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Encyclopedia > Treaty of Utrecht
A map depicting the major changes in Western Europe's borders as a result of the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt.
A map depicting the major changes in Western Europe's borders as a result of the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt.

The Treaty of Utrecht that established the Peace of Utrecht, rather than a single document, comprised a series of individual peace treaties signed in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713. Concluded between various European states, it helped end the War of the Spanish Succession. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 752 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1576 × 1257 pixel, file size: 388 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Beschreibung: Landkarte Europa 1713 nach dem Frieden von Utrecht Quelle: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 752 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1576 × 1257 pixel, file size: 388 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Beschreibung: Landkarte Europa 1713 nach dem Frieden von Utrecht Quelle: http://www. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... The Treaty of Rastatt, in March 7, 1714, was essentially part of the Treaty of Utrecht. ... The Union of Utrecht (Dutch: Unie van Utrecht) is a treaty signed on January 23, 1579 in Utrecht, the Netherlands, unifying the northern provinces of the Netherlands, until then under control of Spain. ... A peace treaty is an agreement (a peace treaty) between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a war or armed conflict. ... Utrecht ( (help· info)) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. ... Combatants Holy Roman Empire, Great Britain,[1] Dutch Republic, Portugal, Others France, Spain, Bavaria, Others Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Earl of Galway, Count Overkirk, Marquês das Minas Duc de Villars, Duc de Vendôme, Duc de Boufflers, Duc de Villeroi, Duke...


The treaties were concluded between the representatives of Louis XIV of France and Philip V of Spain on the one hand, and of Queen Anne of Great Britain, the Duke of Savoy, and the United Provinces on the other. “Sun King” redirects here. ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) followed Englands only joint monarchy to become Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702 after the passing of both William and Mary. ... For the earlier history of Savoy, see County of Savoy. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ...

Contents

The negotiations

France and Great Britain had come to terms in October 1711, when the preliminaries of peace had been signed in London. This initial agreement was based on a tacit acceptance of the partition of Spain's European possessions. Following this, a congress opened at Utrecht on January 29, 1712, with the British representatives being John Robinson (the Bishop of Bristol), and Thomas Wentworth (the Earl of Strafford). Reluctantly the United Provinces accepted the preliminaries and sent representatives, but the Emperor refused to do so until he was assured that these preliminaries were not binding. This assurance was given, and so in February the Imperial representatives made their appearance. As Philip was not yet recognized as its king, Spain did not at first send plenipotentiaries, but the Duke of Savoy sent one, and Portugal was also represented. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... John Robinson (November 7, 1650 - April 11, 1723), English diplomatist and prelate, a son of John Robinson (d. ... Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford KG (1672–15 November 1739), was a diplomat and First Lord of the Admiralty. ...


One of the first questions discussed was the nature of the guarantees to be given by France and Spain that their crowns would be kept separate, and matters did not make much progress until after July 10, 1712, when Philip signed a renunciation. With Great Britain and France having agreed a truce, the pace of negotiation now quickened, and the main treaties were finally signed on April 11, 1713. July 10 is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Principal provisions

By the treaties' provisions, Louis XIV's grandson Philip, Duke of Anjou was recognised as King of Spain (as Philip V), thus confirming the succession as stipulated in the will of the late King Carlos II. However, Philippe was compelled to renounce for himself and his descendants any right to the French throne, despite some doubts as to the lawfulness of such an act. In similar fashion various French princelings, including most notably the Duke of Berry (Louis XIV's youngest grandson) and the Duke of Orléans (Louis's nephew), renounced for themselves and their descendents any claim to the Spanish throne. Counts of Anjou, c. ... This is a list of Spanish monarchs—that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word. ... Charles II of Spain. ... Arms of the ducs de Berry (after 1376) The title of Duke of Berry (Duc de Berry) in the French nobility was frequently created for junior members of the French royal family. ... Duke of Orléans is one of the most important titles in the French peerage, dating back at least to the 14th century. ...


Spain's European empire was also divided: Savoy received Sicily and parts of the Duchy of Milan, while Charles VI (the Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria), received the Spanish Netherlands, the Kingdom of Naples, Sardinia, and the bulk of the Duchy of Milan. In addition, Spain ceded Gibraltar and Minorca to Great Britain and agreed to give to the British the Asiento, a valuable monopoly slave-trading contract. The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The Duchy of Milan was a state in northern Italy from 1395 to 1797. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI of Austria (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg, came first to the throne with the name Charles III of... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... This is a list of margraves, dukes, archdukes, and emperors of Austria. ... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... The Kingdom of Naples was born out of the division of the Kingdom of Sicily after the Sicilian Vespers rebellion of 1282. ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or Sardinnya) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ... Flag of Minorca This is a taula from the site of Talatì de Dalt about 4km west of Maó Minorca (Menorca both in Catalan and Spanish and increasingly in British usage; from Latin Balearis Minor, later Minorica minor island) is one of the Balearic Islands (Illes Balears Catalan official name... In the history of slavery, asiento (or assiento, meaning assent ) refers to the permission given by the Spanish government to other countries to sell slaves to the Spanish colonies, from the years 1543-1834. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In North America, France ceded to Great Britain its claims to the Hudson Bay Company territories in Rupert's Land, Newfoundland and Acadia. The formerly partitioned island of Saint Kitts was also ceded in its entirety to Britain. France retained its other pre-war North American possessions, including Île-Saint-Jean (now Prince Edward Island) as well as Île Royale (now Cape Breton Island), on which it erected the Fortress of Louisbourg. The Hudsons Bay Company building in Montreal The Hudsons Bay Company (HBC) is the oldest corporation in Canada and is one of the oldest in the world still in existence. ... Ruperts Land Ruperts Land was a territory in British North America, consisting of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, most of it now part of modern Canada. ... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... The national flag of Acadia, adopted in 1884. ... Country Saint Kitts and Nevis Archipelago Leeward Islands Region Caribbean Area 65 sq. ... Motto: i lost P.E.I. again mom:well, look under the couch Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Barbara Oliver Hagerman - Premier Pat Binns (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 4 - Senate seats 4 Confederation July 1, 1873 (7th) Area Ranked 13th... Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada NASA landsat photo of Cape Breton Island Cape Breton Island (French: île du Cap-Breton, Scottish Gaelic: Eilean Cheap Breatuinn, Míkmaq: Únamakika, simply: Cape Breton) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America. ... Costumed interpreters perform a dance in the street at Fortress Louisbourg. ...


A series of commercial treaties were signed also.


After the signing of the Utrecht treaties, the French continued to be at war with Emperor Charles VI and with the Holy Roman Empire itself until 1714, when hostilities were ended with the Treaty of Rastatt and the Treaty of Baden. Spain and Portugal remained formally at war with each other until the Treaty of Madrid in 1715, while the Empire and the now-Bourbon Spain did not conclude peace until 1720. The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... The Treaty of Rastatt, in March 7, 1714, was essentially part of the Treaty of Utrecht. ... The Treaty of Baden was the treaty that ended hostilities between France and the Holy Roman Empire, who had been at war with one another since the War of the Spanish Succession. ... There is more than one Treaty of Madrid: Treaty of Madrid (1526), in which France renounced claims in Italy, surrendered Burgundy to Spain, and abandoned suzerainty over Flanders and Artois Treaty of Madrid (1670), in which Spain recognized British possessions in the Caribbean Sea, such as Jamaica and the Cayman... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house. ...


Responses to the Treaties

The treaty's territorial provisions did not go as far as the Whigs in Britain would have liked, considering that the French had made overtures for peace in 1706 and again in 1709. The Whigs considered themselves the heirs of the staunch anti-French policies of William III and the Duke of Marlborough. Indeed, later in the century the Whig John Wilkes contemptuously described it as like "[the] Peace of God, for it passeth all understanding". However, in the Parliament of 1710 the Tories had gained control of the House of Commons, and they wished for an end to Britain's participation in a European war; Queen Anne and her advisors had also come to the same position. The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (1650-1722) was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a listing of sessions of the Parliament of Great Britain, tabulated with the elections to the House of Commons for each session, and the list of members of the House. ... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) followed Englands only joint monarchy to become Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702 after the passing of both William and Mary. ...


The party in the administration of Robert Harley (created Earl of Oxford and Mortimer on 23 May 1711) and the Viscount Bolingbroke proved more flexible at the bargaining table and were characterised by the Whigs as "pro-French"; Oxford and Bolingbroke persuaded the Queen to create twelve new "Tory peers"[1] to ensure ratification of the treaty in the House of Lords. Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Mortimer (5 December 1661 – 21 May 1724), was an English statesman of the Stuart and early Georgian periods. ... Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, Baron Saint John Of Lydiard Tregoze and Battersea, (September 16, 1678 – December 12, 1751), was an English statesman and philosopher. ... The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as the Lords. The Sovereign, the House of Commons (which is the lower house of Parliament and referred to as the Commons), and the Lords together comprise the Parliament. ...


Although the fate of the Spanish Netherlands in particular was of interest to the United Provinces, Dutch influence on the outcome of the negotiations was fairly insignificant, even though the talks were held on their territory. This led to the creation of a Dutch proverbial saying: "De vous, chez vous, sans vous", literally meaning "concerning you, in your house, but without you".


Balance of power

The European concept of the balance of power, first mentioned in 1701 by Charles Davenant in Essays on the Balance of Power, became a common topic of debate during the war and the conferences that led to signing of the treaties. Boosted by the April 19, 1709 issue of Daniel Defoe's A Review of the Affairs of France, a periodical which supported the Harley ministry, the concept was a key factor in British negotiations, and was reflected in the final treaties. This theme would continue to be a significant factor in European politics until the time of the French Revolution (and was to resurface in the nineteenth century). Balance of power in international relations is a central concept in realist theory. ... Balance of power in international relations is a central concept in realist theory. ... Charles Davenant (1656-1714), English economist, eldest son of Sir William Davenant, the poet, was born in London. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... Daniel Defoe Daniel Defoe (1660 [?] â€“ April 1731) was an English writer, journalist and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... This article is about the magazine as a published medium. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Notes

  1. ^ . The twelve peers consisted of two who were summoned in their father's baronies, Lords Compton (Northampton) and Bruce (Ailesbury), and ten recruits, namely Lords Hay (Kinnoull), Mountjoy, Burton (Paget), Mansell, Middleton, Trevor, Lansdowne, Masham, Foley, and Bathurst. David Backhouse, "Tory Tergiversation In The House Of Lords, 1714-1760".

A writ of acceleration was a type of writ of summons to the House of Lords that enabled the eldest son and heir apparent of a peer with multiple peerage titles to attend the House of Lords using one of his fathers subsidiary titles. ...

See also

The disputed status of Gibraltar exists because of a three hundred year old claim by Spain which is rejected by the United Kingdom and the Gibraltarians. ...

External links

  • "The Treaties of Utrecht (1713)" - Brief discussion and extracts of the various treaties on François Velde's Heraldica website, with particular focus on the renunciations and their later reconfirmations.
  • Article X of the treaty between Great Britain and Spain - Concerning the cession of Gibraltar (text in English, Spanish, and the original Latin).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Treaty of Utrecht - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (358 words)
After the treaty, the French continued to be at war with Emperor Charles VI and with the Holy Roman Empire itself until 1714 with the Treaty of Rastatt and the Treaty of Baden.
Thus, the Treaties of Utrecht were between Louis XIV of France and Philip V, on the one hand, and Queen Anne of Great Britain, the United Provinces, and the Duchy of Savoy on the other.
In spite of some doubts of the legality of such measures, Philip V was to renounce the French throne for himself and his descendants, while various French princelings - notably Louis XIV's youngest grandson the Duc de Berri and his nephew the Duke of Orleans - renounced their claims to the Spanish throne.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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