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Encyclopedia > Treaty of San Francisco
Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru gives a speech on "reconciliation and rapport" (和解と信頼, wakai to shinrai?) at the San Francisco Peace conference. Later he signed the peace treaty on the behalf of the Japanese government.
Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru gives a speech on "reconciliation and rapport" (和解と信頼 wakai to shinrai?) at the San Francisco Peace conference. Later he signed the peace treaty on the behalf of the Japanese government.

The Treaty of Peace with Japan (日本国との平和条約 Nihon-koku to no Heiwa Jōyaku?) between the Allied Powers and Japan, was officially signed by 48 nations on September 8, 1951 in San Francisco, California. Therefore this treaty is popularly known as the Treaty of San Francisco. It came into force on April 28, 1952. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Shigeru Yoshida (吉田 茂 Yoshida Shigeru, September 22, 1878–October 20, 1967) was the Prime Minister of Japan from 1946 to 1947 and from 1948 to 1954. ... When spelt with a capital A, Allies usually denotes the countries supporting the Triple Entente who fought together against the Central Powers in World War I and against the Axis Powers in World War II. For more information, see the related articles: Allies of World War I and Allies of... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... For details about the famous earthquake, refer to the article 1906 San Francisco Earthquake. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The treaty served to officially end World War II, to formally end Japan's position as an imperial power and allocate compensation to Allied civilians and former prisoners of war who had suffered Japanese war crimes. The Treaty made extensive use of the UN Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to enunciate the Allies' goals. Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... The term Japanese war crimes refers to events which occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism from the late 19th to mid-20th centuries. ... The United Nations Charter is the constitution of the United Nations. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (also UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, December 10, 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris), outlining the organizations view on the human...

Contents


The fate of Japanese overseas territories

The document officially renounces Japan's treaty rights derived from the Boxer Protocol of 1901 and its rights to Korea, Formosa (Taiwan), (Hong Kong) (UK Colony), the Kuril Islands, the Pescadores, Spratly Islands, Antarctica and the Sakhalin Island. The treaty does not formally state which nations are sovereign over these areas, a fact that some supporters of Taiwan independence use to justify Taiwanese self-determination according to Article 77b of the Charter of the United Nations, which applies trusteeships to "territories which may be detached from enemy states as a result of the Second World War." However, except for the Ryukyus, the areas over which Japan renounced sovereignty were never brought under any formal UN trusteeship arrangement, and hence the specifications of Article 77 were not properly applied. The Treaty of 1901, more commonly known as Boxer Protocol or Peace Agreement between the Great Powers and China, is a peace treaty signed in 1901 between the Qing Empire of China and the eight nation alliance: the United Kingdom, the USA, Japan, Russia, France, Germany, Italy, Austro-Hungary, Belgium... Korea (Korean:한국, Hanguk, or ì¡°ì„ , Chosun or Joseon) is a civilization and geographical area situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia, bordering China (PRC) to the northwest and Russia to the northeast, with Japan situated to the southeast across the Korea Strait. ... For the political history of the sovereignty conflict, see Kuril Islands dispute. ... The Pescadores Islands (Chinese: 澎湖群島; Wade-Giles: Peng-hu; Pinyin: Pénghú, from Portuguese, fishermen) are an archipelago in the Taiwan Strait. ... Location of Sakhalin in the Western Pacific. ... Taiwan independence (Traditional Chinese: 台灣獨立; Pinyin: , Pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ«: Tâi-oân To̍k-li̍p; abbreviated to 台獨, Táidú, Tâi-to̍k) is a political movement whose goal is primarily to create an independent and sovereign Republic of Taiwan (out of the lands currently administered by the... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ...


Article 3 of the treaty formally put the Ryukyu Islands, which included Okinawa, and the Amami, Miyako, and Yaeyama island groups, under U.S. trusteeship. The Amami Island group was eventually ceded back to Japan on December 25, 1953, and in 1969 U.S.-Japan negotiations authorized the transfer of authority over the Ryukyus to Japan to be implemented in 1972. In 1972, the United States "reversion" of the Ryukyus occurred along with the ceding of control over the nearby (uninhabited) Senkaku Islands without taking a position on the ultimate sovereignty of the Senaku islands which are claimed by both the PRC and ROC. Location of Ryukyu Islands Ryukyuan flag The Ryukyu Islands (琉球列島 Ryukyu-rettō, formerly spelled Lewchew or Luchu) or Nansei Islands (南西諸島 Nansei-shotō southwest islands), are an island chain stretching southwestward from the island of Kyushu in Japan. ... This article is about the prefecture. ... Motto: E pluribus unum (1789 to 1956) (Latin: Out of Many, One) In God We Trust (1956 to present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at federal level; English de facto Government • President • Vice President Federal Republic George... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1953 calendar). ...


By Article 11 Japan accepted the judgments of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and of other Allied War Crimes Courts both within and outside Japan, and agreed to carry out the sentences imposed thereby upon Japanese nationals imprisoned in Japan. The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (also referred to as the IMTFE, the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, or the Tokyo Trial) was held to try the leaders of Japan for three types of crimes - Class A (crimes against peace), Class B (war crimes), and Class C (crimes against...


The document further set guidelines for repatriation of prisoners of war and renounces future military aggression under the guidelines set by the UN Charter. The document nullifies prior treaties and lays down the framework for Japan's current status of retaining a military that is purely defensive in nature. The United Nations Charter is the constitution of the United Nations. ...


There is also some ambiguity as to over which islands Japan has renounced sovereignty. This has led to both the Kuril Island conflict and the Diaoyutai/Senkaku dispute. The Kuril Islands with the disputed islands highlighted The Kuril Island conflict is a dispute between Japan and Russia over sovereignty over the southernmost Kuril Islands. ... Diaoyutai redirects here. ...


Neither the Nationalist Republic of China nor the Communist People's Republic of China were invited to the San Francisco Peace Conference and therefore neither signed this treaty. The Republic of China, however, enacted a separate Treaty of Peace with Japan in 1952, which basically acknowledged the terms of the San Francisco Treaty. Motto: None Anthem: National Anthem of the ROC Capital Taipei City (de facto) Nanjing (in law) 1 Largest city Taipei City Official language(s) Mandarin (Guoyü) Government President Vice President Premier Multiparty democracy Chen Shui-bian Annette Lu Su Tseng-chang Establishment Xinhai Revolution Declared  October 10, 1911 Established  January... The Treaty of Peace between Japan and China (Japanese: 日華平和条約, Chinese: 中日和平條約), commonly known as the Treaty of Taipei as it was signed in Taipei, was a peace treaty between Japan and the Republic of China (ROC) concluded on April 28, 1952. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Many supporters of Taiwan independence argue that the Treaty of San Franscisco justifies Taiwan independence by not explicitly granting Taiwan to either the Republic of China or the People's Republic of China. This legal justification is rejected by both the PRC and ROC governments, both of which base their legal claims on Taiwan on the Instrument of Surrender of Japan which they argue incorporates the Potsdam Declaration and the Cairo Declaration. In addition, in more recent years supporters of Taiwan independence have more often relied on arguments based on self-determination and popular sovereignty and less on purely legal arguments. Taiwan independence (Traditional Chinese: 台灣獨立; Pinyin: , Pe̍h-oē-jī: Tâi-oân To̍k-li̍p; abbreviated to 台獨, Táidú, Tâi-to̍k) is a political movement whose goal is primarily to create an independent and sovereign Republic of Taiwan (out of the lands currently administered by the... Representatives of Japan stand aboard the USS Missouri prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender The Instrument of Surrender of Japan was the armistice ending World War II. It was signed by representatives of the Empire of Japan, the United States, the Republic of China, the United Kingdom, the... The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender (not to be confused with the Potsdam Agreement) was a statement issued on July 26, 1945 by Harry S. Truman, Winston Churchill, and Chiang Kai-Shek which outlined the terms of surrender for Japan as agreed upon at the... The Cairo Declaration was an statement released at Cairo, Egypt on December 1, 1943 by President Franklin Roosevelt of the United States, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom, and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek of the Republic of China. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ... Popular sovereignty is the doctrine that the state is created by and subject to the will of the people, who are the source of all political power. ...


The Soviet Union refused to sign the Treaty of San Franscisco. No separate peace treaty has been signed with Japan even after the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991. This has prevented the Russo-Japanese territorial disputes from being resolved.


Compensation to Allied civilians and POWs

Transfer of Japanese overseas assets

Japanese overseas assets refers to all assets owned by the Japanese government, firms, organisation and private citizens, in colonised or occupied countries. In accordance with Clause 14 of the Treaty, Allied forces confiscated all Japanese overseas assets, except those in China, which were dealt with under Clause 21. China reposessed all Japanese assets in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia, which included mineworks and railway infrastructure. Moreover, Clause 4 of the treaty stated that "the disposition of property of Japan and of its nationals...and their claims...against the authorities presently administering such areas and the residents...shall be the subject of special arrangements between Japan and such authorities." Consequently, it is considered that Korea was also entitled to the rights provided by Clause 21. Extent of Manchuria according to Definition 1 (dark red), Definition 3 (dark red + medium red) and Definition 4 (dark red + medium red + light red) Manchuria (Manchu: Manju, Simplified Chinese: 满洲; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Pinyin: ) is a name given to a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Japanese overseas assets in 1945 (1945, ¥15=1US$)
Country/region Value (Yen) Value (US Dollars)
Korea 70,256,000,000 4,683,700,000
Taiwan 42,542,000,000 2,846,100,000
North East China 146,532,000,000 9,768,800,000
North China 55,437,000,000 3,695,800,000
Central South China 36,718,000,000 2,447,900,000
Others 28,014,000,000 1,867,600,000
Total ¥379,499,000,000 $25,300,000,000

Japanese 10 yen coin (obverse) showing Phoenix Hall of Byodoin Yen is the currency used in Japan. ... Alternate uses: Dollar (disambiguation) The dollar is the name of the official currency in several countries, dependencies and other regions (see list below). ...

Compensation to Allied POWs

Clause 16 of the San Francisco Treaty states:

As an expression of its desire to indemnify those members of the armed forces of the Allied Powers who suffered undue hardships while prisoners of war of Japan, Japan will transfer its assets and those of its nationals in countries which were neutral during the war, or which were at war with any of the Allied Powers, or, at its option, the equivalent of such assets, to the International Committee of the Red Cross which shall liquidate such assets and distribute the resultant fund to appropriate national agencies, for the benefit of former prisoners of war and their families on such basis as it may determine to be equitable. The categories of assets described in Article 14(a)2(II)(ii) through (v) of the present Treaty shall be excepted from transfer, as well as assets of Japanese natural persons not residents of Japan on the first coming into force of the Treaty. It is equally understood that the transfer provision of this Article has no application to the 19,770 shares in the Bank for International Settlements presently owned by Japanese financial institutions.

Accordingly, Japan paid £4,500,000 to the Red Cross. UKP redirects here. ... The Red Cross and the Red Crescent emblems, the symbols from which the Movement derives its name The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement consists of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (Federation), and the 183 national...


Allied territories occupied by Japan

Clause 14 of the treaty stated that "Japan will promptly enter into negotiations with Allied Powers so desiring, whose present territories were occupied by Japanese forces and damaged by Japan, with a view to assisting to compensate those countries for the cost of repairing the damage done, by making available the services of the Japanese people in production, salvaging and other work for the Allied Powers in question."


Accordingly, the Philippines and South Vietnam received compensation in 1956 and 1959 respectively. Burma (Myammar) and Indonesia were not original signatories, but they later signed bilateral treaty in accordance with Clause 14 of the San Francisco Treaty.

Japanese compensation to countries occupied during 1941-45
Country Amount in Yen Amount in US$ Date of treaty
Burma 72,000,000,000 200,000,000 November 5, 1955
Philippines 198,000,000,000 550,000,000 May 9, 1956
Indonesia 80,388,000,000 223,080,000 January 20, 1958
Vietnam 14,400,000,000 38,000,000 May 13, 1959
Total ¥364,348,800,000 US$1,012,080,000

The last payment was made to the Philippines on July 22, 1976. Japanese 10 yen coin (obverse) showing Phoenix Hall of Byodoin Yen is the currency used in Japan. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


See also

A peace treaty is an agreement (a peace treaty) between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a war or armed conflict. ...

References

External links

  • Text of the treaty
  • Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida's Speech at the San Francisco Peace Conference
  • John Foster Dulles's Speech at the San Francisco Peace Conference
  • Understanding the San Francisco Peace Treaty's Disposition of Formosa and the Pescadores

  Results from FactBites:
 
Treaty of San Francisco - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (879 words)
Therefore this treaty is popularly known as the Treaty of San Francisco.
The Treaty made extensive use of the UN Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to enunciate the Allies' goals.
The Republic of China, however, enacted a separate Treaty of Peace with Japan in 1952, which basically acknowledged the terms of the San Francisco Treaty.
San Francisco, California - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7846 words)
The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth-largest city in California and the 14th-largest in the United States, with a 2004 population of 744,230.
San Francisco has a unique mix of physical characteristics, including its months-long episodes of fog, its steep rolling hills, its eclectic mix of architecture (including Victorian style houses and modern high-rises), and its being bordered on three sides by the Pacific Ocean and the San Francisco Bay.
San Francisco is also the center of gay media with newspapers and magazines such as the The Advocate, and the Bay Area Reporter, among the many gay and lesbian-themed media in the city.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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