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Encyclopedia > Treaty of Waitangi
One of the few extant copies of the Treaty of Waitangi
One of the few extant copies of the Treaty of Waitangi

The Treaty of Waitangi (Māori: Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty first signed on February 6, 1840, by representatives of the British Crown, and various Māori chiefs from the northern North Island of New Zealand. The Treaty established a British governor in New Zealand, recognised Māori ownership of their lands and other properties, and gave Māori the rights of British subjects. However the English and Māori language versions of the Treaty differ significantly, and so there is no consensus as to exactly what was agreed to. From the British point of view, the Treaty gave Britain sovereignty over New Zealand, and the Governor the right to run the country; Māori seem to have had a range of understandings, many of which conflicted with the British understanding. After the initial signing at Waitangi, copies of the Treaty were taken around New Zealand and over the following months many other chiefs signed. Picture of the treaty of Waitangi non-creative depiction of PD document. ... Picture of the treaty of Waitangi non-creative depiction of PD document. ... Māori or Te Reo Māori,[1] commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) functions as one of the official languages of New Zealand. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Māori or Te Reo Māori,[1] commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) functions as one of the official languages of New Zealand. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to have control over an area of governance, people, or oneself. ...


Until the 1970s, the Treaty was generally ignored by both the courts and parliament, although it was usually depicted in New Zealand historiography as a generous and benevolent act on the part of the Crown. From at least the 1860s, Māori looked to the Treaty, with little success, for rights and remedies for land loss and unequal treatment by the state. From the late 1960s, Māori began drawing attention to breaches of the Treaty, and subsequent histories have emphasised problems with its translation. In 1975 the Waitangi Tribunal was established as a permanent commission of inquiry tasked with researching breaches of the Treaty by the Crown or its agents, and suggesting means of redress. Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ... The Waitangi Tribunal is a New Zealand court empowered to compensate Maori people for land obtained by fraud or by force since 1840. ...


Today it is generally considered the founding document of New Zealand as a nation; despite this, the Treaty is often the subject of heated debate. Many Māori feel that the Crown did not keep its side of the bargain, and have presented evidence of this before sittings of the Tribunal, despite a contrary view from some in the non-Māori population that Māori pay too much attention to the Treaty and use it to claim 'special privileges'. The Crown is not obliged to give effect to the recommendations of the Tribunal, but nonetheless in many instances has accepted that it breached the Treaty and its principles. Settlements to date have consisted of millions of dollars in money and assets, as well as apologies. Treaty of Waitangi claims and settlements have been a significant feature of New Zealand race relations and politics since 1975. ...

Contents

The signing of the Treaty

Captain William Hobson
Captain William Hobson

The Treaty of Waitangi was instituted by the British Government on the advice of officials in the Colonial Office, prompted by concerns over lawlessness, Maori tribal wars and the prospect of formal colonisation of New Zealand by a private firm, the New Zealand Company. Historian Claudia Orange claims that the Colonial Office had initially planned a Maori New Zealand in which European settlers would be accommodated, but by 1839 had shifted to "a settler New Zealand in which a place had to be kept for Maori."[1] Image File history File links WilliamHobsonGovNZ.jpg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Treaty of Waitangi William Hobson ... Image File history File links WilliamHobsonGovNZ.jpg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Treaty of Waitangi William Hobson ... The New Zealand Company formed in 1839 to promote the colonisation of New Zealand. ...


Naval officer Captain William Hobson, who had earlier spent time in New Zealand, was dispatched from London in August 1839 with instructions to take the constitutional steps needed to establish a British colony. He was instructed to negotiate a voluntary transfer of sovereignty from Maori to the British Crown. This was necessary, as the House of Commons ruled that as the Declaration of Independence of New Zealand had been ratified in 1836, any move by the British Crown to annex New Zealand would be unlawful.[2] He was sworn in as Lieutenant-Governor in Sydney and arrived in the Bay of Islands on January 29, 1840. William Hobson (September 26, 1792 - September 10, 1842), was the first Governor of New Zealand and co-author of the Treaty of Waitangi. ... A Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand was the title of a declaration of independence of the United Tribes of New Zealand, drafted by the official British Resident of New Zealand, James Busby, and signed by himself and 35 Maori chiefs at Waitangi on October 28, 1835. ... Russell, Bay of Islands. ...


Without a draft document prepared by lawyers or Colonial Office officials, Hobson was forced to write his own treaty with the help of his secretary, James Freeman, and British Resident James Busby, neither of whom was a lawyer. (Busby had previously drafted the Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand which had been signed by a few Māori chiefs in 1835, and which was ratified by the Crown the following year.) The entire treaty was prepared in four days.[1] Realising that a treaty in English could be neither understood, debated or agreed to by Maori, Hobson instructed missionary Henry Williams and his son Edward to translate the document into Maori and this was done overnight on February 4. James Busby James Busby (7 February 1801 - 15 July 1871) was involved in the drafting of the Treaty of Waitangi and is widely regarded as the father of the Australian wine industry, as he took the first collection of vine stock from Spain and France to Australia. ... The Flag of the United Tribes of New Zealand. ... Henry Williams was one of the many European Missionaries that arrive in New Zealand, in an attempt to bring Christianity to the Maori people. ...


On February 5, copies of the treaty in both languages were put before a gathering of northern chiefs inside a large marquee on the lawn in front of Busby’s house at Waitangi. Hobson read the treaty aloud in English and Williams read his Maori version. Maori speakers debated the treaty for five hours, during which time chiefs Te Kemara, Rewa, Moka 'Kainga-mataa' and a number of others opposed the Treaty; whilst chiefs such as Pumuka, Te Wharerahi, Tamati Waka Nene and his brother Eruera Maihi Patuone suggested that they were accepting of the Crown. Afterwards, the chiefs then moved to a river flat below Busby’s house and lawn and continued deliberations late into the night. Although Hobson had planned for the signing to occur on February 7; the following morning 45 of them were ready to sign and so, Hobson hastily arranged for this to occur.[3] Waka. ...


Hobson headed the British signatories. Of the 40 or so Māori chiefs, the Ngapuhi rangatira Hone Heke was the first to sign the treaty. To enhance the authority of the treaty eight further copies were made and sent around the country to gather additional signatures: Ngapuhi form one of the major and (with over 100,000 members) the single most numerous of the Maori tribes or iwi in New Zealand, occupying much the Northland Peninsula, also known as Tai Tokerau, north of the city of Auckland. ... Hone Heke with his wife Hariata, circa 1845 Hone Wiremu Heke Pokai (1810? - August 6, 1850) was a Māori chief and war leader in New Zealand. ...

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

About 50 meetings were held from February to September 1840 to discuss and sign the copies, and a further 500 signatures were added to the treaty. A number of chiefs and some tribal groups refused to sign, including Tuhoe, Te Arawa and Ngāti Tuwharetoa. Recently (2007) Maori academic Brent Kerehona, suggested that despite historians, both past and present, claiming that the chief Moka 'Kainga-mataa' signed the Treaty at Waitangi on February 6; he did not do so, refusing out of protest.[4] Some were not given the opportunity to sign.[5] Nonetheless, on 21 May 1840, Governor Hobson proclaimed sovereignty over the whole country, and New Zealand was constituted as a colony separate from New South Wales on 16 November 1840. Manukau City (orange). ... Waikato is the name of a region in the North Island of New Zealand. ... Tauranga (population 109,100 — 2006 census) is the largest city of the Bay of Plenty region of the North Island of New Zealand. ... The Bay of Plenty, often abbreviated to BoP, is a region in the North Island of New Zealand situated around the body of water of the same name. ... Holy Trinity Church at Pakaraka. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Tuhoe comprise a Māori iwi (roughly: tribe) of New Zealand. ... Te Arawa is a confederation of Māori iwi and hapu (tribes and sub-tribes) based in the Rotorua and Bay of Plenty areas of New Zealand, with a population of around 40,000. ... Ngāti Tuwharetoa is an iwi (Māori tribe) descended from Ngātoro-i-rangi, the priest who navigated the Te Arawa canoe to New Zealand. ... NSW redirects here. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The anniversary of the signing of the Treaty is now a New Zealand public holiday, Waitangi Day, on 6 February. The first Waitangi Day was not until 1947 (although there were some commemorations before that) and the day was not made a public holiday until 1974. The commemoration has often been the focus of protest by Māori and has frequently attracted controversy. The anniversary is officially commemorated at the Treaty house at Waitangi, where the Treaty was first signed. Waitangi Day is the national day of New Zealand. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Waitangi Day is the national day of New Zealand. ... In New Zealand, the Treaty House refers to the house of the British resident in New Zealand, Thomas Busby. ... Waitangi is a township located in the Bay of Islands on the North Island of New Zealand. ...


Subsequent history

One of the signatories, Hone Heke, with his wife Hariata
One of the signatories, Hone Heke, with his wife Hariata

In 1841, the Treaty narrowly escaped destruction when the government offices in Auckland were destroyed by fire. When the capital was relocated, the Treaty documents were fastened together and deposited in a safe in the Colonial Secretary's office in Auckland and later in Wellington. The documents were untouched until 1865 when a list of signatories was produced. Image File history File linksMetadata HoneHeke1845. ... Image File history File linksMetadata HoneHeke1845. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Safe (disambiguation). ... For the first Duke of Wellington, see Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ...


In 1877, the English language rough draft of the Treaty was published along with photolithographic facsimiles of the Treaty, and the originals were returned to storage. In 1908, Dr Hocken found the Treaty in poor condition, eaten by rodents. The document was restored by the Dominion Museum in 1913.


In February 1940, the Treaty was taken to Waitangi for display in the Treaty house during the Centenary celebrations - this was possibly the first time the Treaty had been on public display since it was signed. The New Zealand Centennial exhibition was held from Wednesday the 8th of November 1939 until the 4th of May, a duration of six months. ...


After the outbreak of war with Japan, the Treaty was placed with other state documents in an outsize luggage trunk and deposited for secure custody with the Public Trustee at Palmerston North by the local MP, who did not tell staff what was in the case. But, as the case was too large to fit in the safe, the Treaty spent the war at the side of a back corridor in the Public Trust office. A large trunk with leather handles A trunk, also known as a travelling chest, is a large cuboid container for holding clothes and other personal belongings, typically about 1. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Palmerston North (Māori: ) is the main city of the Manawatu-Wanganui region of the North Island of New Zealand. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ...


In 1956, the Department of Internal Affairs placed the Treaty into the care of the Alexander Turnbull Library and it was eventually displayed in 1961. Further preservation steps were taken in 1966, with improvements to the display conditions. From 1977 to 1980, the Library extensively restored the documents before the Treaty was deposited in the Reserve Bank.


In anticipation of a decision to exhibit the treaty in 1990 (the sesquicentennial of the signing), full documentation and reproduction photography was carried out. Several years of planning culminated with the opening of the Constitution Room at the then National Archives by the Prime Minister in November 1990. The documents are currently on permanent display in the Constitution Room at Archives New Zealand's headquarters in Wellington. A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Archives New Zealand: the New Zealand government public service department charged with the custody and preservation of the public archives of New Zealand (from the Archives Act 1957). ...


Meaning and interpretation

An artist's rendition of the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi.
An artist's rendition of the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi.

The Treaty itself is short, consisting of only three articles. The first article of the English version grants the Queen of the United Kingdom sovereignty over New Zealand. The second article guarantees to the chiefs full "exclusive and undisturbed possession of their Lands and Estates Forests Fisheries and other properties." It also specifies that Māori will sell land only to the Crown. The third article guarantees to all Māori the same rights as all other British subjects. Image File history File links Waitangi_Treaty-1-.jpg‎ Summary taken from http://en. ... Image File history File links Waitangi_Treaty-1-.jpg‎ Summary taken from http://en. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see...


The English and Māori versions differ. This has made it difficult to interpret the Treaty and continues to undermine its effect. The most critical difference revolves around the interpretation of three Māori words; Kāwanatanga (literally, governorship) which is ceded to the Queen in the first article; Rangatiratanga (literally chieftainship) which is retained by the chiefs in the second, and Taonga (precious things/properties), which the chiefs are guaranteed ownership and control of, also in the second article. Few Māori had good understanding of either sovereignty or 'governorship' and so some academics, such as Moana Jackson, question whether Māori fully understood that they were ceding sovereignty to the British Crown. The most contentious phrase from the Treaty of Waitangi, tino rangatiratanga has become something of a rallying cry for proponents of Maori sovereignty. ... Moana Jackson is a New Zealand Māori lawyer specialising in Treaty of Waitangi and constitutional issues. ...


Furthermore, kāwanatanga is transliterated from 'governorship' and was not part of the Māori language per se. There is considerable debate about what would have been a more appropriate term. Some scholars, notably Ruth Ross, argue that mana (prestige, authority) would have more accurately conveyed the transfer of sovereignty.[6] However, it has more recently been argued by others, for example Judith Binney, that 'mana' would not have been appropriate. This is because mana is not the same thing as sovereignty, and also because no-one can give up their mana.[7] Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... Mana is a traditional term that refers to a concept among the speakers of Oceanic languages, including Melanesians, Polynesians, and Micronesians. ...


The English language version recognises Māori rights to 'properties', which seems to imply physical and perhaps intellectual property, whereas the Māori version mentions 'taonga', meaning 'treasures' or 'precious things'. In Māori usage the term applies much more broadly than 'properties' and since the 1980s courts have found that the term can encompass intangible things such as language and culture. The pre-emption clause is generally not well translated, and many Māori apparently believed that they were simply giving the English Queen first offer on land, after which they could sell it to anyone. Doubt has been cast on whether Hobson himself actually understood the concept of pre-emption. Another, less important, difference is that Ingarani, meaning England alone, is used throughout in the Māori version, whereas "the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland" is used in the first paragraph of the English. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the historical state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927). ...


The entire issue is further complicated by the fact that, at the time, Māori society was an oral rather than literate one. Māori present at the signing of the Treaty would have placed more value and reliance on what Hobson and the missionaries said, rather than the words of the actual Treaty.[8]


Māori beliefs and attitudes towards ownership and use of land were different from those prevailing in Britain and Europe. The chiefs saw themselves as 'kaitiaki' or guardians of the land, and would traditionally grant permission for the land to be used for a time for a particular purpose. Some may have thought that they were leasing the land rather than selling it, leading to disputes with the occupant settlers.


Effect of the Treaty

James Busby
James Busby

The treaty was never ratified by Britain and carried no legal force in New Zealand until receiving limited recognition in 1975. The Colonial Office and early New Zealand governors were initially fairly supportive of the Treaty as it gave them authority over both New Zealand Company settlers and Maori. As the Crown acquired more substantive sovereignty over New Zealand, the Treaty became less useful, although it was used to justify the idea that Waikato and Taranaki were rebels against the Crown in the wars of the 1860s. Court cases later in the 19th century established the principle that the Treaty was a 'legal nullity' which could be ignored by both the courts and government. This argument was supported by the claim that New Zealand had become a colony when annexed by proclamation in January 1840, before the treaty was signed. Furthermore, Hobson only claimed to have taken possession of the North Island by Treaty. The South Island he claimed for Britain by right of discovery, by observing that Māori were so sparse in the South Island, that it could be considered uninhabited. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (588x700, 75 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Treaty of Waitangi James Busby ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (588x700, 75 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Treaty of Waitangi James Busby ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... The New Zealand Company formed in 1839 to promote the colonisation of New Zealand. ... Waikato is the name of a region in the North Island of New Zealand. ... View of Mount Taranaki or Mount Egmont from Stratford, facing west. ... North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... For other uses, see South Island (disambiguation). ...


Despite this, Maori frequently used the Treaty to argue for a range of issues, including greater independence and return of confiscated and unfairly purchased land. This was especially the case from the mid 19th century, when they lost numerical superiority and generally lost control of most of the country.


The short-term effect of the Treaty was to prevent the sale of Māori land to anyone other than the Crown. This was intended to protect Māori from the kinds of shady land purchases which had alienated indigenous people in other parts of the world from their land with minimal compensation. Indeed, anticipating the Treaty, the New Zealand Company made several hasty land deals and shipped settlers from England to New Zealand, assuming that the settlers would not be evicted from land they occupied. Essentially the Treaty was an attempt to establish a system of property rights for land with the Crown controlling and overseeing land sale, to prevent abuse. The New Zealand Company formed in 1839 to promote the colonisation of New Zealand. ...


Initially this worked well. Māori were eager to sell land, and settlers eager to buy. The Crown mediated the process to ensure that the true owners were properly identified (difficult for tribally owned land) and fairly compensated, by the standards of the time. However after a while Māori became disillusioned and less willing to sell, while the Crown came under increasing pressure from settlers wishing to buy. Consequently government land agents were involved in a number of very dubious land purchases. Agreements were negotiated with only one owner of tribally owned land and in some cases land was purchased from the wrong people altogether. Eventually this led to the New Zealand Wars which culminated in the confiscation of a large part of the Waikato and Taranaki. The Māori Wars, now more commonly being referred to as The Land Wars and also as the New Zealand Wars, refers to a series of conflicts that happened in New Zealand between 1845 and 1872. ... Waikato is the name of a region in the North Island of New Zealand. ... View of Mount Taranaki or Mount Egmont from Stratford, facing west. ...


In later years, this oversight role was in the native land court, later renamed the Māori Land Court. It was through these courts that much Māori land became alienated, and the way in which they functioned is much criticised today. Over the longer term, the land purchase aspect of the treaty declined in importance, while the clauses of the Treaty which deal with sovereignty and Māori rights took on greater importance.


However irrelevant in law, the treaty returned to the public eye after the Treaty house and grounds were purchased by Governor General Viscount Bledisloe in the early 1930s and donated to the nation. The dedication of the site as a national reserve in 1934 was probably the first major event held there since the 1840s. The profile of the Treaty was further raised by the centenary of 1940. For most of the twentieth century, text books, government publicity and many historians touted it as the moral foundation of colonisation and to set race relations in New Zealand above those of colonies in North America, Africa and Australia. Its lack of legal significance in 1840 and subsequent breaches tended to be overlooked until the 1970s, when these issues were raised by Māori protest. In New Zealand, the Treaty House refers to the house of the British resident in New Zealand, Thomas Busby. ... Viscount Bledisloe is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ... Race relations is the area of sociology that studies the social, political, and economic relations between races at all different levels of society. ... North American redirects here. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Although New Zealand today is widely regarded internationally as having fair relations with its indigenous Maori peoples compared to it’s immediate neighbours, and multiculturalism is considerd as a significant positive to it’s cultural identity and growing diverse communities; like most Indigenous peoples throughout the world Maoris have struggled...


Legal standing of the Treaty

The Treaty itself has never been ratified or enacted as statute law in New Zealand, although it does appear in authoritative collections of treaties, and is sometimes referred to in specific pieces of legislation. There are two major points of legal debate concerning the Treaty:

  • Whether or not the Treaty was the means by which the British Crown gained sovereignty over New Zealand, and
  • Whether or not the Treaty is binding on the Crown.

Sovereignty is the exclusive right to have control over an area of governance, people, or oneself. ... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ...

Sovereignty

Most 19th century legal theorists believed that in order for a Treaty to be valid, both parties had to be or represent governments with actual power over the territory they claimed to represent. It has been argued that since there was no central New Zealand government in 1839, and Maori chiefs did not govern their territories in the way that European monarchs or governments did, they were not capable of having or giving up sovereignty over New Zealand. Therefore the British gained possession of New Zealand by right of discovery, settlement and/or conquest. This argument acknowledges that Maori were in New Zealand first, but claims that since they supposedly lacked organized government, this did not matter. Sovereignty is the exclusive right to have control over an area of governance, people, or oneself. ...


Recently it has been argued that Maori of this period did have government, although not in the European sense. To claim that this is the only kind of government that counts is, it is argued, Eurocentric and racist. Eurocentrism is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing emphasis on European (and, generally, Western) concerns, culture and values at the expense of those of other cultures. ...


Others have argued that whatever the state of Maori government in 1839, the British had acknowledged Maori sovereignty with the Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand and by offering them the Treaty. Therefore, if both parties had agreed on the Treaty it was valid, in a pragmatic if not necessarily a legal sense. The Flag of the United Tribes of New Zealand. ...


Some Maori activists dispute the idea that the Treaty transferred sovereignty from Maori chiefs to the Crown. There are two arguments to back this claim:

  • That the Maori version of the Treaty does not transfer sovereignty, but only Kawanatanga, and that this is not the same thing, and;
  • That Maori were "tricked" into signing the Treaty and so the entire document is invalid.

Kawanatanga is a word from the Maori language (Maori are the indigenous people of New Zealand). ...

Is the Treaty binding on the Crown?

While the above issue is mostly academic, since the Crown does have sovereignty in New Zealand, however it got it, the question of whether New Zealand governments or the Crown have to pay any attention to the Treaty has been hotly contested virtually since 1840. This has been a point of a number of court cases:

  • R v Symonds (1847). The Treaty was found to be binding on the Crown.
  • Wi Parata v Bishop of Wellington (1877). Judge James Prendergast called the Treaty ‘a simple nullity’ and claimed that it was neither a valid treaty nor binding on the Crown. Although the Treaty’s status was not a major part of the case, Prendergast’s judgment on the Treaty’s validity was considered definitive for many decades.
  • Te Heuheu Tukino v Aotea District Maori Land Board (1938). The Treaty was seen as valid in terms of the transfer of sovereignty, but the judge ruled that as it was not part of New Zealand law it was not binding on the Crown.
  • New Zealand Maori Council v Attorney General (1987). Also known as the SOE (State Owned Enterprises) case, this defined the "principles of the Treaty". The State Owned Enterprises Act stated that nothing in the Act permitted the government to act inconsistently with the principles of the Treaty, and the proposed sale of government assets was found to be in breach of these. This case established the principle that if the Treaty is mentioned in a piece of legislation, it takes precedence over other parts of that legislation should they come into conflict.
  • New Zealand Maori Council v Attorney General (1990). This case concerned FM radio frequencies and found that the Treaty could be relevant even concerning legislation which did not mention it.[9]

Since the late 1980s the Treaty has become much more legally important. However because of uncertainties about its meaning and translation, it still does not have a firm place in New Zealand law or jurisprudence. Sir James Prendergast (10 December 1826 - 27 February 1921) was the third Chief Justice of New Zealand. ... State-Owned Enterprises in New Zealand (known as SOEs) are registered companies listed under Schedules 1 and 2 of the State-Owned Enterprises Act 1986. ... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ...


Legislation

The English version of the Treaty appeared as a schedule to the Waitangi Day Act 1960, but this did not technically make it a part of statute law. The Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975 established the Waitangi Tribunal, but this initially had very limited powers. The Act was amended in 1985 to increase the Tribunal membership and enable it to investigate Treaty breaches back to 1840. The membership was further increased in another amendment, in 1988. There have been two Waitangi Day Acts passed by the New Zealand Parliament: the Waitangi Day Act 1960 and the Waitangi Day Act 1976. ... The Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975 established the Waitangi Tribunal and gave the Treaty of Waitangi recognition in New Zealand law for the first time. ... The Waitangi Tribunal is a New Zealand court empowered to compensate Maori people for land obtained by fraud or by force since 1840. ...


The first piece of legislation to incorporate the Treaty into New Zealand law was the State Owned Enterprises Act 1986. Section 9 of the act said that nothing in the act permitted the Crown to act in a manner that is inconsistent with the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi. This allowed the courts to consider the Crown's actions in terms of compliance with the Treaty (see below, "The Principles of the Treaty"). Other legislation followed suit, giving the Treaty an increased legal importance. State-Owned Enterprises in New Zealand (known as SOEs) are registered companies listed under Schedules 1 and 2 of the State-Owned Enterprises Act 1986. ...


The Bill of Rights White Paper proposed that the Treaty be entrenched in the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act, however this proposal was never carried through to the legislation, with many Māori being concerned that this would relegate the Treaty to a lesser position, and enable the electorate (who under the original Bill of Rights would be able to repeal certain sections by referendum) to remove the Treaty from the Bill of Rights all together. The New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990 is an enactment of the New Zealand Parliament setting out the rights and fundamental freedoms of the citizens of New Zealand. ...


In response to a backlash against the Treaty, political leader Winston Peters and others have campaigned to remove vague references to the Treaty from New Zealand law, although the NZ Maori Council case of 1990 indicates that even if this does happen, the Treaty may still be legally relevant. Winston Raymond Peters, PC, (born April 11, 1945) is a New Zealand politician and the current Minister of Foreign Affairs, outside cabinet. ...


The "Principles of the Treaty"

The "Principles of the Treaty" are often mentioned in contemporary politics.[10] They originate from the famous case brought in the High Court by the New Zealand Māori Council (New Zealand Māori Council v. Attorney-General[11]) in 1987. There was great concern at that time that the ongoing restructuring of the New Zealand economy by the then Fourth Labour Government, specifically the transfer of assets from former Government departments to State-owned enterprises. Because the state-owned enterprises were essentially private firms owned by the government, they would prevent assets which had been given by Māori for use by the state from being returned to Māori by the Waitangi Tribunal. The Māori Council sought enforcement of section 9 of the State Owned Enterprises Act 1986 "Nothing in this Act shall permit the Crown to act in a manner that is inconsistent with the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi". The High Court of New Zealand was established in 1841 and known as the Supreme Court until 1980. ... David Lange led the Fourth Labour government for most of its time in power. ... A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is an enterprise, often a corporation, owned by a government. ... The Waitangi Tribunal is a New Zealand court empowered to compensate Maori people for land obtained by fraud or by force since 1840. ...


The Court of Appeal, in a judgment of its then President Sir Robin Cooke, decided upon the following Treaty principles: The Court of Appeal of New Zealand, located in Wellington, is New Zealand’s principal intermediate appellate court. ... The Right Honourable Robin Brunskill Cooke, Baron Cooke of Thorndon of Wellington in New Zealand and of Cambridge in the County of Cambridgeshire. ...

  • The acquisition of sovereignty in exchange for the protection of rangatiratanga.
  • The Treaty established a partnership, and imposes on the partners the duty to act reasonably and in good faith.
  • The freedom of the Crown to govern.
  • The Crown’s duty of active protection.
  • Crown duty to remedy past breaches.
  • Māori to retain rangatiratanga over their resources and taonga and to have all the privileges of citizenship.
  • Duty to consult.

In 1989, the Labour Government responded by adopting the following "Principles for Crown Action on the Treaty of Waitangi": The most contentious phrase from the Treaty of Waitangi, tino rangatiratanga has become something of a rallying cry for proponents of Maori sovereignty. ... Taonga is the Maori word for a treasured thing, whether tangible or intangible. ... Current Labour Party logo The New Zealand Labour Party formed as a political party in 1916, bringing together socialist groups advocating proportional representation and the Recall of Members of Parliament, as well as the nationalisation of production and of exchange. ...

The principle of government or the kawanatanga principle 
Article 1 gives expression to the right of the Crown to make laws and its obligation to govern in accordance with constitutional process. This sovereignty is qualified by the promise to accord the Māori interests specified in article 2 an appropriate priority. This principle describes the balance between articles 1 and 2: the exchange of sovereignty by the Māori people for the protection of the Crown. It was emphasised in the context of this principle that ‘the Government has the right to govern and make laws’.
The principle of self-management (the rangatiratanga principle) 
Article 2 guarantees to Māori hapū (tribes) the control and enjoyment of those resources and taonga that it is their wish to retain. The preservation of a resource base, restoration of tribal self-management, and the active protection of taonga, both material and cultural, are necessary elements of the Crown’s policy of recognising rangatiratanga.
The Government also recognised the Court of Appeal’s description of active protection, but identified the key concept of this principle as a right for iwi to organise as iwi and, under the law, to control the resources they own.
The principle of equality 
Article 3 constitutes a guarantee of legal equality between Māori and other citizens of New Zealand. This means that all New Zealand citizens are equal before the law. Furthermore, the common law system is selected by the Treaty as the basis for that equality, although human rights accepted under international law are also incorporated. Article 3 has an important social significance in the implicit assurance that social rights would be enjoyed equally by Māori with all New Zealand citizens of whatever origin. Special measures to attain that equal enjoyment of social benefits are allowed by international law.
The principle of reasonable cooperation 
The Treaty is regarded by the Crown as establishing a fair basis for two peoples in one country. Duality and unity are both significant. Duality implies distinctive cultural development while unity implies common purpose and community. The relationship between community and distinctive development is governed by the requirement of cooperation, which is an obligation placed on both parties by the Treaty. Reasonable cooperation can only take place if there consultation on major issues of common concern and if good faith, balance, and common sense are shown on all sides. The outcome of reasonable cooperation will be partnership.
The principle of redress 
The Crown accepts a responsibility to provide a process for the resolution of grievances arising from the Treaty. This process may involve courts, the Waitangi Tribunal, or direct negotiation. The provision of redress, where entitlement is established, must take account of its practical impact and of the need to avoid the creation of fresh injustice. If the Crown demonstrates commitment to this process of redress, it will expect reconciliation to result.

The "Principles of the Treaty of Waitangi Deletion Bill" was introduced to the New Zealand Parliament in 2005 as a private member's bill by New Zealand First MP Doug Woolerton. "This bill eliminates all references to the expressions "the principles of the Treaty", "the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi" and the "Treaty of Waitangi and its principles" from all New Zealand Statutes including all preambles, interpretations, schedules, regulations and other provisos included in or arising from each and every such Statute".[12] The bill is unlikely to become law. Hapū is a Māori language word which refers to a social division of the Māori people of New Zealand, which is often translated as subtribe. In general, a hapū is a division of a regional Māori iwi (tribe). ... A Private Members Bill is a proposed law introduced by a backbench member of parliament, whether from the government or the opposition side, to that legislature or parliament. ... New Zealand First functions as a political party in New Zealand. ... Doug Woolerton is a New Zealand politician. ...


Treaty claims

During the late 1960s and 1970s, the Treaty of Waitangi became the focus of a strong Māori protest movement which rallied around calls for the government to "honour the treaty" and to "redress treaty grievances." Māori expressed their frustration about continuing violations of the treaty and subsequent legislation by government officials, as well as inequitable legislation and unsympathetic decisions by the Māori Land Court alienating Māori land from its Māori owners. Treaty of Waitangi claims and settlements have been a significant feature of New Zealand race relations and politics since 1975. ...


On 10 October 1975, the Treaty of Waitangi Act, which was to provide for the observance and confirmation of the principles of the Treaty, received the royal assent. This established the Waitangi Tribunal to hear claims of official violations of the Treaty of Waitangi. Originally its mandate was limited to recent claims, but in 1985 this was extended to allow it to consider Crown actions dating back to 1840, including the period covered by the New Zealand Wars. is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975 established the Waitangi Tribunal and gave the Treaty of Waitangi recognition in New Zealand law for the first time. ... The Waitangi Tribunal is a New Zealand court empowered to compensate Maori people for land obtained by fraud or by force since 1840. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


During the early 1990s, the government began to negotiate settlements of historical (pre-1992) claims. As of February 2006, there have been 20 such settlements of various sizes, totalling approximately $700 million. Settlements generally include financial redress, a formal Crown apology for breaches of the Treaty, and recognition of the group's cultural associations with various sites.


While during the 1990s there was broad agreement between major political parties that the settlement of historical claims was appropriate, in recent years it has become the subject of heightened debate. Claims of a "Treaty of Waitangi Grievance Industry", which profits from making frivolous claims of violations of the Treaty of Waitangi, have been made by a number of political figures, including former National Party Leader Don Brash. Although claims relating to loss of land by Māori are relatively uncontroversial, debate has focused on claims that fall outside common law concepts of ownership, or relate to technologies developed since colonisation. Examples include the ownership of the radio spectrum and the protection of language. Dr Donald Thomas Brash (born 24 September 1940), a former New Zealand politician, served as the Leader of the Opposition and parliamentary leader of the National Party (the countrys main Opposition party at that time) from 28 October 2003 to 27 November 2006. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ...


The Treaty today

Because of the short length and limited scope of the Treaty, it is not a suitable document to be a formal written constitution and is not recognised as such. However, it is seen as an important document and the principles of the treaty continue to influence political and legal discourse in New Zealand.


See also

The constitution of New Zealand consists of a collection of statutes (Acts of Parliament), Treaties, Orders-in-Council, Letters patent, decisions of the Courts and unwritten constitutional conventions. ... The history of New Zealand dates back at least seven hundred years to when it was discovered and settled by Polynesians, who developed a distinct Māori culture centred on kinship links and land. ... The Waitangi Tribunal is a New Zealand court empowered to compensate Maori people for land obtained by fraud or by force since 1840. ... Treaty of Waitangi claims and settlements have been a significant feature of New Zealand race relations and politics since 1975. ... The Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975 established the Waitangi Tribunal and gave the Treaty of Waitangi recognition in New Zealand law for the first time. ... Waitangi Day is the national day of New Zealand. ... There have been two Waitangi Day Acts passed by the New Zealand Parliament: the Waitangi Day Act 1960 and the Waitangi Day Act 1976. ... Although New Zealand today is widely regarded internationally as having fair relations with its indigenous Maori peoples compared to it’s immediate neighbours, and multiculturalism is considerd as a significant positive to it’s cultural identity and growing diverse communities; like most Indigenous peoples throughout the world Maoris have struggled...

References

  1. ^ a b Michael King (2003). The Penguin History of New Zealand. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-301867-1. 
  2. ^ Scholefield, G. (1930). Captain William Hobson. pp. 202-203.(Instructions from Lord Normanby to Captain Hobson - dated August 14, 1839.
  3. ^ Colenso, William. (1890). The Authentic and Genuine History of the Signing of the Treaty of Waitangi. Wellington: Government Printer.
  4. ^ Kerehona, Brent. (2007). Born for War: New Zealand's Military History - A Family Perspective. (Draft).
  5. ^ Orange, Claudia (2004). An Ilustrated History of the Treaty of Waitangi. Wellington: Bridget Williams Books, 42. ISBN 1-877242-16-0. 
  6. ^ Ross, R.M. (1972), "Te Tiriti o Waitangi: Texts and Translations", New Zealand Journal of History, vol.6, no.2, pp.139–41.
  7. ^ Binney, Judith (1989), "The Maori and the Signing of the Treaty of Waitangi" in Towards 1990: Seven Leading Historians Examine Significant Aspects of New Zealand History, pp.20–31.
  8. ^ Belich, James (1996), Making Peoples: A History of the New Zealanders from Polynesian Settlement to the End of the Nineteenth Century, pp.195–6.
  9. ^ Durie, Mason (1998), Te Mana, Te Kawanatanga: The Politics of Maori Self-Determination, pp. 179–84.
  10. ^ (2001) He Tirohanga ō Kawa ki te Tiriti o Waitangi: a guide to the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi as expressed by the Courts and the Waitangi Tribunal. Te Puni Kokiri. ISBN 0-478-09193-1. Retrieved on 2007-02-08. 
  11. ^ [1987] 1 NZLR 641.
  12. ^ Doug Woolerton's Principles of the Treaty of Waitangi Deletion Bill. New Zealand First. Retrieved on 2007-06-13.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... New Zealand First functions as a political party in New Zealand. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Adams, Peter (1977). Fatal Necessity: British Intervention in New Zealand 1830–1847. Auckland: Auckland University Press. ISBN 0-19-647950-9. 
  • Moon, Paul (2002). Te ara kī te Tiriti (The Path to the Treaty of Waitangi). Auckland: David Ling. ISBN 0-908990-83-9. 
  • Orange, Claudia (1989). The Story of a Treaty. Wellington: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-04-641053-8. 
  • Orange, Claudia (1990). An Ilustrated History of the Treaty of Waitangi. Wellington: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-04-442169-9. 
  • Scott, Dick (1975). Ask That Mountain: The Story of Parihaka. Auckland: Heinemann. ISBN 0-7900-0190-X. 
  • Walker, Ranginui (2004). Ka whawhai tonu matou (Struggle without End), rev. ed., Auckland: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-301945-7. 
  • Simpson, Miria. (1990). Nga Tohu O Te Tiriti/Making a Mark: The signatories to the Treaty of Waitangi. Wellington: National Library of New Zealand.

External links

  • Signatories to the Treaty of Waitangi
  • Official Treaty of Waitangi Information Site
  • Ministry of Culture & Heritage article
  • Office of Treaty Settlements
  • Biography of Moka Te Kainga-mataa
  • The Patuone Website
  • "Was there a Treaty of Waitangi?". Essay by independent scholar and NZ Listener columnist Brian Easton
  • Waitangi Tribunal
  • Text of the Treaty of Waitangi in English and Māori
  • New Zealand Legislation
  • Archives New Zealand site
  • The Trail of Waitangi — original research
  • The Littlewood Treaty — argument that an English draft of the Treaty found in 1989 is the one that was translated into the Māori version that was signed on 6 Feb 1840.
  • The "Littlewood Treaty": An Appraisal of Texts and Interpretations Review of historical literature relating to the Littlewood Treaty.
  • Legislative Violations of the Treaty (1840–1997) — at the Network Waitangi Otautahi
  • Waitangi Treaty Ground website
Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... // New Zealand Main Articles: Main article on New Zealand, New Zealand Wikiportal and Category:New Zealand Main Articles Māori History of New Zealand Politics of New Zealand Geography of New Zealand Māori culture Economy of New Zealand Demographics of New Zealand Culture of New Zealand New Zealand English... The history of New Zealand dates back at least seven hundred years to when it was discovered and settled by Polynesians, who developed a distinct Māori culture centred on kinship links and land. ... This is a timeline of the History of New Zealand. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The military history of New Zealand spans several hundred years. ... This is a timeline of the History of New Zealands involvement with Antarctica. ... On November 2, 1868, New Zealand officially adopted a standard time to be observed nationally, and was perhaps the first country to do so. ... 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For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in New Zealand. ... Hamilton (Kirikiriroa in Māori) is the centre of New Zealands fourth largest urban area, and is the countrys seventh largest city. ... Dunedin (ÅŒtepoti in Maori) is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the region of Otago. ... The T & G Building (Atkin & Mitchell, Wellington, 1936) Napier (Ahuriri in Māori) is an important port city in Hawkes Bay, New Zealand. ... Hastings is the administrative centre of the Hastings District in the Hawkes Bay Region of the North Island of New Zealand. ... 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  Results from FactBites:
 
Treaty of Waitangi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2870 words)
During the late 1960s and 1970s the Treaty of Waitangi became the focus of a strong Māori protest movement which rallied around calls for the government to `honour the treaty' and to `redress treaty grievances'.
On 10 October 1975 the Treaty of Waitangi Act, which was to provide for the observance and confirmation of the principles of the Treaty, received the royal assent.
Because of the short length and limited scope of the Treaty, it is not a suitable document to be a constitution and is not recognised as such.
Archives New Zealand: Exhibitions: Permanent Exhibitions: Treaty of Waitangi (1316 words)
The Treaty of Waitangi is not a single large sheet of paper but a group of nine documents: seven on paper and two on parchment.
The Treaty of Waitangi was signed at Waitangi in the Bay of Islands on 6 February 1840 by Captain William Hobson, several English residents and approximately forty-five Māori chiefs.
The Treaty was installed in a showcase built for it in the entrance hall of the library and was unveiled by the Minister of Internal Affairs on 6 February 1961.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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