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Encyclopedia > Treaty of Sèvres

The Treaty of Sèvres of August 10, 1920, made peace between the Allied and Associated Powers1 and the Ottoman Empire after World War I. The treaty was signed by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI, who was trying to save his throne but was rejected by the independence movement in the rest of Turkey. That movement, under the leadership of Kemal Atatürk, used this conflict as an opportunity to declare themselves the rightful government, replacing the monarchy in Istanbul, with a republic in Ankara. August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul (Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 6. ... Missing image Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Sultan Mehmed VI Mehmed VI, original name Mehmed Vahdettin or Mehmed Vahideddin (January 14, 1861 – May 16, 1926) was the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918–1922. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–November 10, 1938), Turkish revolutionist, soldier, and anti-imperialist statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... This article is about the city. ... Ankara from the Atakule Tower, looking N-NE Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Istanbul. ...


The Ottoman Empire lost a great deal of territory by the treaty. Hejaz (now part of Saudi Arabia), Armenia, and Kurdistan were to become independent. In accordance with the wartime Sykes-Picot Agreement, Mesopotamia and Palestine were given as Mandates to the United Kingdom, Syria and Lebanon to France. The Dodecanese and Rhodes were to go to Italy, Thrace and Western Anatolia, including Smyrna(where Greek populations lived) to Greece. The Straits and Sea of Marmara were to be demilitarized and internationalized. Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz) is a region in the northwest of present-day Saudi Arabia; its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better-known for the holy city of Mecca. ... Kurdistan is an area in the Middle East, inhabited mainly by the Kurds, covering parts of Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Armenia, and Syria. ... The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective areas of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East. ... The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. ... The term Palestine may refer to: Palestine: A geographical region in the Middle East, centered on Jerusalem. ... League of Nations mandates were territories established under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, 28 June 1919. ... The Dodecanese (Greek: Δωδεκάνησα, Dodekánisa, meaning twelve islands) are a group of Greek islands in the Aegean Sea, off the southwest coast of Turkey. ... Outside the city walls of the medieval city of Rhodes Rhodes, Greek Ροδος (Rodos), is the largest of the Dodecanese islands, and easternmost of the major islands of Greece in the Aegean Sea. ... Thrace is a historical and geographic area in south-east Europe spread over southern Bulgaria, north-eastern Greece, and European Turkey. ... For other meanings of Smyrna, see Smyrna (disambiguation). ... The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara denizi, Modern Greek: Μαρμαρα̃ Θάλασσα or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that separates the Black Sea from the Aegean Sea (thus the Asian part of Turkey from its European part) by Bosporus and...


The government of Ankara refused the terms of the treaty and resisted the Greek army invading Turkey. Following the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922) and the disastrous defeat of the Greek forces, the terms of Sèvres were revised in Turkey's favor by the Treaty of Lausanne. After the declaration of World War I, the Turks found the perfect opportunity to organize more effectively the massacres against ethnic minorities, so that they could finally transform their empire into a homogeneous nation-state. ... The Treaty of Lausanne was a peace treaty that set the boundaries of modern Turkey. ...


Footnotes

  1. The Allied and Associated Powers were the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Japan (Principal Allied Powers), Armenia, Belgium, Greece, the Hedjaz, Poland, Portugal, Roumania, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia.

Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz) is a region in the northwest of present-day Saudi Arabia; its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better-known for the holy city of Mecca. ... Romania (formerly spelled Rumania or Roumania; Romanian: România) is a country in southeastern Europe. ... The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ...

See also

The fighting in World War I ended when an armistice took effect at 11:00 hours on November 11, 1918. ...

External link

  • Text of the Treaty of Sèvres (http://www.hri.org/docs/sevres/)
  • Armenia and Turkey in Context of the Treaty of Sevres: Aug - Dec 1920 (http://www.atlas-of-conflicts.com/areas/armenia-and-karabakh/turk_arm_war-1-1920.php) - on "Atlas of Conflicts" by Andrew Andersen

 
 

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