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Encyclopedia > Treaty of Turkmenchay
Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty
Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty

The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Russian: Туркманчайский договор; Persian: عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was a treaty negotiated in Turkmenchay by which the Persian Empire, more commonly known today as Iran, recognized Russian suzerainty over the Erivan khanate, Nakhchivan khanate and the remainder of the Talysh khanate, establishing the Aras River as the common boundary between both empires, after its defeat in 1828 at the end of the Russo-Persian War, 1826-1828. The treaty was signed on February 21, 1828 by Haj Mirza Abol-hasan Khan and Asef o-dowleh, chancellor of Fath Ali Shah on behalf of Persia, and General Ivan Paskievich representing Imperial Russia. As was the case for the Treaty of Gulistan, Persia was forced to sign the treaty by Russia, as it had no alternative after crown prince Abbas Mirza's defeat. The Russian general had threatened Fath Ali Shah to conquer Tehran in five days unless the treaty was signed. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 782 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1565 × 1200 pixel, file size: 329 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Uploader: User:Siamax Source: [Farsi Wikipedia] Tag: The Treaty of Turkmenchay Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 782 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1565 × 1200 pixel, file size: 329 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Uploader: User:Siamax Source: [Farsi Wikipedia] Tag: The Treaty of Turkmenchay Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Turkmenchay (Persian: - Torkmancāy; Azerbaijani: ; also written as Turkmanchai, Turkemanchay, Turkomanchay, Turkmānchāi, Torkamān Chāy, Torkamānchāi, or Turcoman Chie) is a village in the East Azerbaijan province of Iran. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Suzerainty refers to a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy but controls its foreign affairs. ... Erivan (Yerevan), Erwan (آرون) Khanate was a Muslim principality under the dominion of Persia that existed on the territory of modern Armenia and parts of Azerbaijan between 1747 and 1828. ... Nakhchivan khanate (Naxçıvan xanlığı in Azerbaijani) was a feudal state that existed in the territory of the present-day Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. ... Talysh khanate was an independent principality that existed on the territory of modern Azerbaijan Republic between 1747 and 1813. ... The Aras (also known as Araks, Arax, Araxi, Araxes, Araz, or Yeraskh;Armenian: Ô±Ö€Õ¡Ö„Õ½, Azerbaijani: Araz, Persian: ارس, Kurdish: Aras or Araz) is a river located in and along the countries of Turkey, Iran, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and the Persian Empire. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Fath Ali Shah was the second Qajar King of Persia. ... Ivan Feodorovich Paskevich (Иван Фёдорович Паскевич in Russian) (August 5 (8th NS), 1782-January 20 (February 1, NS), 1856), was a Ukrainian military leader in the Russian service. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Gulistan (Russian: Гюлистанский договор; Persian: عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia on October 24, 1813 in the village of Gulistan in Karabakh as a result of the first Russo-Persian War. ... Abbas Mirza (عباس میرزا in Persian) ‎(August 26, 1789 - October 25, 1833), was a crown prince of Persia, known because of his wars with Russia and the Ottoman empire, and his death before his father, the shah. ... Fath Ali Shah was the second Qajar King of Persia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

The treaty

By this treaty:

  1. By Article 4 of the treaty, Persia renounces claims over the Erivan khanate (most of present-day central Armenia), the Nakhchivan khanate (most of the present-day Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan), the Talysh khanate, the Ordubad and Mughan regions (now also part of Azerbaijan), in addition to all lands annexed by Russia in the Gulistan Treaty.
  2. By Article 6 of the treaty, Iran promised to pay Russia 10 Koroor in Gold (in 1828 currency).
  3. By Article 8 of the treaty, Iranian ships lose full rights to navigate all of the Caspian Sea and her coasts, henceforth given to Russia.
  4. Iran recognizes Capitulation rights for Russians in Iran.
  5. By Article 10, Russia gains the right to send consulate envoys to anywhere in Iran it wishes.
  6. By Article 13, Exchange of POWs.
  7. By Article 10, Iran is forced to sign economic treaties with Russia as Russia specifies.
  8. By Article 7 of the treaty, Russia promises to support Abbas Mirza as the heir to the throne of Persia after Fath Ali Shah dies. (which did not happen).
  9. Iran officially apologizes for breaking its promises made in the Gulistan Treaty.
  10. By Article 15, Fath Ali Shah promises not to prosecute any khanate secessionist movements in the Azerbaijan region.

Erivan (Yerevan), Erwan (آرون) Khanate was a Muslim principality under the dominion of Persia that existed on the territory of modern Armenia and parts of Azerbaijan between 1747 and 1828. ... Nakhchivan khanate (Naxçıvan xanlığı in Azerbaijani) was a feudal state that existed in the territory of the present-day Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. ... Map of Azerbaijan, showing Naxçıvan to the bottom-left Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (or Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası) is an exclave of Azerbaijan. ... Talysh khanate was an independent principality that existed on the territory of modern Azerbaijan Republic between 1747 and 1813. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Ordubad rayon Ordubad is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... Abbas Mirza (عباس میرزا in Persian) ‎(August 26, 1789 - October 25, 1833), was a crown prince of Persia, known because of his wars with Russia and the Ottoman empire, and his death before his father, the shah. ...

Aftermath

According to Prof. Svante Cornell:

In 1812 Russia ended a war with Turkey and went on the offensive against Iran . This led to the treaty of Gulistan in 1813, which gave Russia control over large territories that hitherto had been at least nominally Iranian, and moreover a say in Iranian succession politics. The whole of Daghestan and Georgia, including Mingrelia and Abkhazia were formally ceded to Russia , as well as eight Azeri Khanates (Karabakh, Ganja, Sheki, Kuba, Shirvan, Talysh, Baku, and Derbent). However as we have seen the Persians soon challenged Russia ’s rule in the area, resulting in a military disaster. Iran lost control over the whole of Azerbaijan , and with the Turkemenchai settlement of 1828 Russia threatened to establish its control over Azerbaijan unless Iran paid a war indemnity. The British helped the Iranians with the matter, but the fact remained that Russian troops had marched as far as south of Tabriz . Although certain areas (including Tabriz ) were returned to Iran , Russia was in fact at the peak of its territorial expansion. [1]

According to Cambridge History of Iran:

"Even when rulers on the plateau lacked the means to effect suzerainty beyond the Aras, the neighboring Khanates were still regarded as Iranian dependencies. Naturally, it it was those Khanates located closes to the province of Azarbaijan which most frequently experienced attempts to re-impose Iranian suzerainty: the Khanates of Erivan, Nakhchivan and Qarabagh across the Aras, and the cis-Aras Khanate of Talish, with its administrative headquarters located at Lankaran and therefore very vulnerable to pressure, either from the direction of Tabriz or Rasht. Beyond the Khanate of Qarabagh, the Khan of Ganja and the Vali of Gurjistan (ruler of the Kartli-Kakheti kingdom of south-east Georgia), although less accessible for purposes of coercion, were also regarded as the Shah's vassals, as were the Khans of Shakki and Shirvan, north of the Kura river. The contacts between Iran and the Khanates of Baku and Qubba, however, were more tenuous and consisted mainly of maritime commercial links with Anzali and Rasht. The effectiveness of these somewhat haphazard assertions of suzeiranty dependend on the ability of a particular Shah to make his will felt, and the determination of the local khans to evade obligations they regarded as onerous." [2]

Iran sees this and the preceding Treaty of Gulistan as the most humiliating treaties signed in the country's millennia-old history. The treaty is the reason many Iranians consider Fath Ali Shah to be one of Iran's most incompetent rulers.[3] Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Gulistan (Russian: Гюлистанский договор; Persian: عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia on October 24, 1813 in the village of Gulistan in Karabakh as a result of the first Russo-Persian War. ... Fath Ali Shah was the second Qajar King of Persia. ...


Massacre at the Russian Embassy

In the aftermath of the war and signing of the treaty, the anti-Russian sentiment in Persia was rampant. On February 11, 1829, an angry mob stormed the Russian embassy in Tehran and slaughetered virtually everyone inside. Among those killed in the massacre was a newly appointed ambassador to Persia Alexander Griboyedov, a celebrated Russian playwright and a personal friend of Alexander Pushkin (Griboyedov had previosly played an active role in negotiating the terms of the treaty).[citation needed] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... Alexander Griboedov Alexander Sergeyevich Griboyedov (alternative transcription: Griboedov; Александр Сергеевич Грибоедов in Russian) (January 15, 1795 – February 11, 1829) was a Russian diplomat, playwright, and composer. ... Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин, IPA: ,  ) (June 6 [O.S. May 26] 1799 – February 10 [O.S. January 29] 1837) was a Russian Romantic author who is considered to be the greatest Russian poet[1][2][3][4] and the founder of modern Russian literature. ...


References

  • H. Pir Nia, Abbas Eghbal Ashtiani, B. Agheli. History of Persia. Tehran, 2002. p.673-686. ISBN 964-6895-16-6
  1. ^ Prof. Svante Cornell, "Small nations and great powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus", Richmond: Curzon Press, 2001, p. 37.
  2. ^ The Cambridge history of Iran By William Bayne Fisher, Published by Cambridge University Press, 1991, pp. 145-146
  3. ^ M. Zirisnky: “Reza Shah’s abrogation of capitulation, 1927-1928” in he Making of Modern Iran: State and Society Under Riza Shah 1921-1941 By Stephanie Cronin, Routledge ,Published 2003, pg 81, “The context of this regime capitulations, of course, is that by the end of the reign of Fath Ali Shah (1798-1834), Iran could no longer defend its independence against the west. .. For Iran this was a time of weakness, humiliation and soul-searching as Iranians sought to assert their dignity against overwhelming pressure from the expansionist west

See also

Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Gulistan (Russian: Гюлистанский договор; Persian: عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia on October 24, 1813 in the village of Gulistan in Karabakh as a result of the first Russo-Persian War. ... Akhal Treaty was a treaty signed by Persia and Imperial Russia on 21 September 1881. ... Relations between Russia and Persia (pre-1935 Iran), officially commenced in 1592, with the Safavids in power. ... The blue areas were to be Russian controlled, while the southeast pink region was to be British. ...

External links

  • (Russian) Text of the Treaty of Turkmenchay

  Results from FactBites:
 
Turkmanchai Treaty - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (411 words)
The Turkmanchai treaty (also written Turkemanchay, Turkamanchay, and Turkmanchay) is a treaty by which the Persian Empire, more commonly known today as Iran, divided the territory of Azerbaijan with Imperial Russia after its defeat in 1828 at the end of the Russo-Persian War, 1826-1828.
The treaty was signed on February 21, 1828 (5th of Shaban, 1243 in the Islamic calendar), by Haj Mirza Abol-hasan Khan and Asef o-dowleh, chancellor of Fath Ali Shah from Persia's side, and General Ivan Paskievich representing Imperial Russia.
As was the case for the Gulistan Treaty, Persia was forced to sign the treaty by Russia, as it had no alternative after Abbas Mirza's defeat.
History of Azerbaijan (404 words)
Due to its location astride the trade routes connecting Europe to Central Asia and the Near East and on the shore of the Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan was fought over by Russia, Persia, and the Ottomans for several centuries.
Finally the Russians split Azerbaijan's territory with Persia in 1828 by the Treaty of Turkmenchay[?], establishing the present frontiers and extinguishing the last native dynasties of local Azerbaijani khans.
The beginning of modern exploitation of the oil fields in the 1870s led to a period of unprecedented prosperity and growth in the years before World War I.
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