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Encyclopedia > Treaty of Tordesillas
Cantino planisphere of 1502 depicting the meridian designated by the treaty.
Cantino planisphere of 1502 depicting the meridian designated by the treaty.

The Treaty of Tordesillas (Portuguese: Tratado de Tordesilhas, Spanish: Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas (now in Valladolid province, Spain), June 7, 1494, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe into an exclusive duopoly between the Spanish and the Portuguese along a north-south meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands (off the west coast of Africa). This was about halfway between the Cape Verde Islands (already Portuguese) and the islands discovered by Christopher Columbus on his first voyage (claimed for Spain), named in the treaty as Cipangu and Antilia (no doubt Cuba and Hispaniola). The lands to the east would belong to Portugal and the lands to the west to Spain. The treaty was ratified by Spain (at the time, the Crowns of Castile and Aragon), July 2, 1494 and by Portugal, September 5, 1494. The other side of the world would be divided a few decades later by the Treaty of Saragossa or Treaty of Zaragoza, signed on April 22, 1529, which specified the anti-meridian to the line of demarcation specified in the Treaty of Tordesillas. Originals of both treaties are kept at the Archivo General de Indias in Spain and at the Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo in Portugal.[1] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 376 pixelsFull resolution (3528 × 1656 pixel, file size: 11. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 376 pixelsFull resolution (3528 × 1656 pixel, file size: 11. ... The Crest of Tordesillas Tordesillas is a village and municipality in the province of Valladolid, part of the autonomous community of Castile-Leon in central Spain. ... Valladolid province Valladolid is a province of western Spain, in the central part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... On the earth, a meridian is a north-south line between the North Pole and the South Pole. ... For other uses, see league. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... The English word Japan is not the name used for their country by the Japanese themselves: it is an exonym. ... Antillia (or Antilia) was a phantom island said to lie in the Atlantic Ocean far to the west of Spain. ... Early map of Hispaniola The island of Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... Coat of arms of the King of Aragon, 15th century. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 22 - Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297. ... The Archivo de Indias, Seville The Archivo General de Indias (General Archive of the Indies) is the document repository, housed in Seville in the ancient merchants exchange, the Casa Lonja de Mercederes, of extremely valuable archival documents illustrating the history of the Spanish empire in the Americas and the Philippines. ... The Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo (English: National Archive of the Tower of the Tombo) is the Portuguese national archive established in 1378. ...

Contents

Signing and enforcement

The Treaty of Tordesillas was intended to resolve the dispute that had been created following the return of Christopher Columbus. In 1481 the papal Bull Aeterni regis had granted all land south of the Canary Islands to Portugal. On 4 May 1493 the Spanish-born Pope Alexander VI decreed in the bull Inter caetera that all lands west and south of a pole-to-pole line 100 leagues west and south of any of the islands of the Azores or the Cape Verde Islands should belong to Spain, although territory under Christian rule as of Christmas 1492 would remain untouched. The bull did not mention Portugal or its lands, so Portugal could not claim newly discovered lands even if they were east of the line. Another bull, Dudum siquidem, entitled Extension of the Apostolic Grant and Donation of the Indies and dated September 25, 1493, gave all mainlands and islands then belonging to India to Spain, even if east of the line. The Portuguese King John II was not pleased with that arrangement, feeling that it gave him far too little land — it prevented him from possessing India, his near term goal (as of 1493, Portuguese explorers had only reached the east coast of Africa). He opened negotiations with King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain to move the line to the west and allow him to claim newly discovered lands east of the line. The treaty effectively countered the bulls of Alexander VI and was sanctioned by Pope Julius II in a new bull of 1506. Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... The Papal Bull Aeterni regis was issued on June 21, 1481 by Pope Sixtus IV, and confirmed the substance of the Treaty of Alcáçovas in confirming Castile in its possession of the Portugal. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pope Alexander VI (1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), born Roderic Borja (Italian: Borgia), (reigned from 1492 to 1503), is the most controversial of the secular popes of the Renaissance and one whose surname became a byword for the debased standards of the papacy of that era. ... Inter caetera (Among other [works]) was a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on May 4, 1493, which granted to Spain (the Crowns of Castile and Aragon) all lands to the west and south of a pole-of-pole line 100 leagues (418 km) west and south of any... Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi... Also film, 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... John II of Portugal João II of Portugal (Portuguese pron. ... Ferdinand V of Castile & II of Aragon the Catholic (Spanish: , Catalan: , Aragonese: ; March 10, 1452 – January 23, 1516) was king of Aragon (1479–1516), Castile, Sicily (1468–1516), Naples (1504–1516), Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... Isabella of Castile (Spanish: Ysabel, Isabel or Isabela) (22 April 1451 - 26 November 1504) was queen of Castile. ... Pope Julius II (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513. ... 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Very little of the newly divided area had actually been seen, as it was only divided according to the treaty. Spain gained lands including most of the Americas. The easternmost part of current Brazil, when it was discovered in 1500 by Pedro Álvares Cabral, was granted to Portugal. The line was not strictly enforced — the Spanish did not resist the Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian. The treaty was rendered meaningless between 1580 and 1640 while Spain controlled Portugal. It was superseded by the 1750 Treaty of Madrid which granted Portugal control of the lands it occupied in South America. However, the latter treaty was immediately repudiated by Spain. Pedro Álvares Cabral (c. ... Portugal was the leading country in the European exploration of the world in the 15th century. ... The Treaty of Madrid was a document signed by Spain and Portugal concerning their empires and status of their slave plantations in what is now Brazil. ...

Lines of demarcation (1495–1545)
Lines of demarcation (1495–1545)

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 405 pixelsFull resolution (909 × 460 pixel, file size: 146 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 405 pixelsFull resolution (909 × 460 pixel, file size: 146 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

Lines of demarcation

The Treaty of Tordesillas only specified its demarcation line in leagues from the Cape Verde Islands. It did not specify the line in degrees, nor did it identify the specific island or the specific length of its league. Instead, the treaty stated that these matters were to be settled by a joint voyage, which never occurred. The number of degrees can be determined via a ratio of marine leagues to degrees which applies to any sized Earth or via a specific marine league applied to the true size of the Earth.

An anachronous map of the Spanish Empire.
An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). Red - actual possessions; Pink - explorations, areas of influence and trade and claims of sovereignty; Blue - main sea explorations, routes and areas of influence. The disputed discovery of Australia is not shown.
An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999).
Red - actual possessions;
Pink - explorations, areas of influence and trade and claims of sovereignty;
Blue - main sea explorations, routes and areas of influence.
The disputed discovery of Australia is not shown.
A map of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires in the period of their personal union (1581-1640) Red/Pink - Spanish Empire Blue/Light Blue - Portuguese Empire Areas explored & claimed by the Spanish, but unsettled, (i.e.: Amazon basin) not shown.
A map of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires in the period of their personal union (1581-1640)
Red/Pink - Spanish Empire
Blue/Light Blue - Portuguese Empire
Areas explored & claimed by the Spanish, but unsettled, (i.e.: Amazon basin) not shown.
  • The earliest Spanish opinion was provided by Jaime Ferrer in 1495 at the request of and to the Spanish king and queen. He stated that the demarcation line was 18° west of the most central island of the Cape Verde Islands, which is Fogo according to Harrisse, having a longitude of 24°25'W of Greenwich, hence Ferrer placed the line at 42°25'W on his sphere, which was 21.1% larger than our sphere. Ferrer also stated that his league contained 32 Olympic stades, or 6.15264 km according to Harrisse, thus Ferrer's line was 2,276.5 km west of Fogo at 47°37'W on our sphere.[2]
  • The earliest surviving Portuguese opinion is on the Cantino planisphere of 1502. Because its demarcation line was midway between Cape Saint Roque (northeast cape of South America) and the mouth of the Amazon River (its estuary is marked Todo este mar he de agua doce (All of this sea is fresh water) and its river is marked Rio grande (great river)), Harrisse concluded that the line was at 42°30'W on our sphere. Harrisse believed the large estuary just west of the line on the Cantino map was that of the Rio Maranhão (this estuary is now the Baía de São Marcos and the river is now the Mearim), whose flow is so weak that its gulf does not contain fresh water.[3]
  • In 1518 another Spanish opinion was provided by Martin Fernandez de Enciso. Harrisse concluded that Enciso placed his line at 47°24'W on his sphere (7.7% smaller than ours), but at 45°38'W on our sphere using Enciso's numerical data. Enciso also described the coastal features near which the line passed in a very confused manner. Harrisse concluded from this description that Enciso's line could also be near the mouth of the Amazon between 49° and 50°W.[4]
  • In 1524 the Spanish pilots (ships' captains) Thomas Duran, Sebastian Cabot (son of John Cabot), and Juan Vespuccius (nephew of Amerigo Vespucci) gave their opinion to the Badajoz Junta, whose failure to resolve the dispute led to the Treaty of Saragasso. They specified that the line was 22° plus nearly 9 miles west of the center of Santo Antão (the westernmost Cape Verde island), which Harrisse concluded was 47°17'W on their sphere (3.1% smaller than ours) and 46°36'W on our sphere.[5]
  • In 1524 the Portuguese presented a globe to the Badajoz Junta on which the line was marked 21°30' west of Santo Antão (22°6'36" on our sphere).[6]

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 37 KB, MIME type: image/png) The map illustrates the Spanish colonial possessions through out the world. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 37 KB, MIME type: image/png) The map illustrates the Spanish colonial possessions through out the world. ... An anachronous map of the Spanish Empire (1492-1898). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/png) An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/png) An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 38 KB, MIME type: image/png) A map of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires in the period of their personal union (1581-1640). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 38 KB, MIME type: image/png) A map of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires in the period of their personal union (1581-1640). ... Fogo (Portuguese for fire) is a volcanic island in the Sotavento group of Cape Verde. ... Royal Observatory, Greenwich. ... View of the old hanse-harbor of Stade in 1987. ... The Cantino planisphere is the earliest surviving map showing Portuguese discoveries in the east and west. ... This article is about the river. ... The Baía de São Marcos is a bay of the Atlantic Ocean in Maranhão state of northeastern Brazil. ... The Mearim River is a river in Maranhão state of northern Brazil. ... Giovanni Caboto (c. ... Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454 - February 22, 1512) was an Italian merchant, explorer and cartographer. ... Santo Antão (Portuguese for Saint Anthony) is the westernmost and largest of the Barlavento islands of Cape Verde. ...

Anti-meridian

Initially, the line of demarcation did not encircle the Earth. Instead, Spain and Portugal could conquer any new lands they were the first to discover, Spain to the west and Portugal to the east, even if they passed each other on the other side of the globe.[7] But Portugal's discovery of the highly valued Moluccas in 1512 caused Spain to argue in 1518 that the Treaty of Tordesillas divided the Earth into two equal hemispheres. After the surviving ships of Magellan's fleet visited the Moluccas in 1521, Spain claimed that those islands were within its western hemisphere. In 1523, the Treaty of Vitoria called for the Badajoz Junta to meet in 1524, at which the two countries tried to reach an agreement on the anti-meridian but failed. They finally agreed via the 1529 Treaty of Saragossa (or Zaragoza) that Spain would relinquish its claims to the Moluccas upon the payment of 350,000 ducats of gold by Portugal to Spain. To prevent Spain from encroaching upon Portugal's Moluccas, the anti-meridian was to be 297.5 leagues or 17° to the east of the Moluccas, passing through the islands of las Velas and Santo Thome.[8] This distance is slightly smaller than the 300 leagues determined by Magellan as the westward distance from los Ladrones to the Philippine island of Samar, which is just west of due north of the Moluccas.[9] For the Presidential railcar named Ferdinand Magellan, see Ferdinand Magellan Railcar. ... The ducat (IPA: ) is a gold coin that was used as a trade currency throughout Europe before World War I. Its weight is 3. ... Samar is an island in the Visayas, which is in the central Philippines. ...

Moluccas (north at right)
Moluccas (north at right)

The Moluccas are a group of islands just west of New Guinea. However, unlike the large modern Indonesian archipelago of the Maluku Islands, to sixteenth-century Europeans the Moluccas were a small chain of islands, the only place on Earth where cloves grew, just west of the large north Malukan island of Halmahera (called Gilolo at the time). Cloves were so prized by Europeans for their medicinal uses that they were worth their weight in gold.[10][11] Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century maps and descriptions indicate that the main islands were Ternate, Tidore, Moti, Makian and Bacan, although the last was often ignored even though it was by far the largest island.[12][13][14] The principal island was Ternate at the chain's northern end (0°47'N, only 11 km (7 mi) in diameter) on whose southwest coast the Portuguese built a stone fort (São João Bautista) during 1522–23,[15] which could only be repaired, not modified, according to the Treaty of Saragossa. This north-south chain occupies two degrees of latitude bisected by the equator at about 127°24'E, with Ternate, Tidore, Moti, and Makian north of the equator and Bacan south of it. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 722 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1690 × 1404 pixel, file size: 477 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Title Moluccae Insulae Celeberrimae (Famous Molucca Islands) History Engraved by Jodocus Hondius (either father or son) and purchased by Willem Blaeu in 1629. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 722 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1690 × 1404 pixel, file size: 477 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Title Moluccae Insulae Celeberrimae (Famous Molucca Islands) History Engraved by Jodocus Hondius (either father or son) and purchased by Willem Blaeu in 1629. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... Maluku redirects here. ... Binomial name (L.) Merrill & Perry A single dried clove flower bud Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. ... Halmahera (also Jilolo or Gilolo) is the largest island in the Maluku Islands. ... A 1720 depiction of Ternate. ... Tidore is an island and town in the Maluku Islands of eastern Indonesia, just west of the larger island of Halmahera. ... Moti or Motir is a volcanic island in the western side of Halmahera island, Indonesia. ... Makian (also Machian) is one of the Maluku Islands in Indonesia. ... Bacan (formerly Bachian or Bachan, Dutch Batjan) is an island in Indonesia. ... This article is about the geographical term. ...


Although the treaty's Santo Thome island has not been identified, its "Islas de las Velas" (Islands of the Sails) appear in a 1585 Spanish history of China, on the 1594 world map of Petrus Plancius, on an anonymous map of the Moluccas in the 1598 London edition of Linschoten, and on the 1607 world map of Petro Kærio, identified as a north-south chain of islands in the northwest Pacific, which were also called the "Islas de los Ladrones" (Islands of the Thieves) during that period.[16][17][18] Their name was changed by Spain in 1667 to "Islas de las Marianas" (Mariana Islands), which include Guam at their southern end. Guam's longitude of 144°45'E is east of the Moluccas' longitude of 127°24'E by 17°21', which is remarkably close by sixteenth-century standards to the treaty's 17° east. This longitude passes through the eastern end of the main north Japanese island of Hokkaidō and through the eastern end of New Guinea, which is where Frédéric Durand placed the demarcation line.[19] Moriarty and Keistman placed the demarcation line at 147°E by measuring 16.4° east from the western end of New Guinea (or 17° east of 130°E).[20] Despite the treaty's clear statement that the demarcation line passes 17° east of the Moluccas, some sources place the line just east of the Moluccas.[21][22][23] Petrus Plancius (1552–1622) was a Dutch astronomer, cartographer and clergyman. ... Portrait of Jan Huygen van Linschoten, from the princeps edition of his Itinerario. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Ladrones Islands, from Spanish Islas de los Ladrones meaning Islands of Thieves) are an archipelago made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the north-western Pacific Ocean between the 12th and 21st parallels...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ...


The Treaty of Saragossa did not modify or clarify the line of demarcation in the Treaty of Tordesillas, nor did it validate Spain's claim to equal hemispheres (180° each), so the two lines divided the Earth into unequal hemispheres. Portugal's portion was roughly 191° whereas Spain's portion was roughly 169°. Both portions have a large uncertainty of ±4° due to the wide variation in the opinions regarding the location of the Tordesillas line.


Portugal gained control of all lands and seas west of the Saragossa line, including all of Asia and its neighboring islands so far "discovered," leaving Spain most of the Pacific Ocean. Although the Philippines were not named in the treaty, Spain implicitly relinquished any claim to them because they were well west of the line. Nevertheless, by 1542, King Charles V decided to colonize the Philippines, judging that Portugal would not protest too vigorously because the archipelago had no spice, but he failed in his attempt. King Philip II succeeded in 1565, establishing the initial Spanish trading post at Manila. For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was the first official King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord... Nickname: Motto: Linisin Ikarangal Maynila Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government  - Mayor Alfredo Lim (2007-2010; GO)  - Vice Mayor Isko Moreno (AM/PDP-Laban...


Besides Brazil and the Moluccas, Portugal would eventually control Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, and São Tomé and Príncipe in Africa; Goa and Daman and Diu in India; and East Timor and Macau in the Far East. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Daman and Diu (Portuguese: Gujarati is the main language; use of Portuguese is declining because it is not official or taught at school (but still spoken by 10% in Daman). ...

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Notes

  1. ^ Davenport, pp. 85, 171.
  2. ^ Harrisse, pp. 91–97, 178–190.
  3. ^ Harrisse, pp. 100–102, 190–192.
  4. ^ Harrisse, pp. 103–108, 122, 192–200.
  5. ^ Harrisse, pp. 138–139, 207–208.
  6. ^ Harrisse, pp. 207–208.
  7. ^ Edward Gaylord Bourne, "Historical Introduction", in Blair.
  8. ^ Treaty of Saragossa in Blair.
  9. ^ Lord Stanley of Alderley, The first voyage round the world, by Magellan, London: Hakluyt, 1874, p.71 (148 of 360 in Google Books pdf version)
  10. ^ Andaya, pp.1-3
  11. ^ Corn, p.xxiv.
  12. ^ Gavan Daws and Marty Fujita, Archipelago: The Islands of Indonesia, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999), p.98, ISBN 0520215761 (early 1500s).
  13. ^ The Portuguese in the Moluccas and in the Lesser Sunda Islands by Marco Ramerini, 1600s
  14. ^ Lord Stanley of Alderley, The first voyage round the world, by Magellan, London: Hakluyt Society, 1874, pp. 126–7 (203–4 in Google Books pdf version).
  15. ^ Andaya, p.117. After the Iberian Union (1580–1640) and the effective Dutch conquest of the Moluccas (1605–1611, pp. 152–3), the fort was destroyed by the Spanish in 1666 during their retreat to the Philippines. (p.156)
  16. ^ Knowlton, p.341. The islands were named both las Velas and los Ladrones in a quote from Father Juan González de Mendoza in Historia de las cosas más notables, ritos y costumbres del gran Reino de la China (History of the most remarkable things, rites and customs of the great Kingdom of China, 1585).
  17. ^ Cortesao, p.224, with detailed maps naming each island on several maps.
  18. ^ ed. John O. E. Clark, 100 Maps (New York: Sterling, 2005) p.115, ISBN 1402728859.
  19. ^ The cartography of the Orientals and Southern Europeans in the beginning of the western exploration of South-East Asia from the middle of the XVth century to the beginning of the XVIIth century by Frédéric Durand
  20. ^ Philip II Orders the Journey of the First Manila Galleon
  21. ^ Lines in the sea by Giampiero Francalanci and others, p.3 about 129°E
  22. ^ Lines of Demarcation 1529 about 134°E
  23. ^ Infoblatt Das Zeitalter der großen Entdeckungsfahrten about 135°E

Lord Stanley of Alderley, Henry Edward John Stanley, 3rd Baron Stanley of Alderley and 2nd Baron Eddisbury (11 July 1827–10 December 1903) was a historian who translated The first voyage round the world by Magellan and other works from the Age of Discovery. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

References

  • The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803 (vol 1 of 55), ed. by Emma Helen Blair, containing complete English translations of both treaties and related documents.
  • Translation of the Treaty of Tordesillas by Davenport.
  • Frances Gardiner Davenport, European Treaties bearing on the History of the United States and its Dependencies to 1648 (Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1917/1967).
  • Henry Harrisse, The Diplomatic History of America: Its first chapter 1452—1493—1494 (London: Stevens, 1897).
  • Leonard Y. Andaya, The world of Maluku: Eastern Indonesia in the early modern period (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1993, ISBN 0-8248-1490-8.
  • Charles Corn, The Scents of Eden, (New York: Kodansha, 1998), ISBN 1568362021.
  • Edgar C. Knowlton, "China and the Philippines in El Periquillo Sarniento", Hispanic Review 31 (1963) 336-347.
  • Armando Cortesao, "Antonio Pereira and his map of circa 1545", Geographical Review 29 (1939) 205-225.

Emma Helen Blair (September 12, 1851, Menasha, Wisconsin—September 25, 1911, Madison, Wisconsin) was a United States historian, journalist and editor, whose most notable work was a monumental documentary history of the Philippines. ...

See also

This is a chronological list of international treaties, historic agreements, peaces, edicts, pacts, etc. ... For additional context, see History of Portugal and Portuguese Empire. ...

External links

  • Treaty of Tordesillas English translation from Blair
  • Compact Between the Catholic Sovereigns and the King of Portugal Regarding the Demarcation and the Division of the Ocean Sea English translation from Blair
  • Treaty of Tordesillas (about.com)

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