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Encyclopedia > Treaty of Trianon
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The negotiations on June 4, 1920. In the middle of the picture, Albert Apponyi, a Hungarian diplomat is standing
The negotiations on June 4, 1920. In the middle of the picture, Albert Apponyi, a Hungarian diplomat is standing

The Treaty of Trianon was a peace treaty between the Allied and Associated Powers and Hungary signed on June 4, 1920, at the Petit Trianon Palace at Versailles, France. The Treaty regulated the situation of the states that replaced the former Kingdom of Hungary, part of pre-war Austria-Hungary, after World War I. The winning parties of the Treaty included the "Allied Powers" (United States, Britain, France, Italy, and Japan) and the smaller "Associated Powers" (such as the main beneficiaries of the post-war territorial changes: Romania, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and Czechoslovakia). The losing party was Hungary alone, since Austria-Hungary had by this time disintegrated. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Albert, Gróf (Count) Apponyi (May 29, 1846-February 7, 1933), Hungarian statesman, the most distinguished member of an ancient noble family, dating back to the 13th century, and son of the chancellor Gyorgy Apponyi (1808-1899) and the accomplished and saintly Countess Julia Sztáray, was born at Pesth. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... The Petit Trianon, Versailles The Petit Trianon, situated at a short distance from the Grand Trianon in Versailles, France, was designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel by order of Louis XV for his long-term mistress, Madame de Pompadour, and was constructed between 1762-1768. ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... Versailles (pronounced , in French), formerly the de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important administrative and judicial center. ... The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert Henry Asquith Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow... The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ...

Contents

Frontiers of Hungary

History of Hungary
Ancient Hungary
Pannonia
Hungary before the Magyars
The Middle Ages
Kingdom of Hungary in the Middle Ages
Modern Hungary
Ottoman Hungary
Principality of Transylvania
Royal Hungary
1700 to 1919
Revolutions of 1848 in Hungary
Austria-Hungary
Hungarian Soviet Republic
Between the Two World Wars
Second World War
Communist Hungary
People's Republic of Hungary
Hungarian Revolution of 1956
Modern Hungary
Republic of Hungary
Other Topics
Military history of Hungary
History of the Jews in Hungary
Music history of Hungary
History of Transylvania
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Hungary proclaimed its independence from Austria on November 16, 1918. The de facto temporary borders of independent Hungary were defined by the ceasefire lines in November-December 1918. Compared with the former Kingdom of Hungary, these temporary borders did not include: See also the history of Europe, the history of present-day nations and states, Hungary before the Magyars, and Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... This article discusses the known pre-history and early history of the area corresponding to modern day Hungary, and the peoples associated with this area. ... This article deals with the history of the Kingdom of Hungary from the 10th century to c. ... Ottoman Hungary or Muslim Hungary refers to the Turkish-Ottoman age of todays Hungary (1526 - 1699). ... This is an article about the history of Transylvania // Ancient History: Transylvania as the heartland of the Dacian state Dacian Kingdom, during the rule of Burebista, 82 BC Herodotus gives an account of the Agathyrsi, who lived in Transylvania during the 5th century BC. A kingdom of Dacia was in... Consequences of the Battle of Mohács, and the conquest of Buda in 1541 by the Ottomans: the Kingdom is partitioned. ... This article describes the history of the Kingdom of Hungary between the 18th century and the early 20th century (1699 - 1919). ... The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 was one of many revolutions that year and closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The Hungarian Soviet Republic was the political regime in Hungary from March 21, 1919 until the beginning of August of the same year, and it is the second Communist (or soviet) government in world history, after the one in Russia (1917). ... This article deals with the history of Hungary from March 1919 to May 1945. ... // In Hungary, the Great Depression induced a drop in the standard of living and the political mood of the country shifted further toward the right. ... The Peoples Republic of Hungary was the name used by Hungary from 1949 to 1989 during its Communist period. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian Revolution... The military history of Hungary includes battles fought in the Carpathian Basin, nations occupying Hungary, and the military history of the Hungarian people regardless of geography. ... History of the Jews in Hungary concerns the Jews of Hungary and of Hungarian origins. ... // Middle Ages Little is known about Hungarian music prior to the 11th century, when the first Kings of Hungary were Christianized and Gregorian chant was introduced. ... This is an article about the history of Transylvania // Ancient History: Transylvania as the heartland of the Dacian state Dacian Kingdom, during the rule of Burebista, 82 BC Herodotus gives an account of the Agathyrsi, who lived in Transylvania during the 5th century BC. A kingdom of Dacia was in... November 16 is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 45 days remaining. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

After the Romanian Army advanced beyond this ceasefire line, the Entente powers asked Hungary (Vix note) to acknowledge the new Romanian territory gains by a new line set along the Tisza river. Unable to reject these terms and unwilling to accept them, the leaders of the First Hungarian Republic resigned and the communists seized power. The Hungarian Soviet Republic was formed and a new Hungarian Red Army was rapidly set up. This army was initially successful against the Czechoslovak Legions (see Slovak Soviet Republic) and made it possible for Hungary to reach nearly the former Galitian (Polish) border, thus separating the Czechoslovak and Romanian troops from each other. Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: / Transilvanija or / Erdelj) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... The MureÅŸ (in Romanian, in Hungarian: Maros, in German: Mieresch / Marosch) is an approx. ... The SomeÅŸ (-Romanian, Hungarian: Szamos) river flows through Romania and Hungary. ... Belgrade (Serbian: Београд or Beograd  ) is the capital and the largest city of Serbia. ... November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Following the Battle of Mohács, in 1527 some of the Croatian (and Hungarian) nobles supported Ivan Zapolja, while some preferred suzerainty to the Austrian king Ferdinand of Habsburg. ... Banat, Bačka and Baranja map The Banat, Bačka and Baranja was a de facto existing province of the Kingdom of Serbia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes between October 1918 and March 1919. ... The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ... Pécs   (Latin: Quinque Ecclesiae, Croatian: Pečuh, German: Fünfkirchen, Serbian: Pečuj or Печуј, Slovak: Päťkostolie, Turkish: Peçuy, Italian: Cinquechiese) is the fourth largest city of Hungary, located in the south-west of the country. ... Mohács is a town in Hungary on the right bank of the Danube, 115 miles south of Budapest. ... Baja is a city in southern Hungary, located about 150 km south of Budapest, on the river Danube. ... Szigetvár is a town in Baranya County in southern Hungary. ... Belgrade (Serbian: Београд or Beograd  ) is the capital and the largest city of Serbia. ... November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Rijeka (in local Croatian dialects Rika and Reka; Fiume in Italian and Hungarian. ... The Romanian Army (Armata Română) consists of three branches: Romanian Land Forces Romanian Naval Forces Romanian Air Force The term army is used in Romania when referring to the entire military, while land forces deal only with the actual army itself. ... The Triple Entente was the alliance formed in 1907 between the United Kingdom, France and Russia after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente. ... The Tisza or Tisa is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. ... The Hungarian Soviet Republic was the political regime in Hungary from March 21, 1919 until the beginning of August of the same year, and it is the second Communist (or soviet) government in world history, after the one in Russia (1917). ... Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Slovak Soviet Republic The Slovak Soviet Republic (in Slovak: Slovenská republika rád = literally: Slovak Republic of Councils - it was before the Russian word soviet (council) became widespread in Slovak and other languages) was a short lived communist state in south and eastern Slovakia from 16 June to 7... Coat-of-arms of Galicia or Galicja Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Turkish: ) is an historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ...


After a Hungarian-Czechoslovak ceasefire signed on July 1, 1919, the Hungarian Red Army left Slovakia by July 4, as the Entente powers promised Hungary to invite a Hungarian delegation to the Versailles Peace Conference. However, instead of an invitation to the peace talks, the Romanian army attacked at the Tisza river on 20 July 1919 and the Hungarian Red Army rapidly collapsed. The Royal Romanian Army marched into Budapest on 4 August 1919. July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... August 4 is the 216th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (217th in leap years), with 149 days remaining. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...

The Petit Trianon, site of the signing

The Hungarian state was restored by the Entente powers, helping Admiral Horthy into power in November 1919. On 1 December 1919 the Hungarian delegation was officially invited to the Versailles Peace Conference, however the new borders of Hungary were nearly finalized without the presence of the Hungarians. Image File history File links Chateau of the Petit Trianon, Versailles, Ange-Jacques Gabriel, architect File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Chateau of the Petit Trianon, Versailles, Ange-Jacques Gabriel, architect File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Triple Entente was the alliance formed in 1907 between the United Kingdom, France and Russia after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente. ... Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya, Duke of Szeged and Otranto (Hungarian: Vitéz* nagybányai Horthy Miklós, Szeged és Otranto hercege; Kenderes, June 18, 1868 – Estoril, February 9, 1957) was a Hungarian Admiral and statesman and served as the Regent of Hungary from March 1, 1920 until October... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Paris Peace Conference was an international conference, organized by the victors of the World War I for negotiating the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and their former enemies. ...


The final borders of Hungary were defined by the Treaty of Trianon signed on 4 June 1920. Beside the previously mentioned territories, they did not include: June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...

By the Treaty of Trianon, the cities of Pécs, Mohács, Baja and Szigetvár, which were under Yugoslav administration after November 1918, were assigned to Hungary. Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: / Transilvanija or / Erdelj) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... // Carpathian Ruthenia, aka Transcarpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathia (Ukrainian: Karpats’ka Rus’; Slovak and Czech: Podkarpatská Rus; Hungarian: Kárpátalja; Romanian: Transcarpatia) is a small region of Central Europe, now mostly in western Ukraines Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukrainian: Zakarpats’ka oblast’) and easternmost Slovakia (largely in PreÅ¡ov kraj... The Treaty of Saint-Germain, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new republic of Austria on the other. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Burgenland (Hungarian Várvidék, Őrvidék or FelsÅ‘Å‘rvidék, Croatian Gradišće, Slovenian Gradiščansko) is the easternmost state or Land of Austria. ... Soprons Fire Tower Sopron (pronounced shop-ron), historically also known by the German name Ödenburg, is the name of a city in Hungary. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... MeÄ‘imurje (MeÄ‘imurska županija, Muraköz in Hungarian) is a triangle-shaped county in the northernmost part of Croatia. ... The municipalities of Slovenia in Prekmurje Prekmurje is the easternmost region of Slovenia. ... The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ...


An arbitration comitee in 1920 assigned small northern parts of the former Árva and Szepes counties of the Kingdom of Hungary with Polish majority population to Poland. Orava in present-day Slovakia and Poland Coat of arms of Orava Orava (-Slovak, Latin: Arva, Hungarian: Árva, German: Arwa, Polish: Orawa) is the name of a historic administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Spiš (in Latin: Scepusium, in Polish: Spisz, in German: Zips, in Hungarian: Szepes) is the name of a historic administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. ...


Compared with the former Kingdom of Hungary, the population of post-Trianon Hungary was reduced from 20.8 million to 7 million and its land area decreased by 72%.


After 1918, Hungary did not have access to the sea, which the former Kingdom had had through the Croatian coast and the port of Fiume for over 800 years. Sea as seen from jetty in Frankston, Australia Look up maritime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rijeka (Fiume in Italian and Hungarian; Rijeka and Fiume both mean river) is the principal seaport of Croatia, located on the Kvarner Bay, an inlet of the Adriatic Sea. ...


With the help of Nazi Germany and Italy, Hungary expanded its borders towards neighbouring countries at the outset of World War II, under the Munich Agreement (1938), the two Vienna Awards (1938 and 1940), following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia (occupation of northern Carpathian Ruthenia and eastern Slovakia) and following German aggression against Yugoslavia. This territorial expansion was short-lived, since the post-war boundaries agreed on at the Treaty of Paris in 1947 were nearly identical with those of 1920 (with a minor loss of three villages ceded to Czechoslovakia). Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Vienna Awards or Vienna Arbitration Awards or Vienna Arbitral Awards or Vienna Diktats or Viennese Arbitrals are various names for two arbitral awards (1938 and 1940) by which arbiters of National Socialist Germany and Fascist Italy sought to enforce peacefully the territorial claims of Revisionist Hungary, ruled by Regent Admiral... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... The Paris Peace Conference (July 29 to October 15, 1946) resulted in the Paris peace treaties signed on February 10, 1947. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...


Consequences of the treaty

Demographic consequences

Difference between the borders of the Kingdom of Hungary within Austria-Hungary and independent Hungary after the Treaty of Trianon.
Distribution of nationalities within Austria-Hungary, according to the 1910 census
Distribution of nationalities within Austria-Hungary, according to the 1910 census

According to the census of 1910, the largest ethnic group in the Kingdom of Hungary were the Magyars (usually called "Hungarians" in English), who were approximately 48% of the entire population (or 54% of the population of the territory referred to as "Hungary proper", i.e., excluding Croatia-Slavonia). The Kingdom of Hungary was not a nation-state as were many Western European nations. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1568x970, 903 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1568x970, 903 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Download high resolution version (1521x1155, 1345 KB)Distribution of Races in Austria-Hungary from the Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1911 [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1521x1155, 1345 KB)Distribution of Races in Austria-Hungary from the Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1911 [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Following the Battle of Mohács, in 1527 some of the Croatian (and Hungarian) nobles supported Ivan Zapolja, while some preferred suzerainty to the Austrian king Ferdinand of Habsburg. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ...


Some demographers believe that the 1910 census overstated the percentage of the Magyar population, arguing that there were different results in previous censuses of the Kingdom and subsequent censuses in the new states. Another problem with interpreting the census results is that the 1910 census did not record the respondents' ethnicity, but only the "most frequently spoken" language and the religion, thus the presented census numbers of ethnic groups in the Kingdom of Hungary are actually the numbers of speakers of various languages, which may not correspond exactly to the ethnic composition.


Although the territories of the former Kingdom of Hungary that were assigned by the treaty to neighbouring states had a majority of non-Magyar population, they also included significant Magyar minorities, numbering 3,318,000 in total, distributed as follows:


The number of Hungarians in the different areas based on census data of 1910. 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...

Population of mentioned territories based on census data of 1910: Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: / Transilvanija or / Erdelj) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... Republic of Serbia   â€“Vojvodina   â€“Kosovo (UN admin. ... Anthem: Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city)  Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Parliamentary republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  - Formation 8th century   - Independence c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Burgenland (Hungarian Várvidék, Őrvidék or FelsÅ‘Å‘rvidék, Croatian Gradišće, Slovenian Gradiščansko) is the easternmost state or Land of Austria. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...

  • In Slovakia (Czechoslovakia): 1,687,977 Slovaks and 1,233,454 others (mostly Hungarians - 886,044, Germans, Ruthenians and Roma) [according to the 1921 census, however, there were 1,941,942 Slovaks and 1,058,928 others]
  • In Carpathian Ruthenia (Czechoslovakia): 330,010 Ruthenians and 275,932 others (mostly Hungarians, Germans, Romanians, and Slovaks)
  • In Transylvania (Romania): 2,829,454 Romanians and 2,428,013 others (mostly Hungarians and Germans)
  • In Vojvodina and Croatia-Slavonia (Yugoslavia): 2,756,000 Serbo-Croatians and 1,366,000 others (mostly Hungarians and Germans)
  • In Burgenland (Austria): 217,072 Germans and 69,858 others (mainly Croatian and Hungarian)

// Carpathian Ruthenia, aka Transcarpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathia (Ukrainian: Karpats’ka Rus’; Slovak and Czech: Podkarpatská Rus; Hungarian: Kárpátalja; Romanian: Transcarpatia) is a small region of Central Europe, now mostly in western Ukraines Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukrainian: Zakarpats’ka oblast’) and easternmost Slovakia (largely in PreÅ¡ov kraj... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: / Transilvanija or / Erdelj) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... Republic of Serbia   â€“Vojvodina   â€“Kosovo (UN admin. ... Following the Battle of Mohács, in 1527 some of the Croatian (and Hungarian) nobles supported Ivan Zapolja, while some preferred suzerainty to the Austrian king Ferdinand of Habsburg. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Burgenland (Hungarian Várvidék, Őrvidék or FelsÅ‘Å‘rvidék, Croatian Gradišće, Slovenian Gradiščansko) is the easternmost state or Land of Austria. ...

Minorities in post-Trianon Hungary

On the other hand, a considerable number of other nationalities remained within the frontiers of the new Hungary:


According to the 1920 census 10.4 % of the population spoke one of the minority languages as mother language:

  • 551,211 German (6.9%)
  • 141,882 Slovak (1.8%)
  • 23,760 Romanian (0.3%)
  • 36,858 Croatian (0.5%)
  • 17,131 Serb (0.2%)
  • 23,228 other Southern Slavic dialects, mainly Bunjevac and Šokac (0.3%) and some 7.000 Slovenes

The number of bilingual people was much higher, for example 1,398,729 people spoke German (17%), 399,176 people spoke Slovak (5%), 179,928 people spoke Serbo-Croatian (2,2%) and 88,828 people spoke Romanian (1,1%). Magyar was spoken by 96% of the total population and was the mother language of 89%.


The percentage and the absolute number of all non-Magyar nationalities decreased in the next decades, although the total population of the country increased. Bilingualism was also disappearing. The main reasons of this process were spontaneous assimilation and the Magyarization policy of the state. Minorities made up 8% of the total population in 1930 and 7% in 1941 (on the post-Trianon territory).


After WWII about 200,000 Germans were deported to Germany according to the decree of the Potsdam Conference. Under the forced exchange of population between Czechoslovakia and Hungary, approximately 73,000 Slovaks left Hungary. After these population movements Hungary became an ethnically almost homogeneous country except the rapidly growing number of Roma people in the second half of the 20th century. Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Tzigane redirects here; for the composition by Maurice Ravel, see Tzigane (Ravel). ...


Political consequences

Bordermark on the Hungarian-Romanian border near Csenger
Bordermark on the Hungarian-Romanian border near Csenger

Officially, the treaty was intended to be a confirmation of the concept of the right for self-determination of nations and of the concept of nation-states replacing old structures of power. From one point of view, after centuries of foreign rule, most of the peoples of former Austria-Hungary (often called a 'dungeon of nations' by them), would finally achieve a right for self-determination and independence and be united with other members of their nation. On the other hand, many argue that after centuries of ethnic co-existence and relative prosperity, the territories of the former Austria-Hungary have become for the most part monoethnic mini-states. Some claim that the real motive of the treaty was an attempt to dismantle a major power in Central Europe. Compared with the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary, post-Trianon Hungary had 60% less population and its role in the region significantly weakened. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 900 KB) Summary Border-mark between Hungary and Romania Photographed by kelenbp in May 2006 and released to the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 900 KB) Summary Border-mark between Hungary and Romania Photographed by kelenbp in May 2006 and released to the public domain. ... Location of Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg county in Hungary Csenger is a town in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, in the Northern Great Plain region of eastern Hungary. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ...


Many cities and regions that were ethnically diverse in the 19th century became for the most part monoglot (unilingual), or dominated by a single language and culture.


The main controversy[citation needed] about the Treaty of Trianon concerns the borders of Hungary. While the majority of the areas that had been part of the Kingdom of Hungary but were not part of independent Hungary after the Treaty were inhabited by non-Hungarian nationalities, there were also many areas, inhabited mainly by Hungarians, which were not located within the borders of Hungary after the Treaty. These Hungarian-inhabited areas include north-eastern parts of Transylvania (see: Székelyföld) and some areas along the new Romanian-Hungarian border, southern parts of Slovakia (see: Komárno), southern parts of Carpatho-Ukraine, northern parts of Vojvodina (see: Ethnic groups of Vojvodina), etc. No plebiscites were held in any of these areas with the exception of the city of Sopron. Harghita, Covasna, and Mures counties within Romania Székelyföld (means Szekler Land in Hungarian; Romanian: Å¢inutul Secuiesc, Latin: Terra Siculorum) is used today in a cultural-ethnographical sense, i. ... Komárno (Hungarian: Komárom [today a separate town, also nonofficial Révkomárom], German: Komorn) is a town in Slovakia at the Danube and the Váh rivers. ... Ethnic groups of Vojvodina Ethnic map of Vojvodina Serbs – Serbs constitute an absolute majority of people in Vojvodina. ... Soprons Fire Tower Sopron (pronounced shop-ron), historically also known by the German name Ödenburg, is the name of a city in Hungary. ...


The Treaty and its consequences are debated in Central European politics to this day. The treatment of ethnic Hungarian minorities separated from their mother country after the drawing of international borders by the Treaty is a significant issue, perhaps most notably in Slovakia and Romania.


Other consequences

Economically, 61% of arable land, 88% of timber, 62% of railroads, 64% of hard surface roads, 83% of pig iron output, 55% of industrial plants and 67% of credit and banking institutions of the former Kingdom of Hungary lay within the borders of other countries. Romania, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia had to assume part of the financial obligations of the former Kingdom of Hungary on account of the parts of its territory under their sovereignty. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Pig iron is raw iron, the immediate product of smelting iron ore with coke and limestone in a blast furnace. ...


Military considerations diverted the Treaty from the Wilson principles[citation needed], making economic cooperation within the Carpathian Basin more difficult. The borders bisected transport links - in the Kingdom of Hungary the road and railway network had a radial structure, with Budapest in the centre. Many roads and railways running along the new borders and interlinking radial transport lines lay within the territory of Hungary's neighbours. The Pannonian plain is a large plain in central/south-eastern Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ...


The military conditions were similar to those imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles; the Hungarian army was to be restricted to 35,000 men and there was to be no conscription. Further provisions stated that in Hungary, no railway would be built with more than one track. The Palace of Versailles, where the treaty was signed. ...


Hungary also renounced all privileges in territories outside Europe that belonged to the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy.


Articles 54–60 of the Treaty required Hungary to recognize various rights of national minorities within its borders.


See also

The Palace of Versailles, where the treaty was signed. ... See also the history of Europe, the history of present-day nations and states, Hungary before the Magyars, and Hungary. ... This article provides only a brief outline of each period of the History of Romania; details are presented in separate articles (see the links in the box and below). ... This article discusses the history of the territory of present-day Slovakia and of the Slovaks. ...

References

For lingering effects of the Treaty on the geo-politics of Hungary and the successor states:

  • Ernest A. Rockwell: Trianon Politics, 1994-1995, thesis, Central Missouri State University, 1995.

For minorities in post-Trianon Hungary:

  • József Kovacsics: Magyarország történeti demográfiája : Magyarország népessége a honfoglalástól 1949-ig, Budapest : Közgazd. és Jogi Kiadó ; 1963 Budapest Kossuth Ny.
  • Lajos Thirring: Az 1869-1980. évi népszámlálások története és jellemzői [kész. a Központi Statisztikai Hivatal Népesedésstatisztikai Főosztályán], Bp. : SKV, 1983

For events preceding the Treaty and for minorities in the post-Trianon successor states:

  • Ernő Raffay: Magyar tragédia: Trianon 75 éve. Püski kiadó (1996)
  • Vitéz Károly Kollányi: Kárpáti trilógia. Kráter Műhely Egyesület (2002)
  • Juhász Gyula: Magyarország Külpolitikája 1919-1945. Kossuth Könyvkiado, Budapest (1969).

Carlile Aylmer Macartney was a British academic specializing in the history of central Europe and in particular the history of Hungary. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Treaty of Trianon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2053 words)
Hungary's grievance against the terms of the Treaty was the prime mover in her subsequent 'revisionist' political orientation and for her gradual drift into fascism and ultimately into the orbit of the Axis Powers who were sympathetic to partial revisions of the Treaty’s territorial clauses
This territorial expansion was short-lived, since the post-war boundaries agreed on at the Treaty of Paris in 1947 were nearly identical with those of 1920 (with a minor loss of three villages ceded to Czechoslovakia).
Officially, the treaty was intended to be a confirmation of the concept of the right for self-determination of nations and of the concept of nation-states replacing old structures of power.
Treaty of Versailles: Information From Answers.com (4629 words)
Although some of the treaty's terms were eased in the 1920s, the bitterness it created helped to foster an environment that led to the growth of fascism in Italy and the rise of the Nazi Party in Germany.
The Preliminary Treaty of Versailles of 1871 was signed at the end of the Franco-Prussian War by Otto von Bismarck for Germany and by Adolphe Thiers for France.
In Germany, the treaty caused shock and humiliation that contributed to the collapse of the Weimar Republic in 1933.
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