of the United States, and a portion of the Creek Nation, by which an extensive district of country was ceded to the United States.
/D/ Immediately after the ratification of this Treaty, the United States agree to pay to the Chiefs of the said Nation the sum of two hundred and seventeen thousand six hundred dollars to be divided among the Chiefs and Warriors of the said Nation.
Fifteen thousand dollars of this sum to be paid immediately after the ratification of this treaty, and the residue upon their arrival in the country west of the Mississippi.
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