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Encyclopedia > Treaty of Tientsin

The Treaties of Tientsin (天津條約) were signed in Tianjin in June 1858, ending the first part of the Second Opium War (1856-1860). France, UK, Russia, and the United States were party. These treaties opened eleven more Chinese ports (see Treaty of Nanjing) to the foreigners, permitted foreign legations in Beijing, allow Christian missionary activity, and legalised the import of opium so that millions in China would become addicted. Tianjin (Chinese: 天津; pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of the Peoples Republic of China. ... 1858 is a common year starting on Friday. ... The Second Opium War or Arrow War began in 1856 and ended in 1860. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Nanking, August 29, 1842, Peace Treaty between the Queen of Great Britain and the Emperor of China The Treaty of Nanking (南京條約) is the agreement which marked the end of the First Opium War between the United Kingdom and China. ... Beijing   listen? (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Peking) is the capital city of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... A Christian is a follower and believer in Jesus of Nazareth and the religion of Christianity. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... Opium is a narcotic drug which is obtained from the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy . ...

They were ratified by the Emperor of China in the Beijing Convention in 1860, after the end of the war. The emperor or huangdi (皇帝 in pinyin: huang2 di4) of China was the head of government and head of state of China from the Qin dynasty in 221 B.C. until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911. ... The Convention of Peking (October 18, 1860), also known as the First Convention of Peking, was a treaty between the Qing Government of China and the British Empire, and between China and France, and China and Russia. ...

The major points of the treaties were:

  1. Britain, France, Russia and the United States would have the right to station legations in Beijing (a closed city at the time)
  2. Ten more Chinese ports would be opened for foreign trade, including Niuzhuang, Danshui, Hankou and Nanjing
  3. The right of foreign vessels including warships to navigate freely on the Yangtze River
  4. The right of foreigners to travel in the internal regions of China for the purpose of travel, trade or missionary activities
  5. China was to pay an indemnity to Britain and France in 2 million taels of silver respectively, and compensation to British merchants in 2 million taels of silver.
  6. The Chinese are to be banned from referring to Westerners by the character "yi" (barbarian).

A Legation was the term used in diplomacy to denote a diplomatic representative office lower than an embassy. ... Beijing   listen? (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Peking) is the capital city of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Lover Bridge of Tamsui/ taken by Liyu/ 7 July, 2004 Tamsui (Chinese: 淡水, Taiwanese: Tām-súi/Tām-chúi, Tongyong Pinyin: Danshuei, Hanyu Pinyin: Danshui) is a sea-side town in Taipei County, Taiwan Province, Republic of China. ... Hankou (漢口; pinyin: Hànkǒu; Wade-Giles: Hankow) is one of the three towns, together with Wuchang and Hanyang, which are included in modern day Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei province, in China. ... Nanjing (Chinese: 南京; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Nan-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Nanking), is the capital of Chinas Jiangsu province and a city with a prominent place in Chinese history and culture. ... Length 6,380 km Elevation of the source  ? m Average discharge 31,900 m³/s Area watershed 1,800,000 km² Origin Qinghai Province and Tibet Mouth East China Sea Basin countries China The Yangtze River (Chinese: 扬子江; pinyin: ) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the... The tael (兩), PY: Liang, was part of the Chinese system of weights and currency. ...

See also

The Unequal Treaties (lit. ... Large areas of Asia, as well as Africa and other areas of the world, were subjected to imperial control by European nations, China, and Japan. ...

External link

  • Wikisource: Treaty of Tien-Tsin

  Results from FactBites:
Tientsin - LoveToKnow 1911 (787 words)
It is a prefectural city, and has, since the conclusion of the foreign treaties, become the residence of the viceroy of the province during a great portion of the year.
The coal exported is brought from the Kaiping colliery to the east of Tientsin; its output in 1885 was 181,039 tons and in 1904 28,956 tons.
In 1853 Tientsin was besieged by an army of T'aip'ing rebels, which had been detached from the main force at Nanking for the capture of Peking.
The Treaty of Tientsin presented in History section (1112 words)
Tientsin, the largest commercial city in Chih-li, the metropolitan province of China, is situated at the junction of the Peiho and the Hun-ho, which is connected by the grand Canal with the Yangtsze-kiang.
It is a prefectural city, and has, since the conclusion of the foreign treaties, become the residence of the viceroy of fee province during a great portion of the year.
It is unnecessary here to give the full terms of the Treaty of Tientsin, but one of the provisions of the Treaty, that of legalizing the opium trade, calls for some remarks as it had much to do with the commercial life of Shanghai.
  More results at FactBites »



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