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Encyclopedia > Treaty of Versailles
Left to right, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of the United Kingdom, Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando of Italy, Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau of France, and President Woodrow Wilson of the United States of America
Left to right, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of the United Kingdom, Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando of Italy, Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau of France, and President Woodrow Wilson of the United States of America

The Treaty of Versailles was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I. It was signed on June 28, 1919, exactly 5 years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, one of the events that triggered the start of the war. Although the armistice signed on November 11, 1918 put an end to the actual fighting, it took six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude a peace treaty. Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial provisions required Germany and its allies to accept full responsibility for causing the war and, under the terms of articles 231-248, disarm, make substantial territorial concessions and pay reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers. The Treaty was undermined by subsequent events starting as early as 1922 and was widely flouted by the mid-thirties.[1] is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Treaty of Versailles may refer to: Treaty of Versailles (1756)- a defense alliance treaty between France and Austria Treaty of Versailles (1757)- expansion of 1756 Versailles treaty to Saxony, Sweden and Russia. ... Image File history File links Council_of_Four_Versailles. ... Image File history File links Council_of_Four_Versailles. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who was Prime Minister throughout the latter half of World War I and the first four years of the subsequent peace. ... Vittorio Orlando Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (May 19, 1860 - December 1, 1952) was an Italian diplomat and political figure. ... Georges Clemenceau, by Nadar. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... A peace treaty is an agreement (a peace treaty) between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a war or armed conflict. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... A new plaque commemorating the exact location of the Sarajevo Assassination On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot to death in Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Gavrilo Princip, one of a... Front page of the New York Times on Armistice Day, 11 November 1918 The armistice treaty between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on November 11, 1918, and marked the end of the First World War on the Western Front. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Paris 1919 redirects here. ... World War I reparations refers to the payments and transfers of property and equipment that the German state was forced to make following its defeat during World War I. Article 231 of the Treaty (the war guilt clause) held Germany solely responsible for all loss and damage suffered by the...


The result of these competing and sometimes incompatible goals among the victors was a compromise that nobody was satisfied with. Germany was neither pacified nor conciliated, which, in retrospect, did not bode well for the future of Germany, Europe, or the world as a whole.[2]

Contents

Aims

France's aims

France had some 1.5 million military personnel and 400,000 (estimated) civilians dead (see World War I casualties), and much of the western front had been fought on French soil. Thus, French Prime Minister, Georges Clemenceau, largely represented the people of France in that he wanted revenge upon the German nation. This idea of revenge was known later on as "revanchism". Clemenceau wanted to impose policies deliberately meant to cripple Germany militarily, politically, and economically. Pie chart showing deaths by alliance and military/civilian. ... Combatants Belgium British Empire Australia[1] Canada[2] India[3] Newfoundland[4] New Zealand[5] South Africa[6] United Kingdom France and French Overseas Empire Portugal[7] United States Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then Ferdinand Foch Moltke → Falkenhayn → Hindenburg and Ludendorff → Hindenburg and Groener Casualties ~4,800... Georges Clemenceau, by Nadar. ... Revanchism (from French revanche, revenge) is a term used since the 1870s to describe political campaigns to reverse territorial losses incurred by a country during previous wars and strifes, sometimes quite distant in time. ...


Clemenceau's intentions were simple: Germany's military to be not only weakened for the time being, but permanently weakened so as never to be able to invade France again. Allied versions of History completely ignored the fact, and still do, that France had invaded Germany vice versa countless times in history, too and illegaly occupied and annexed German territory, such as parts of Alsace like Strasburg which was invaded in 1681 by King Louis XIV of France, which was an unprovoked annexation of German territory [3]. This incident is not to be seen isolated but part of France's policy over hundreds of years to shift their borders eastward by the annexation of German territor; France's strategic aim was to create a natural border and regarded the Rhine, which was German on both sides, as such a "natural border". Thus, parts of Germany like the Rhineland or the Saarland had been occupied by France several times in history; today, all areas had returned except Strasburg and other parts of Alsace. Few years after the Versailles treaty, France tried again what it had tried over centuries: the annexation of German territory, by invading with tanks and altogether 100 000 soldiers into the RuhrArea, an industrial center close to the Rhineland, using force and violence in times of peace [4] . This invasion of the Ruhr Area in 1923, under the pretext of delay of reparation payment, implied killing German workers who nonviolently resisted to work for the intruders. As a deterrent, Albert Leo Schlageter had been sentenced to death and executed by the French occupantss as a deterrent. The aim of annexation, however, was not achieved and the occupation ended in 1923/1924, due to intervention of the USA and Great Britain. This military occupation of the Ruhr had, however, caused a national outrage in Germany and was contributing to the feeling of seeking revenge towards foreign occupants, which was going to cause another war less than two decades later [5] Elsaß redirects here. ... Strasburg is the name of several places: Strasburg, Colorado (USA) divided between Adams County, Colorado and Arapahoe County, Colorado Strasburg, Illinois (USA) Strasburg, Michigan (USA) Strasburg, Missouri (USA) Strasburg, North Dakota (USA) Strasburg, Ohio (USA) Strasburg, Pennsylvania (USA) Strasburg, Virginia (USA) Strasbourg, Saskatchewan (Can) Strasburg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Germany) the... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEC Capital Saarbrücken Minister-President Peter Müller (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  2,569 km² (992 sq mi) Population 1,044,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 406 /km... Strasburg is the name of several places: Strasburg, Colorado (USA) divided between Adams County, Colorado and Arapahoe County, Colorado Strasburg, Illinois (USA) Strasburg, Michigan (USA) Strasburg, Missouri (USA) Strasburg, North Dakota (USA) Strasburg, Ohio (USA) Strasburg, Pennsylvania (USA) Strasburg, Virginia (USA) Strasbourg, Saskatchewan (Can) Strasburg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Germany) the... Elsaß redirects here. ... Woodrow Wilson with the American Peace Commissioners The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 is the peace treaty created as a result of six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 which put an official end to World War I between the Allies and Central Powers. ... For the conurbation see Ruhr Area. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... For the conurbation see Ruhr Area. ... Reparations refers to two distinct ideas: Reparations for slavery of groups or individuals War reparations: Payments from one country to another as compensation for starting a war under a peace treaty, such as those made by Germany to France under the Treaty of Versailles. ... Albert Leo Schlageter Albert Leo Schlageter (12 August 1894 — 26 May 1923) was a member of the German Freikorps and a Martyr-figure for the National Socialists. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For the conurbation see Ruhr Area. ...



Clemenceau also wanted to symbolically destroy the old, militaristic Germany, by regarding the militaristic and aggressive policy of his own country as legitimate. He also wanted to protect secret treaties and impose naval blockades around Germany; so that France could control trade imported to and exported goods from the defeated country. Clemenceau was the most radical member of the Big Four, and received the nickname "Le Tigre" (Tiger) for this reason.


Most Frenchmen agreed that France should be given control of many of Germany's factories. Coal from the Ruhr industrial region was transported to France by train. French military forces had taken over towns in key locations such as Gau-Algesheim, forcing homelessness upon its inhabitants. German railroad workers sabotaged coal shipments to France. Around 200 German railroad workers involved in sabotage were executed by French authorities. For the conurbation see Ruhr Area. ... Gau-Algesheim is a town and a municipality in the district Mainz-Bingen, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ...


George Clemenceau of France wanted reparations from Germany to rebuild the war-torn country. In all, approximately 750,000 houses and 23,000 factories had been destroyed, and money was demanded to pay for reconstruction. They also wanted to drastically reduce the number of soldiers in the German army to a controllable point.


Britain's aims

Prime Minister David Lloyd George supported reparations but to a lesser extent than the French. Lloyd George was aware that if the demands made by France were carried out, France could become the most powerful force on the continent, and a delicate balance could be unsettled. Lloyd George was also worried by Woodrow Wilson's proposal for "self-determination" and, like the French, wanted to preserve his own nation's empire. This position was part of the competition between two of the world's greatest empires, and their battle to preserve them. Like the French, Lloyd George also supported naval blockades and secret treaties. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who was Prime Minister throughout the latter half of World War I and the first four years of the subsequent peace. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ...


It is often suggested that Lloyd George represented the middle ground between the idealistic Wilson and the vengeful Clemenceau. However, his position was a great deal more delicate than it first appears. The British public wanted to punish Germany in a similar fashion to the French for its apparent sole responsibility for the outbreak of the war, and had been promised such a treaty in the 1918 election that Lloyd George had won. There was also pressure from the Conservatives (who were part of the coalition government) demanding that Germany be punished severely in order to prevent such a war in the future as well as preserving Britain's empire. However, domestic public pressure was increasingly encouraging the de-scaling of the German empire. Lloyd George did manage to increase the overall reparations payment and Britain's share by demanding compensation for the huge number of widows, orphans, and men left unable to work through injury, due to the war. The Conservative Party, officially though less commonly known as the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ...


However, Lloyd George was aware of the potential trouble that could come from an embittered Germany, and he felt that a less harsh treaty that did not engender vengeance would be better at preserving peace in the long run. Another factor was that Germany was Britain's second largest trade partner, and a reduced German economy due to reparations would lower Britain's trade. Moreover, he (and Clemenceau) recognized that America's status as an economic superpower would lead to the U.S. becoming a military superpower in the future, and subsequently, Wilson's idealistic stance could not be laughed at if Britain and France were to remain on good terms with the United States. This helps to understand why the League of Nations, Wilson's main idea (along with self-determination) based on the liberal peace thesis, was apparently jumped at by Britain and France when Wilson arrived at the peace conference. Furthermore, Britain wanted to maintain the 'Balance of Power' — no country within Europe being allowed to become a great deal more powerful than the others. If France's wishes were carried out, then not only would Germany be crippled, but France would soon become the main superpower, and so disrupt the Balance of Power in two ways.


Lloyd George's aims can be summarized as follows:

  1. To defend British interests by preserving Britain's naval supremacy that had been threatened by Germany in the run up to the war, maintaining Britain's empire.
  2. To reduce Germany's future military power and to obtain reparations.
  3. To avoid an embittered Germany that would seek revenge and threaten peace in the long term future.
  4. To help Germany economically to become a strong trading partner with Britain.

United States' aims

Main article: Fourteen Points

Since there had been strong non-interventionist sentiment before and after the United States entered the war in April 1917, many Americans felt eager to extricate themselves from European affairs as rapidly as possible. The United States took a more conciliatory view towards the issue of German reparations. American Leaders also wanted to ensure the success of future trading opportunities and favourably collect on the European debt. United States President Woodrow Wilson listed the Fourteen Points in a speech that he delivered to the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. ...


Before the end of the war, President Woodrow Wilson, along with other American officials including Edward Mandell House, put forward his Fourteen Points which were less harsh than what the French or British wanted and which the German public thought that the Treaty would be based around, giving them false hope. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... House, Time, Jun. ...


Wilson also did not want any more secret diplomacy,e.g. secret alliances, treaties etc. He also demanded that Germany should have a reduction in armament, which meant that their army would be reduced to a smaller size to make another war completely out of the question. He also wanted other nations to do the same, limiting the risk of war further, as he makes clear in point IV.


These are the Fourteen Points from Woodrow Wilson's speech given during the Paris Peace Conference: United States President Woodrow Wilson listed the Fourteen Points in a speech that he delivered to the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. ... Paris 1919 redirects here. ...

  1. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.
  2. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants.
  3. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance.
  4. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety.
  5. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined.
  6. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and freest cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development and national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institutions of her own choosing; and, more than a welcome, assistance also of every kind that she may need and may herself desire. The treatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in the months to come will be the acid test of their good will, of their comprehension of her needs as distinguished from their own interests, and of their intelligent and unselfish sympathy.
  7. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations. No other single act will serve as this will serve to restore confidence among the nations in the laws which they have themselves set and determined for the government of their relations with one another. Without this healing act the whole structure and validity of international law is forever impaired.
  8. All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored, and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871 in the matter of Alsace-Lorraine, which has unsettled the peace of the world for nearly fifty years, should be righted, in order that peace may once more be made secure in the interest of all.
  9. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality.
  10. The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity of autonomous development.
  11. Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored; Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea; and the relations of the several Balkan states to one another determined by friendly counsel along historically established lines of allegiance and nationality; and international guarantees of the political and economic independence and territorial integrity of the several Balkan states should be entered into.
  12. The Turkish portions of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of an autonomous development, and the Dardanelles should be permanently opened as a free passage to the ships and commerce of all nations under international guarantees.
  13. An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations, which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea, and whose political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international covenant.
  14. A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.

Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...

Negotiations

The Palace of Versailles, where the treaty was signed
The Palace of Versailles, where the treaty was signed

Negotiations between the Allied powers started on January 18 in the Salle de l'Horloge at the French Foreign Ministry, commonly known by its location, the Quai d'Orsay. Initially, 70 delegates of 26 nations participated in the negotiations. Having been defeated, Germany, Austria, and Hungary were excluded from the negotiations. Russia was also excluded because it had negotiated a separate peace with Germany in 1917, in which Germany gained a large fraction of Russia's land and resources. The Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles, France. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 December 30, 1922 December 12, 1991 (independence) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking...


Until March 1919, the most important role for negotiating the extremely complex and difficult terms of the peace fell to the regular meetings of the "Council of Ten" (head of government and foreign minister) composed of the five major victors (the United States, France, Great Britain, Italy, and Japan). As this unusual body proved too unwieldy and formal for effective decision-making, Japan and - for most of the remaining conference - the foreign ministers left the main meetings, so that only the "Big Four" remained.[6] After Italy left the negotiations (only to return to sign in June) having its territorial claims to Fiume rejected, the final conditions were determined by the leaders of the "Big Three" nations: United States, France, and Great Britain. The "Big Three"[7] that negotiated the treaty consisted of Prime Minister David Lloyd George of the United Kingdom, Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau of France, and President Woodrow Wilson of the United States of America. The Prime Minister of Italy, Vittorio Orlando, played a minor part in the discussions. Germany was not invited to discuss the treaty. At Versailles, it was difficult to decide on a common position because their aims conflicted with one another. The result was an "unhappy compromise".[8] Henry Kissinger called the treaty a "brittle compromise agreement between American utopism and European paranoia - too conditional to fulfil the dreams of the former, too tentative to alleviate the fears of the latter." Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... Rijeka (Fiume in Italian and Hungarian; Rijeka and Fiume both mean river) is the principal seaport of Croatia, located on the Kvarner Bay, an inlet of the Adriatic Sea. ... In Italy, the President of the Council of Ministers (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the countrys prime minister or head of government, and occupies the fourth-most important state office. ... Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (May 19, 1860 - December 1, 1952) was an Italian diplomat and political figure. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ...


Initial rejection of the terms by Germany

On April 29, the German delegation under the leadership of the foreign minister Ulrich Graf von Brockdorff-Rantzau arrived in Versailles. On May 7, the anniversary of the sinking of the RMS Lusitania, the Germans finally received the peace conditions agreed upon by the victors. Terms imposed by the treaty on Germany included partitioning a certain amount of its own territory to a number of surrounding countries, being stripped of all of its overseas colonies, particularly those in Africa, and limiting its ability to make war again, by restrictions on the size of its military. Because Germany was not allowed to take part in the negotiations, the German government issued a protest to what it considered to be unfair demands, and soon afterwards withdrew from the proceedings. is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ulrich Graf von Brockdorff-Rantzau (May 29, 1869 - September 8, 1928) was a German diplomat and the first Foreign Minister of the Weimar Republic. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... RMS Lusitania was a British luxury ocean liner owned by the Cunard Steamship Company and built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank, Scotland. ...


A new German government accepts the treaty

On June 20, a new government under Chancellor Gustav Bauer was installed in Germany after Philipp Scheidemann resigned. Germany finally agreed to the conditions with 237 vs. 138 votes on June 23. is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... Gustav Adolf Bauer (6 January 1870–16 September 1944) was a German Social Democratic Party leader and Chancellor of Germany from 1919 to 1920. ... Philipp Scheidemann (26 July 1865 – 29 November 1939) was a German Social Democratic politician, who proclaimed the Republic on 9 November 1918, and who became the first Chancellor of the Weimar Republic. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On June 28, 1919[9] the new German foreign minister Hermann Müller and the minister of transport Johannes Bell agreed to sign the treaty, and it was ratified by the League of Nations on January 10, 1920. is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other Hermann Müllers: see Hermann Müller. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Summary of the Treaty

Germany renounces in favor of the League of Nations, in the capacity of trustee, the government of the territory defined above. At the end of fifteen years from the coming into force of the present Treaty the inhabitants of the said territory shall be called upon to indicate the sovereignty under which they desire to be placed. Historically, large populations of ethnic Germans have been concentrated in Central and Eastern Europe. ... This article is about the 1871 German Empire. ... The Silesian Uprisings (German: ; Polish: ) were a series of three armed uprisings of the Poles of Upper Silesia, from 1919–1921, against Weimar rule; the resistance hoped to break away from Germany in order to join the Second Polish Republic, which had been established in the wake of World War... Polish Corridor (German: ; Polish: ) was the term used between the World Wars to refer to the Polish territory which separated the German exclave of East Prussia from the German province of Pomerania. ... The Saar, corresponding to the current German state of the Saarland, was from governed by the League of Nations under the Treaty of Versailles from 1920 until a plebicite in 1935, when it was returned to Germany. ... The Remilitarization of the Rhineland by the German Army took place on 7 March 1936 when German forces entered the Rhineland. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy. ... National assembly meeting in St. ... Reichsgau and General Governement in 1941 At the beginning of World War II, significant Polish areas were annexed by Nazi Germany. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Former eastern territories of Germany (German: ) describes collectively those provinces or regions east of the Oder-Neisse line which were internationally recognised as part of the territory of Germany after the formation of the German Empire in 1871. ... // Part of the motivation behind the territorial changes is based on events in the history of Germany and Europe, especially Eastern Europe. ... The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... The Treaty of Zgorzelec (Full title The Agreement Concerning the Demarcation of the Established and the Existing Polish-German State Frontier, also known as the Treaty of Görlitz and Treaty of Zgorzelic) was signed on 6 July 1950 in Zgorzelec by Otto Grotewohl Prime Minister of the provisional government... The Treaty of Warsaw is a treaty between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... On 11 December 1973, in Prague, the Federal Republic of Germany and Czechoslovakia signed a treaty in which the two States recognised each other diplomatically and declared the 1938 Munich Agreements to be null and void by acknowledging the inviolability of their common borders and abandoning all territorial claims. ... The Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany is the final peace treaty negotiated between the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: France, the United Kingdom, the United States and... The Treaty between the Republic of Poland and the Federal Republic of Germany on the Confirmation of the Existing Border between Them was signed on November 14, 1990. ... Main article: History of Poland In the period following its emergence in the 10th century, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christianity, created a strong Central European state and integrated Poland into European culture. ... Recovered Territories, Regained Territories or Western and Northern Territories (Polish: ) were the official terms used by Polish post-war authorities to denote those former German territories, which were in the past part of Polish state and over centuries became lost and Germanised, and which were returned to Poland after the...


Alsace­Lorraine. The High Contracting Parties, recognizing the moral obligation to redress the wrong done by Germany in 1871 both to the rights of France and to the wishes of the population of Alsace and Lorraine, which were separated from their country in spite of the solemn protest of their representatives at the Assembly of Bordeaux, agree upon the following.... The territories which were ceded to Germany in accordance with the Preliminaries of Peace signed at Versailles on February 26, 1871, and the Treaty of Frankfort of May 10, 1871, are restored to French sovereignty as from the date of the Armistice of November 11, 1918. The provisions of the Treaties establishing the delimitation of the frontiers before 1871 shall be restored. Germany renounces in favor of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers all her rights and titles over her overseas possessions. Germany renounces, in favour of Japan, all her rights, title and privileges . . . which she acquired in virtue of` the Treaty concluded by her with China on March 6, 1898, and of all other arrangements relative to the Province of Shantung. The German military forces shall be demobilised and reduced as prescribed hereinafter


Treaty terms

Overview

The terms of the Treaty, which Germany had no choice but to accept, were announced on May 7, 1919. Germany lost: is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...

The Republic of Cameroon is a unitary republic of central Africa. ... German East Africa (German: Deutsch-Ostafrika) was Germanys colony in East Africa, including what is now Burundi, Rwanda, and Tanganyika, the mainland part of present Tanzania. ... Flag of German South West Africa German South-West Africa (German: Deutsch-Südwestafrika or DSWA) was a colony of Germany from 1884 to 1915, when it was taken over by South Africa and administered as South-West Africa, later becoming Namibia. ... Togoland was a German protectorate in West Africa. ... German New Guinea (Ger. ...

Territorial restrictions on Germany

  • Alsace-Lorraine yielded to France.
  • Saar coal fields placed under French control for 15 years.
  • Annexation of Austria was prohibited.
  • Annexation of Czechoslovakia prohibited.
  • Annexation of Poland and Danzig prohibited.
  • Loss of all overseas colonies.
  • Part of Upper Silesia ceded to Poland.

Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia became independent states (acquired by Germany from Russia at Brest-Litovsk). Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: Silesia Superior; Polish: ; Silesian: Gůrny Åšlůnsk) is the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Lower Silesia is to the northwest. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking...


Military restrictions on Germany

  • The Rhineland to be a demilitarized zone.
  • The German armed forces cannot number more than 100,000 troops and no conscription.
  • Enlisted men to be retained for at least 12 years; officers to be retained for at least 25 years.
  • Manufacturing of weapons is prohibited.
  • Import and export of weapons is prohibited.
  • Manufacture or stockpiling of poison gas is prohibited.
  • Tanks are prohibited.
  • Naval forces limited to 15,000 men, 6 battleships (no more than 10,000 tons displacement each), 6 cruisers (no more than 6,000 tons displacement each), 12 destroyers (no more than 800 tons displacement each) and 12 torpedo boats (no more than 200 tons displacement each).
  • Submarines are prohibited.
  • Military aircraft are prohibited.
  • Artillery is prohibited.
  • Blockades on ports are prohibited.

The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... In military service, an enlisted rank is generally any rating below that of a commissioned officer. ... An officer is a member of a military, naval, or if applicable, other uniformed services who holds a position of responsibility. ...

Legal restrictions on Germany

  • Article 231: forced to accept sole responsibility of war and had to promise to make good all the damage done to civilian population of the allies. Also known as the "War Guilt Clause".
  • Article 227: former German emperor, Wilhelm II was charged with supreme offence against international morality. He was to be tried as a war criminal.
  • Article 228-230: many were tried as war criminals. Some could not be tried as they were hiding.

William II (German: ) (born Prince Frederick William Victor Albert of Prussia; German: ) (27 January 1859 – 4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888...

Territorial losses

Germany after Versailles      Annexed by neighbouring countries      Administered by the League of Nations      Weimar Germany
Germany after Versailles
     Annexed by neighbouring countries      Administered by the League of Nations      Weimar Germany

On its eastern frontier Germany was forced to cede to the newly independent Poland the province of West Prussia, thereby granting Poland access to the Baltic Sea, while the province of East Prussia became an enclave being separated from mainland Germany. Danzig was declared a free city under the permanent governance of the League of Nations. Much of the province of Posen, which, like West Prussia, had been acquired by Prussia in the late 18th-century partitions of Poland, was likewise granted to the restored Polish state. A significant portion of coal-rich and industrially developed Upper Silesia was also transferred from Germany to Poland, as the result of a later plebiscite (The disinterest of the officials conducting those and other plebiscites in postwar Germany is questionable[citation needed]). 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Posen (Polish: Poznań): is the German name of the city of Poznań, Poland. ...


Germany was also compelled to yield control of its colonies. Although these colonies had proven to be economic liabilities, they had also been symbols of the world-power status that Germany had gained in the 1880s and '90s. Article 156 of the treaty transferred German concessions in Shandong, China to Japan rather than returning sovereign authority to China. Chinese outrage over this provision led to demonstrations and a cultural movement known as the May Fourth Movement and influenced China not to sign the treaty. China declared the end of its war against Germany in September 1919 and signed a separate treaty with Germany in 1921.   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... Students in Beijing rallied during the May Fourth Movement. ...


Besides the loss of the German colonial empire the territories Germany lost were: This article is about former colonies of Germany. ...

  • Alsace-Lorraine, the territories which were ceded to Germany in accordance with the Preliminaries of Peace signed at Versailles on February 26, 1871, and the Treaty of Frankfurt of May 10, 1871, were restored to French sovereignty without a plebiscite as from the date of the Armistice of November 11, 1918. (area 14,522 km², 1,815,000 inhabitants (1905)).
  • Northern Schleswig was returned to Denmark following a plebiscite on 14 February 1920 (area 3,984 km², 163,600 inhabitants (1920)). The territory surrendered to Denmark included the German-dominated town of Tondern (Tønder), Hadersleben (Haderslev which was predominantly Danish and two additional towns, Apenrade (Aabenraa) and Sonderburg (Sønderborg) that were split more evenly between the two sides but with small German majorities. The rural districts of Northern Schleswig were overwhelmingly Danish, in particular the northern, western and eastern regions. Central Schleswig, including the city of Flensburg, opted to remain German in a separate referendum on 14 March 1920.
  • Most of the Prussian provinces of Posen and of West Prussia, which Prussia had annexed in Partitions of Poland (1772-1795), were ceded to Poland. This territory had already been liberated by local Polish population during the Great Poland Uprising of 1918-1919 (area 53,800 km², 4,224,000 inhabitants (1931), including 510 km² and 26,000 inhabitants from Upper Silesia) (This includes parts of West Prussia that were ceded to Poland to provide free access to the sea, creating the Polish Corridor.
  • The Hlučínsko (Hultschin) area of Upper Silesia to Czechoslovakia (area 316 or 333 km², 49,000 inhabitants).
  • The eastern part of Upper Silesia to Poland (area 3,214,km², 965,000 inhabitants), after the plebiscite for the whole of Upper Silesia, which was provided for in the Treaty, and the ensuing partition along voting lines in Upper Silesia by the League of Nations following protests by the Polish inhabitants.
  • The area of German cities Eupen and Malmedy to Belgium. The trackbed of the Vennbahn railway also transferred to Belgium.
  • The area of Soldau in East Prussia (railway station on the Warsaw-Danzig route) to Poland (area 492 km²),
  • The northern part of East Prussia known as Memel Territory under control of France, later occupied by Lithuania.
  • From the eastern part of West Prussia and the southern part of East Prussia, after the East Prussian plebiscite a small area to Poland,
  • The province of Saarland to be under the control of the League of Nations for 15 years, after that a plebiscite between France and Germany, to decide to which country it would belong. During this time the coal to be sent to France.
  • The port of Danzig with the delta of the Vistula River at the Baltic Sea was made the Freie Stadt Danzig (Free City of Danzig) under the League of Nations (area 1,893 km², 408,000 inhabitants (1929)).
  • Germany acknowledges and will respect strictly, the independence of Austria.

Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... This article is about the city of Versailles. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Treaty of Frankfurt was signed May 10, 1871, at the end of the Franco-Prussian War. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Sønderjyllands Amt (English: South Jutland County) is a county in southern Denmark, on the peninsula of Jutland. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Tønder (German Tondern) is a municipality in south Denmark, in the county of South Jutland on the peninsula of Jutland. ... Tønder (German Tondern) is a municipality in south Denmark, in the county of South Jutland on the peninsula of Jutland. ... Map of the future municipality Haderslev (German: Hadersleben) is a municipality (Danish, kommune) in South Jutland County on the east coast of the Jutland peninsula in south Denmark. ... Map of the future municipality Haderslev (German: Hadersleben) is a municipality (Danish, kommune) in South Jutland County on the east coast of the Jutland peninsula in south Denmark. ... Åbenrå (pre-1948 spelling Aabenraa, German Apenrade), is a municipality in south Denmark, in the county of South Jutland on the peninsula of Jutland. ... Åbenrå (pre-1948 spelling Aabenraa, German Apenrade), is a municipality in south Denmark, in the county of South Jutland on the peninsula of Jutland. ... Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (in Danish: Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Lyksborg (or Glücksborg)), from Glücksburg in northernmost Germany, is a line of the House of Oldenburg (Danish: Oldenborg), to which the royal houses of Denmark, Norway, and the former royal house of Greece belong. ... Map of the future municipality Sønderborg coat-of-arms Sønderborg (German: Sonderburg), is a municipality (Danish, kommune) in South Jutland County partially on the Jutland peninsula and partially on the island of Als in south Denmark. ... The Province of Posen (German: , Polish: ) was a province of Prussia from 1846-1918. ... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Soldiers of the Greater Polish Army The Greater Poland Uprising of 1918–1919, or Wielkopolska Uprising of 1918–1919 (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1918–19 roku; German: Großpolnischer Aufstand) or Posnanian War was a military insurrection of Poles in the Greater Poland (also called the Grand Duchy of PoznaÅ„ or... Polish Corridor (German: ; Polish: ) was the term used between the World Wars to refer to the Polish territory which separated the German exclave of East Prussia from the German province of Pomerania. ... Location of Hlučín in the Czech Republic Hlučín (German: , Polish: ) is a city in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. ... Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: Silesia Superior; Polish: ; Silesian: Gůrny Åšlůnsk) is the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Lower Silesia is to the northwest. ... Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: Silesia Superior; Polish: ; Silesian: Gůrny Åšlůnsk) is the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Lower Silesia is to the northwest. ... Upper Silesia plebiscite was the form of self-determination for Upper Silesia on demand of one of the clauses of the Treaty of Versailles. ... St Nikolaus church in Eupen Eupen is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège, 15 km from the German border (Aachen), from the Dutch border (Maastricht) and from the nature reservation Hohes Venn (Ardennes). ... Geography Country Belgium Community French Community Region Walloon Region Province Liège Arrondissement Verviers Coordinates , , Area 99. ... A viaduct of the Vennbahn near Bütgenbach, Wallonia, Belgium. ... Działdowo is a town in north-central Poland with 20,700 inhabitants (1995). ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... KlaipÄ—da Region (Memel Region, Memelland) is the name of the part of Lithuania Minor consisting of the coastland around KlaipÄ—da (formerly known as Memel) and along the Curonian Lagoon, on the right bank of Neman River. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEC Capital Saarbrücken Minister-President Peter Müller (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  2,569 km² (992 sq mi) Population 1,044,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 406 /km... For alternative meanings of GdaÅ„sk and Danzig, see GdaÅ„sk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... Napoleonic-era Danzig The Free City of Danzig (French: Ville Libre de Dantzig) was a semi-independent state established by Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars in years 9 September 1807– 22 January 1813/1815. ...

Reparations

Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles assigned blame for the war to Germany; much of the rest of the Treaty set out the reparations that Germany would pay to the Allies. World War I reparations refers to the payments and transfers of property and equipment that the German state was forced to make following its defeat during World War I. Article 231 of the Treaty (the war guilt clause) held Germany solely responsible for all loss and damage suffered by the...


The total sum due was decided by an Inter-Allied Reparations Commission. The war reparations that Entente demanded from Germany was 226 billion Reichsmarks in gold (around £11.3 billion), then reduced to 132 billion Reichsmarks. In 1921, this number was officially put at £4,990,000,000, or 132 billion marks.


The Versailles reparation impositions were partly a reply to the reparations placed upon France by Germany through the 1871 Treaty of Frankfurt signed after the Franco-Prussian War. Note however that the amount of the reparations demanded in the treaty of Versailles were comparatively larger (5B Francs vs. 132B Reichsmark). Indemnities of the Treaty of Frankfurt were in turn calculated, on the basis of population, as the precise equivalent of the indemnities imposed by Napoleon I on Prussia in 1807.[10] The Versailles Reparations came in a variety of forms, including coal, steel, intellectual property (eg. the patent for Aspirin) and agricultural products, in no small part because currency reparations of that order of magnitude would lead to hyperinflation, as actually occurred in postwar Germany (see 1920s German inflation). While the economic ruination this would inflict on Germany did not significantly distress the French government, the subsequent devaluation of their own reparations did. The Treaty of Frankfurt was signed May 10, 1871, at the end of the Franco-Prussian War. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000... This article is about the drug. ... In economics, hyperinflation is inflation that is out of control, a condition in which prices increase rapidly as a currency loses its value. ...


The standard view is that the reparations, particularly forcing Germany to accept the entire blame and lose some of their land, were the cause of Germany's economic woes and the concomitant rise of Nazism to power.


League of Nations

The treaty provided for the creation of the League of Nations, a major goal of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson. The League of Nations was intended to arbitrate international disputes and thereby avoid future wars. Only three of Wilson's Fourteen Points were realized, since Wilson was compelled to compromise with Clemenceau, Lloyd George and Orlando on some points in exchange for retaining approval of Wilson's "fourteenth point", the League of Nations.[citation needed] The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... United States President Woodrow Wilson listed the Fourteen Points in a speech that he delivered to the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. ... Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (May 19, 1860 - December 1, 1952) was an Italian diplomat and political figure. ...


Reaction to the treaty

Reaction of the Allies

In the eyes of the French people, Clemenceau failed to achieve all of their demands through the Treaty of Versailles. As a result, he was voted out of office in the elections of January 1920. Upon hearing the terms of the treaty, Field Marshal Ferdinand Foch, correctly predicted that "This is not Peace. It is an Armistice for twenty years.". The next World War would start a mere 65 days after the 20 years Foch predicted. Ferdinand Foch OM GCB (October 2, 1851 – March 20, 1929) was a French soldier, military theorist, and writer credited with possessing the most original and subtle mind in the French Army in the early 20th century. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...



Britain as a whole was at first content, because it succeeded in securing more favourable German eastern frontiers, e.g. plebiscites on areas previously assigned to Poland (Masuria, southern Warmia, Upper Silesia) and creation of the Free City of Danzig. Even then Britain felt that the Treaty was too harsh to Germany[citation needed], causing dissatisfaction that might potentially lead to trouble in the future. In the United States, it was seen as Europe's problem, but it was also widely believed that the Treaty was too harsh.[citation needed] Sailing on Lake Mikołajki Masuria (Polish: ; German: ) is an area in northeastern Poland famous for its lakes and forests. ... Warmia in 1547 Warmia (Polish: , German: , Latin: Varmia, also historically known as Ermeland) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in northeastern Poland. ... Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: Silesia Superior; Polish: ; Silesian: Gůrny Ślůnsk) is the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Lower Silesia is to the northwest. ... Flag of Danzig The Free City of Danzig refers to either of two short-lived city-states which were centered on the present-day Baltic port known as Gdańsk (German: Danzig). ...

United States Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, who opposed ratification of the Treaty of Versailles
United States Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, who opposed ratification of the Treaty of Versailles

The United States Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, making it invalid in the United States and effectively hamstringing the nascent League of Nations envisioned by Wilson. The largest obstacle faced in the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles was the opposition of Henry Cabot Lodge. It has also been said that Wilson himself was the second-largest obstacle, primarily because he refused to support the treaty with any of the alterations proposed by the United States Senate. As a result, the United States did not join the League of Nations, despite Wilson claiming that he could Image File history File links Size of this preview: 486 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (503 × 620 pixel, file size: 31 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 486 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (503 × 620 pixel, file size: 31 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Henry Cabot Lodge (May 12, 1850 – November 9, 1924) was an American statesman, a Republican politician, and noted historian. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... Henry Cabot Lodge (May 12, 1850 – November 9, 1924) was an American statesman, a Republican politician, and noted historian. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States...

"...predict with absolute certainty that within another generation there will be another world war if the nations of the world do not concert the method by which to prevent it."[11]

Those who were present at negotiations were also not convinced with the Treaty, as Edward Mandell House wrote in his diary on 29 June 1919 House, Time, Jun. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...

"I am leaving Paris, after eight fateful months, with conflicting emotions. Looking at the conference in retrospect, there is much to approve and yet much to regret. It is easy to say what should have been done, but more difficult to have found a way of doing it. To those who are saying that the treaty is bad and should never have been made and that it will involve Europe in infinite difficulties in its enforcement, I feel like admitting it. But I would also say in reply that empires cannot be shattered, and new states raised upon their ruins without disturbance. To create new boundaries is to create new troubles. The one follows the other. While I should have preferred a different peace, I doubt very much whether it could have been made, for the ingredients required for such a peace as I would have were lacking at Paris."[12]

Reaction in Germany

See also: Dolchstosslegende

The Treaty evoked an angry and hostile reception in Germany from the moment its contents were made public. The Germans were outraged and horrified at the result - since Wilson's idealistic fourteen points had painted the picture of a different outcome. They did not feel that they were responsible for starting the war nor did they feel as though they had lost. The German people had understood the negotiations at Versailles to be a peace conference and not a surrender. At first, the new government refused to sign the agreement, and the German navy sank its own ships in protest of the treaty. The sinking hardened Allied attitudes and the Allies demanded, by ultimatum, that Germany sign the treaty within twenty-four hours. The alternative was understood to be a resumption of hostilities, with the fighting now on German soil. Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Stab-in-the-back myth (German: Dolchstoßlegende, literally Dagger stab legend) refers to a social myth and persecution-propaganda theory popular in Germany in the period after World War I through World War II... For the war in general, see World War I. The Causes of World War I were complex and included many factors, including the conflicts and antagonisms of the four decades leading up to the war. ... An ultimatum (Latin: ) is a demand whose fulfillment is requested in a specified period of time and which is backed up by a threat to be followed through in case of noncompliance. ...


Faced with this crisis, the German provisional government in Weimar was thrown into upheaval. “What hand would not wither that binds itself and us in these fetters?” asked Chancellor Philipp Scheidemann who then resigned rather than agree to the Treaty. Army chief Paul von Hindenburg did the same, after declaring the army unable to defend Germany against Western attack. With four hours to go German President Friedrich Ebert agreed to the terms. The German delegation to Paris signed the treaty on June 28, 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. For other uses, see Weimar (disambiguation). ... Philipp Scheidemann (26 July 1865 – 29 November 1939) was a German Social Democratic politician, who proclaimed the Republic on 9 November 1918, and who became the first Chancellor of the Weimar Republic. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... This is not the Friedrich Ebert involved in the founding of the GDR, but rather his father. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... For the Scottish rock band, see Franz Ferdinand (band). ...


Conservatives, nationalists and ex-military leaders began to speak critically about the peace and Weimar politicians, socialists, communists, and Jews were viewed with suspicion due to their supposed extra-national loyalties. It was rumoured that they had not supported the war and had played a role in selling out Germany to its enemies. These November Criminals, or those who seemed to benefit from the newly formed Weimar Republic, were seen to have "stabbed them in the back" on the home front, by either criticizing German nationalism, instigating unrest and strikes in the critical military industries or profiteering. In essence the accusation was that the accused committed treason against the "benevolent and righteous" common cause. This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... Rosie the Riveter represented civilian wartime mobilization in the United States during World War II. Home front is the informal term commonly used to describe the civilian populace of the nation at war as an active support system of its military. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ...


These theories were given credence by the fact that when Germany surrendered in November 1918, its armies were still in French and Belgian territory. Not only had the German Army been in enemy territory the entire time on the Western Front, but on the Eastern Front, Germany had already won the war against Russia, concluded with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. In the West, Germany had seemed to come close to winning the war with the Spring Offensive. Contributing to the Dolchstoßlegende, its failure was blamed on strikes in the arms industry at a critical moment of the offensive, leaving soldiers with an inadequate supply of material. The strikes were seen to be instigated by treasonous elements, with the Jews taking most of the blame. This overlooked Germany's strategic position and ignored how the efforts of individuals were somewhat marginalized on the front, since the belligerents were engaged in a new kind of war. The industrialization of war had dehumanized the process, and made possible a new kind of defeat which the Germans suffered as a total war emerged. Combatants Belgium British Empire Australia[1] Canada[2] India[3] Newfoundland[4] New Zealand[5] South Africa[6] United Kingdom France and French Overseas Empire Portugal[7] United States Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then Ferdinand Foch Moltke → Falkenhayn → Hindenburg and Ludendorff → Hindenburg and Groener Casualties ~4,800... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... This article is about the First World War. ... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Dolchstoßlegende, (German dagger-thrust legend, often translated in English as stab-in-the-back legend) refers to a social mythos and persecution-propaganda theory popular in post-World War I Germany. ... Look up material in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... War economy is the term used to describe the contingencies undertaken by the modern state to mobilize its economy for war production. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ...


Nevertheless, this myth of domestic betrayal resonated among its audience, and its claims would codify the basis for public support for the emerging Nazi Party, under a racialist-based form of nationalism. The anti-Semitism was intensified by the Bavarian Soviet Republic, a Communist government which ruled the city of Munich for two weeks before being crushed by the Freikorps militia. Many of the Bavarian Soviet Republic's leaders were Jewish, a fact that allowed anti-Semitic propagandists to make the connection with "Communist treason". The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... Hitlers Nazi Germany: the epitome of 20th-century racialism Racialism is a term used to describe racial policy, in what is generally perceived to be a negative sense, as promoting stratification and inequality between racial categories (in themselves, often disputed). ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... The Bavarian Soviet Republic (Bayrische Räterepublik) — also known as the Munich Soviet Republic (Münchner Räterepublik) — was a short-lived revolutionary government in the German state of Bavaria in 1919 that sought to replace the fledgling Weimar Republic in its early days. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... The designation of Freikorps (German for Free Corps) was originally applied to voluntary armies. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... Conditions in Russia (1924) A Census -Bolsheviks by Ethnicity Jewish Bolshevism, Judeo-Bolshevism, Judeo-Communism, or in Polish, Żydokomuna, is an antisemitic conspiracy theory which blames the Jews for Bolshevism; it is an antisemitic political epithet. ...


Technical consequences

Since neither rockets nor glider aircraft were mentioned in the Versailles treaty, Germany spent money on these technologies, including Wernher von Braun's rocket experiments, which in no doubt helped the development of the future space industry. Large glider aircraft designs led to the design of the large Me-321 during World War II which later was motorized and became the Me-323, the largest land-based plane at the time. US Smarties (by Ce De Candy) US Smarties (by Ce De Candy) In the United States, Smarties are a type of artificially fruit-flavored candy produced by Ce De Candy. ... For other uses, see Glider (disambiguation). ... For other uses of von Braun, see von Braun (disambiguation). ... The Messerschmitt Me 321 was a very large German cargo glider aircraft developed during the Second World War. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Messerschmitt Me 323 Gigant was a German transport aircraft of the Second World War. ...


Treaty violations

The German economy was so weak that only a small percentage of reparations was paid in money. However, even the payment of this small percentage of the original reparations (219 billion Gold Reichsmarks) still placed a significant burden on the German economy, accounting for as much as one third of post-treaty hyperinflation. Furthermore, the provisions forcing the uncompensated removal of resources and industrial equipment sowed further resentment


Some significant violations (or avoidances) of the provisions of the Treaty were:

  • In 1919 the dissolution of the General Staff appeared to happen. However, the core of the General Staff was hidden within another organization, the Truppenamt, where it rewrote all Heer (Army) and Luftwaffe (Air Force) doctrinal and training materials based on the experience of World War I.
  • The Treaty of Rapallo was an agreement in the Italian town of Rapallo on 16 April 1922 between Germany (the Weimar Republic) and Russia SFSR under which each renounced all territorial and financial claims against the other following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and World War I. A secret annex signed on 29 July allowed Germany to train their military in Soviet territory, thus violating the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. The first post-war German tanks and aircraft were tested and exercised under this (see Soviet-German relations before 1941).
  • In March 1935, Adolf Hitler violated the Treaty of Versailles by introducing compulsory military conscription in Germany and rebuilding the armed forces. This included a new Navy (Kriegsmarine), the first full armoured divisions (Panzerwaffe) and an Air Force (Luftwaffe). For the first time since the war, Germany's armed forces were as strong as those of France.
  • In June 1935 the United Kingdom effectively withdrew from the Treaty with the signing of the Anglo-German Naval Agreement.
  • In March 1936, Hitler violated the Treaty by reoccupying the demilitarized zone in the Rhineland.
  • In March 1938, Hitler violated the Treaty by annexing Austria in the Anschluss.
  • In September 1938, Hitler with approval of France, Britain and Italy violated the Treaty by annexing Czechoslovak border regions, the so-called Sudetenland
  • In March 1939, Hitler violated the Treaty by occupying the rest of Czechoslovakia.
  • In September 1939, Hitler violated the Treaty by invading Poland, thus initiating World War II in Europe.

The Truppenamt or Troop Office was the cover organisation for the German General Staff from 1919 through until 1933 when the General Staff was re-created. ... The Treaty of Rapallo was an agreement of April 16, 1922 between Germany (the Weimar Republic) and Bolshevist Russia under which each renounced all territorial and financial claims against the other following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and World War I. The two governments also agreed to normalise their diplomatic... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Cooperation between Germany and Soviet Union dates to the aftermath of the First World War. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ... Panzerwaffe (German for Armored Force) refers to a command within the German Wehrmacht responsible for the affairs of panzer and motorized forces shortly before and during the Second World War. ...   (German IPA: ) is a generic German term for an air force. ... The Anglo-German Naval Agreement (AGNA), was signed between United Kingdom and Germany in of June 18, 1935. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Historical assessments

A common view is that France's Clemenceau was the most vigorous in his pursuit of revenge against Germany, the Western Front of the war having been fought chiefly on French soil. This treaty was felt to be unreasonable at the time because it was a peace dictated by the victors that put the full blame for the war on Germany.


Henry Kissinger called the treaty a "brittle compromise agreement between American utopianism and European paranoia — too conditional to fulfil the dreams of the former, too tentative to alleviate the fears of the latter."[citation needed] Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ...


In his book The Economic Consequences of the Peace, Keynes referred to the Treaty of Versailles as a "Carthaginian peace".[13] That analysis was disputed by French Resistance economist Étienne Mantoux. During the 1940s, Mantoux wrote a book entitled The Carthaginian Peace, or the Economic Consequences of Mr. Keynes in an attempt to rebut Keynes' claims; it was published after his death. The Economic Consequences of the Peace is a book published by John Maynard Keynes in 1919. ... Keynes redirects here. ... Carthaginian Peace refers to a peace brought about through the total destruction of the enemy. ... Flag De Jure territory Capital Paris Capital-in-exile London, Algiers Government Republic Leader Charles de Gaulle Historical era World War II  - de Gaulles appeal June 18, 1940  - Liberation of Paris August, 1944 The Free French Forces (French: , FFL) were French fighters in World War II, who decided to... Étienne Mantoux (5 February, 1913 – 29 April, 1945) was a French economist and son of Paul Mantoux. ...


More recently it has been argued (for instance by historian Gerhard Weinberg in his book A World At Arms[14]) that the treaty was in fact quite advantageous to Germany. The Bismarckian Reich was maintained as a political unit instead of being broken up, and Germany largely escaped post-war military occupation (in contrast to the situation following World War II.) Gerhard L. Weinberg, January 2003 Gerhard Ludwig Weinberg (born January 1, 1928) is a German-born American diplomatic and military historian noted for his studies in the history of World War Two. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The Treaty encouraged the creation of a large number of new states from the ashes of the Austro-Hungarian, German, Ottoman and Russian Empires. Among these are Poland, the Baltics, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and the unifications of Romania and Bulgaria. However, centuries of recurrent military incursions and of being part of empires have resulted with a lot of ethnic diversity in most of these new countries, most notably Czechoslovakia, Poland and Romania. The latter three countries have large minorities of aproximately 25-33%, usually German, East Slavic or Hungarian. In short, the Treaty did not create a clear-cut border between the new states and the numerous nationalities within them.


The British military historian Correlli Barnett claimed that the Treaty of Versailles was "extremely lenient in comparison with the peace terms Germany herself, when she was expecting to win the war, had had in mind to impose on the Allies". Furthermore, he claimed, it was "hardly a slap on the wrist" when contrasted with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk that Germany had imposed on a defeated Russia in March 1918, which had taken away a third of Russia's population, one half of Russia's industrial undertakings and nine-tenths of Russia's coal mines, coupled with an indemnity of six billion marks.[15] Correlli Barnett (born June 28, 1927 in Norbury, Surrey) is an English military historian, who has written also on the United Kingdoms industrial decline. ...


Barnett also claims that, in strategic terms, Germany was in fact in a superior position following the Treaty than she had been in 1914. Then, Germany's eastern frontiers faced Russia and Austria, who had both in the past balanced German power. But the Austrian empire fractured after the war into smaller, weaker states and Russia was wracked by revolution and civil war. The newly restored Poland was no match for even the defeated Germany.


In the West, Germany was balanced only by France and Belgium, both of which were smaller in population and less economically vibrant than Germany. Barnett concludes by saying that instead of weakening Germany, the Treaty "much enhanced" German power.[16] Britain and France should have (according to Barnett) "divided and permanently weakened" Germany by undoing Bismarck's work and partitioning Germany into smaller, weaker states so it could never disrupt the peace of Europe again.[17] By failing to do this and therefore not solving the problem of German power and restoring the equilibrium of Europe, Britain "had failed in her main purpose in taking part in the Great War".[18]


Regardless of modern strategic or economic analysis, resentment caused by the treaty sowed fertile psychological ground for the eventual rise of the Nazi party. Indeed, on Nazi Germany's rise to power, Adolf Hitler resolved to overturn the remaining military and territorial provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. Military build-up began almost immediately, in direct defiance of the Treaty, which, by then, had been destroyed by Hitler in front of a cheering crowd. "It was this treaty which caused a chain reaction leading to World War II" claimed historian Dan Rowling (1951).Various references of the treaty is found throughout many of Hitler's speeches and in pre-war German propaganda.(See also: Nazi propaganda) Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi propaganda is the term that describes the psychologically powerful propaganda within Nazi Germany, much of which was centered around Jews, consistently alleged to be the source of Germanys economic problems. ...


Alternative viewpoints

NOTE: These are biased and partly untrue views by Allied sources, seen through national prisms. History is about facts, not about pleasing a winner nation's sentiment. Verify by balanced and reputed sources, or it will be deleted.


The interpretation that Germany was seriously weakened and humiliated by the Versailles Treaty has been disputed by some historians.[19] Some arguments include:

  • The commissions to supervise disarmament were withdrawn and the reparations payments were reduced and eventually cancelled, to mention just some of the changes made in Germany's favour. It is worth mentioning that the financial burden of reconstruction was shifted from Germany to those countries that were actually occupied and devastated by the war.
  • Germany's industry and economic potential were less affected than its European enemies, and although weakened by the war, Germany was relatively stronger vis-à-vis its enemies in 1919 than it had been in 1913.
  • The creation of Poland, so derided by the critics of Versailles, shielded Germany from its potentially most powerful adversary, Russia. Independent Poland thwarted the Bolshevik, which was later supported by the USA and Great Britain by allying with Stalin, advance into a war-weakened Europe at the Battle of Warsaw in 1920, at a time when Germany faced Communist-inspired unrest and revolution. This communist-inspired thread was few years later supported by Churchill and Roosevelt and subjugated half of Europe into a System of Terror, death and Tyranny [20].
  • ATTENTION: The following claim is a lie. Indicate Source or it will be deleted. Thank you <<<NEEDS SOURCE Germany kept a big chunk of its disputed areas populated by Polish-speaking minorities (especially where the minority was quite passive), while the most active nationalist population seceded. <<<NEEDS SOURCE>>>> This actually spared Germany many ethnic conflicts that had marked the history of Imperial Germany and helped in the Germanisation of the remaining Poles. NOTE: The ethnicopposite is true, Bromberg: 84 % Germans, Danzig: 97 % Germans, ANNEXED without a vote, occupied by Poland. The Ethnic Conflicts were worsened by the Allied failure of annexation of German territory.


<<<*NOTE: This text is utter nonsense, as the German Empire had been stronger than miniature states before WW I just the same. Delete or change, or it will be deleted, thank you. >>>The post-war situation in the Balkans left Germany much more powerful than any of its eastern or south-Eastern European neighbours, none of which showed any signs of working together against Germany. Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad WisÅ‚Ä…) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Soviet War, the war that began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga in 1921. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Roosevelt is a surname of Dutch origin, with the literal meaning of rose field. ... This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ...

  • <<<NOTE: this text is nonsense, as the largest and most powerful economic nation is bound to have a dominance. Delete resp. change into a a text making sense, or it will be deleted. Thank you.>>> In short, Germany was strong enough to dominate Europe once more within two decades of its defeat in World War One.

It should also be realized that, if Germany had won the war, it intended to impose a treaty of similar severity on its foes.[21] Its terms would have included

  • Annexation of portions of France and Belgium, and all of Luxembourg;
  • Belgium would receive Nord-Pas de Calais in compensation, but would accept German occupation of all militarily significant areas;
  • France to pay reparations sufficient to prevent French rearmament for fifteen to twenty years;
  • France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Austria-Hungary, (and Poland, if it becomes independent of Russia) to join an economic association under effective German control. Italy, Sweden, and Norway to join later.

(Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Nord Pas-de-Calais Arrondissements 13 Cantons 156 Communes 1,546 Statistics Land area1 12,414 km² Population (Ranked 4th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ...

See also

Woodrow Wilson and the American peace commissioners during the negotiations on the Treaty of Versailles. ... 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 Eastern front Battles Military operations Commanders Technology Atlas of the World Battle Fronts Manhattan project Aerial warfare Home front Collaboration Resistance Aftermath Casualties Further effects War crimes Consequences of Nazism Depictions German battleship Schleswig-Holstein, shelling Westerplatte, September 1, 1939. ... Opium article from The Daily Picayune, February 24, 1912, New Orleans, Louisiana. ... At the conclusion of World War I the Allies imposed in the Treaty of Versailles a plan for reparations to be paid by Germany. ... Minority Treaties[1] refer to the treaties regarding the protection of ethnic minorities signed during of shortly after the Treaty of Versailles and Paris Peace Conference between various minor states and the newly created League of Nations (primarily in the period between 1919 and 1921). ... The Neutrality Acts were a series of laws that were passed by the United States Congress in the 1930s, in response to the growing turmoil going on in Europe and Asia that eventually led to World War II. They were spurred by the growth in isolationism in the US following... Little Treaty of Versailles or the Polish Minority Treaty was one of the bilateral Minority Treaties signed between minor powers and the League of Nations in the aftermath of the First World War. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Viault, Birdsall S. (1990). Schaum's Outline of Modern European History. McGraw-Hill Professional, 471. 
  2. ^ The Economic Consequences of the Peace by John Maynard Keynes, available at Project Gutenberg.
  3. ^ Wikipedia Article: Strasbourg
  4. ^ Wikipedia Article: Ruhrbesetzung http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruhrbesetzung
  5. ^ Wikipedia Article: Ruhrbesetzung http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruhrbesetzung
  6. ^ Alan Sharp, "The Versailles Settlement: Peacemaking in Paris, 1919", 1991
  7. ^ Some refer to the "Big Three" and some refer to the "Big Four", including Vittorio Orlando, the prime minister of Italy
  8. ^ Harold Nicolson, Diaries and Letters, 1930-39,250; quoted in Derek Drinkwater: Sir Harold Nicolson and International Relations: The Practitioner as Theorist, P.139
  9. ^ DER GROSSE PLOETZ, KOMET Verlag GmbH, Cologne, 34th Edition, 2005 p. 733-735
  10. ^ A.J.P. Taylor, Bismarck The Man and the Statesman. New York: Vintage Books. 1967, p. 133
  11. ^ WOODROW WILSON: Appeal for Support of the League of Nations
  12. ^ Bibliographical Introduction
  13. ^ The Economic Consequences of the Peace by John Maynard Keynes, available at Project Gutenberg.
  14. ^ Reynolds, David. (February 20, 1994). "Over There, and There, and There." Review of: A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II, by Gerhard L. Weinberg. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  15. ^ Correlli Barnett, The Collapse of British Power (London: Pan, 2002), p. 392.
  16. ^ Barnett, p. 316.
  17. ^ Barnett, p. 318.
  18. ^ Barnett, p. 319.
  19. ^ Weinberg, Gerhard L. (2005). A World at Arms: A global history of World War II. Cambridge University Press, (2nd edition), pp 15-16. ISBN 0521853168
  20. ^ Wikipedia Article: Joseph Stalin and Soviet Union
  21. ^ Bethmann Hollweg, Germany's War Aims

Keynes redirects here. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... In Italy, the President of the Council of Ministers (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the countrys prime minister or head of government, and occupies the fourth-most important state office. ... Sir Harold Nicolson (November 21, 1886 – May 1, 1968) was a British diplomat, author and politician. ... Keynes redirects here. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...

References

  • David Andelman. (2007). A Shattered Peace: Versailles 1919 and the Price We Pay Today. New York: John Wiley & Sons Publishers. ISBN 978-0-471-78898-0
  • Demarco, Neil. (1987). The World This Century: Working with Evidence. Collins Educational. ISBN 0003222179
  • MacMillan, Margaret. (2001). Peacemakers: The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 and Its Attempt to End War (also titled Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World and Peacemakers: Six Months That Changed the World). London: John Murray Publishers. ISBN 0-7195-5939-1.
  • Nicholson, Harold. (1933) Peacemaking, 1919, Being Reminiscences of the Paris Peace Conference. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 1-931541-54-X
  • Wheeler-Bennett, Sir John. (1972).The Wreck of Reparations, being the political background of the Lausanne Agreement, 1932. New York: H. Fertig.

David A. Andelman is an executive editor at Forbes. ... Margaret Olwen MacMillan OC (born 1943 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada) is a historian and professor at the University of Toronto and is also Provost of Trinity College. ... Sir Harold Nicolson (November 21, 1886 – May 1, 1968) was a British diplomat, author and politician. ... Sir John Wheeler Wheeler-Bennett, GCVO, MCG, OBE, FRSL, FBA, (October 13, 1902-December 9, 1975) was a conservative British historian of German and diplomatic history. ...

External links

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