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Encyclopedia > Treaty of Point Elliott

The Treaty of Point Elliott of 1855, or the Point Elliott Treaty,[1] is the lands settlement treaty between the United States government and the nominal Native American tribes of the greater Puget Sound region in the recently-formed Washington Territory (March, 1853), one of about thirteen treaties between the U.S. and Native Nations in what is now Washington State.[2] The treaty was signed on 22 January 1855, at Muckl-te-oh or Point Elliott, now Mukilteo, Washington, and ratified 8 March and 11 April 1859. Lands were being occupied since settlement in what became Washington Territory began in earnest from about 1845.[3] Native Americans are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... Puget Sound For the liberal arts university located in this region, see University of Puget Sound. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Washington history | U.S. historical regions and territories ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Mukilteo (pronounced ) is a city located in Snohomish County, Washington. ... March 8 is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Signatories to the Treaty of Point Elliott included Chief Seattle (si'áb Si'ahl) and Territorial Governor Isaac Stevens. Representatives from the Duwamish, Suquamish, Snoqualmie, Snohomish, Lummi, Skagit, Swinomish, (in order of signing) and other tribes also signed. The treaty established the Suquamish Port Madison, Tulalip, Swin-a-mish (Swinomish), and Lummi reservations. The Native American signers included: Suquamish and Dwamish (Duwamish) Chief Seattle, Snoqualmoo (Snoqualmie) and Sno-ho-mish Chief Patkanim as Pat-ka-nam, Lummi Chief Chow-its-hoot, and Skagit Chief Goliah. The Duwamish signatories to the Point Elliott Treaty of 22 January 1855 were si'áb Si'ahl as Chief Seattle, and Duwamish si'áb Ts'huahntl, si'áb Now-a-chais, and si'áb Ha-seh-doo-an. The treaty guaranteed both fishing rights and reservations.[4] Reservations for the Duwamish, Skagit, Snohomish, and Snoqualmie are conspicuously absent. Chief Seattle Chief Seattle (also Sealth, Seathl or See-ahth) (c. ... Isaac Ingalls Stevens (March 25, 1818 - September 1, 1862) was the first governor of Washington Territory, and served as a brigadier general in the Union Army during the Civil War until his death at the Battle of Chantilly. ... Duwamish (the People of the Inside) is a Native American tribe in western Washington. ... Suquamish woman photographed by Edward S. Curtis in 1913. ... The Snoqualmie are a group of Coast Salish Native American peoples from the Snoqualmie Valley in east King and Snohomish Counties in Washington state. ... Snohomish is the name of a tribe of Native Americans whom reside around the Puget Sound area of Washington, north of Seattle. ... The Lummi Nation is a Native American tribe in western Washington state in the United States. ... The Skagit (pronounced skajit) are a Native American people living in the state of Washington. ... Swinomish is a Native American tribe in western Washington state in the United States. ... The Port Madison Indian Reservation is an Indian reservation in North Kitsap County, Washington. ... Tulalip is a group of Native American peoples from western Washington state in the United States. ... Chief Seattle Chief Seattle (also Sealth, Seathl or See-ahth) (c. ... Patkanim (variously spelled Pat-ka-nam or Pat Kanim) was chief of the Snoqualmoo (Snoqualmie) and Snohomish tribe in what is now modern Washington State. ... The Lummi Nation is a Native American tribe in western Washington state in the United States. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Contents

Context

How were new settlers to stake their claims and hold clear title to their lands? The Intercourse Act of 1834 specifically prohibited White American intrusion into Indian territories. The Oregon Donation Land Claim Act of 1850 specifically opened Oregon Territory; Washington Territory had similar law. The law sunset 1 December 1855; settlers had to file by that date, so White leaders had a tremendous incentive to get treaties signed as speedily (if not as properly) as possible. Each male settler could homestead and receive 160 acres free for himself and 160 with his wife (women could not individually hold property). Settlers arriving before 1850 could receive 640 acres, or 1 Regular Section, one square mile. No explanation has been provided for how this property could be titled before Indian claims were extinguished (using the legal term). The effective means of doing so was by unilateral occupation, implicitly backed by militia if not military. The response was disconcertion, sometimes as extreme as raids and uprisings, whiche were followed by White lynch law. The term White American officially refers to people of European, Middle Eastern, and North African descent residing in the United States. ... The Donation Land Claim Act of 1850, sometimes known just as the Donation Land Act, was an historic law passed by the Congress of the United States intended to promote homestead settlement in the Oregon Territory in the Pacific Northwest (comprising the present-day states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho). ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ...


The intentional pell mell, headlong pace of Westward Expansion [" 'Westward Expansion' article neutrality may be compromised by 'weasel words' "; cites only minimal sources] and Manifest Destiny by American exceptionalism throughout the 19th century effectively precluded other than a freebooter development model. A government map, probably created in the mid-20th century, that depicts a simplified history of territorial acquisitions within the continental United States. ... This painting (circa 1872) by John Gast called American Progress is an allegorical representation of Manifest Destiny. ... Progress of America, 1875, by Domenico Tojetti American exceptionalism (cf. ...


By and large, Native leaders were willing to sell (having at the time no cultural comprehension of individuals or people owning land), but they were very unwilling to move out of Puget Sound country. Only comparatively recently are present occupants only beginning to understand why.[5]


The courts have said that the power of Congress in Indian affairs is plenary (full and complete)—great but under present law not absolute. The federal government and tribes are co-equal sovereign entities; the tribal governments predated the existence the United States. One of the most basic principles underlying Indian nations is that they retain all the inherent powers of any sovereign nation, retaining all original sovereign rights and powers which have not been given up or taken away by due process of law. Courts have ruled that the "intent of Congress to limit the sovereign powers of Indian governments by legislation must be clearly expressed in the law in order to be effective" (in legal terminology, per Saito, Georgia State University College of Law). [Emphasis added.][6]


This leaves many of the mid-19th century treaties in an interesting legal status.


The U.S. Constitution, Article 6, states: Page one of the original copy of the Constitution. ... Article Six establishes the United States Constitution and the laws and treaties of the United States made in accordance with it as the supreme law of the land, and fulfills other purposes. ...

This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in persuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding. [Emphasis added.] Article VI, Paragraph 2 of the United States Constitution is known as the Supremacy Clause: The Supremacy Clause establishes the Constitution, Federal Statutes, and U.S. treaties as the supreme law of the land. ...

(Treaties must comply with the Constitution.) Treaties are international agreements by definition. The Supreme Court has ruled that there are "canons of construction" for interpreting treaties; of the two principal canons, one is that they are to be interpreted as they would have been understood by the signatories. The Supreme Court has ruled, in a manner remarkably like the Bill of Rights, Tenth Amendment, that "Treaties are to be construed as a grant of rights from the Indians, not to them—and a reservation of those not granted." Image of the United States Bill of Rights from the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration The United States Bill of Rights consists of the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution. ... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives Amendment X (the Tenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, was ratified on December 15, 1791. ...


A treaty broken is not rescinded. Only a following treaty or agreement can relieve signatories of the original treaty. When the U.S. breaks a treaty, doing so reflects upon the integrity of the country. "Treaties are as old and as venerable as the Constitution of the United States. Age does not impair their validity or legality." [Deloria, 1994][7]


Indian tribes, for the most part, were not parties to and rarely agreed with the diminuation in their sovereign powers by the laws of the colonizer and the alien tradition of European law. With significant justification they often claim to retain far greater sovereign powers than federal Indian law is prepared to concede. The resulting political dynamic is of tensions and disputes among tribal, federal, and state governments about sovereign powers and jurisdiction denied to tribes by the colonial justifications underlying federal law, which tribes and members point out they never voluntarily surrenedered.[8] Diminuation of soverignty is usually absent from accession of lands.


Governor Stevens and the U.S. government

Governor Stevens dealt dishonestly in treaties, among other things making oral promises that were not matched by what was written down. The Native tribes were all oral cultures. When Stevens, in drafting treaties, acted in a manner that Judge James Wickerson would characterize forty years later as "unfair, unjust, ungenerous, and illegal", Natives were quite unprepared for such behavior by the official representatives of the white man's power. The local natives had at least a thirty-year history of dealing with the "King George's men" of Hudson's Bay Company (HBC), who had developed a reputation for driving a hard bargain, but sticking honestly to what they agreed to, and for treating Whites and Indians impartially. This continued through the dealings of the local Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Superintendent General, Joel Palmer, who (along with David 'Doc' Maynard's brother-in-law, Indian Agent Mike Simmons) was among the few even-handed men in the BIA.[9][10] Isaac Ingalls Stevens (March 25, 1818 - September 1, 1862) was the first governor of Washington Territory, and served as a brigadier general in the Union Army during the Civil War until his death at the Battle of Chantilly. ... The Hudsons Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie dHudson in French) is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and is one of the oldest in the world. ... The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the Department of the Interior charged with the administration and management of 55. ... General Joel Palmer, October 4, 1810 (Ontario, Canada) – June 9, 1881 (Dayton, Oregon), was an Oregon pioneer, author of a popular immigrant guidebook, co-founder of Dayton, Oregon, a controversial Indian Affairs administrator, and a popular Oregon politician. ... Pioneer and doctor David Swinson Doc Maynard (1808 - March 13, 1873) settled in Seattle when it was still a small village called Duwamps. ...


The unjust and deliberately confusing western Washington Territory treaties such as that of the Treaty of Medicine Creek of 1854 (26 December) and this Treaty of Point Elliott of 1855 (22 January) were followed by the yet more provocative Treaty of Walla Walla of 1855 (21 May). Governor Stevens pointedly ignored federal government instructions to stick to sorting out the areas where natives and settlers found themselves immediately adjacent to one another, or, from the other perspective, where settlers moved right in on Native places. After thirty years of dealings with King George's men of the HBC, having this behavior by the "Bostons" (U.S. settlers and government), Natives were, not surprisingly, angered, some to the point of war, particularly since the Native concept of war had more to do with resources and complex concepts of prestige than with conquest or annihilation, which were not even considered.[11] December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 361st in leap years. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Walla Walla is both the county seat of Walla Walla County, Washington, and the countys largest city. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Due to a documented mix of motivations, Territorial Governor Isaac Stevens appointed chiefs of tribes in order to facilitate goals of his administration. The Treaty of Point Elliott is further complicated by the style of governor Stevens, and the gulf of misunderstanding between the parties.[12] Isaac Ingalls Stevens (March 25, 1818 - September 1, 1862) was the first governor of Washington Territory, and served as a brigadier general in the Union Army during the Civil War until his death at the Battle of Chantilly. ...


"The salient features of the policy outlined [by Governor Stevens to his advisers] were as follows:

1. To concentrate the Indians upon a few reservations, and encourage them to cultivate the soil and adopt settled and civilized habits.
2. To pay for their lands not in money, but in annuities of blankets, clothing, and useful articles during a long term of years.
3. To furnish them with schools, teachers, farmers and farming implements, blacksmiths, and carpenter, with shops of those trades.
4. To prohibit wars and disputes among them.
5. To abolish slavery.
6. To stop as far as possible the use of liquor.
7. As the change from savage to civilized habits must necessarily be gradual, they were to retain the right of fishing at their accustomed fishing-places, and of hunting, gathering berries and roots, and pasturing stock on unoccupied land as long as it remained vacant.
8. At some future time, when they should have become fitted for it, the lands of the reservations were to be allotted to them in severalty." [Emphasis added][13]

Note that these are significantly different from the verbal assurances provided during negotiations, and that all the Native Nations were oral cultures.


Indian tribes believed the treaties became effective when they were signed. But United States law required Congress to approve all treaties after they were negotiated.[14] Consequently, there was no legal foundation for occupation from the time settlement began in earnest about 1845 until April 1859.


The commitments made by the U.S. government in the Treaty have never been implemented for the Duwamish, and several other tribes.


Staff for the U.S. government

Initial Treaty Advisers, Washington Territory

  • James Doty, Secretary
  • George Gibbs, Surveyor [witness at treaty signing. Gibbs also kept extensive records and made expansive reports through his career; became a prominent historical primary source.]
  • H. A. Goldsborough, Commissary
  • B. F. Shaw, Interpreter
  • Colonel M. T. Simmons

Point Elliott Treaty, advisers to Washington Territory

  • M. T. Simmons, Special Indian Agent, [witness at treaty signing]
  • H. A. Goldsborough, Commissary, [remaining member of the initial staff, witness at treaty signing]
  • B. F. Shaw, Interpreter, [remaining member of the initial staff, witness at treaty signing]
  • James Tilton, Surveyor-General, Washington Territory
  • F. Kennedy
  • J. Y. Miller
  • H. D. Cock, [witness at treaty signing][15]

Native Americans

Chiefs, as such, were appointed by Governor Stevens, though the treaty states "on behalf of said tribes, and duly authorized by them." Each Duwamish or Suquamish si'ab (high status man) is noted in bold. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Duwamish (the People of the Inside) is a Native American tribe in western Washington. ... Suquamish woman photographed by Edward S. Curtis in 1913. ...


Signatory tribes

Dwamish (Duwamish)
Suquamish
Sk-kahl-mish (Skokomish)
Sam-ahmish (Samamish)
Smalh-kamish
Skope-ahmish
St-kah-mish
Snoqualmoo (Snoqualmie)
Skai-wha-mish
N'Quentl-ma-mish
Sk-tah-le-jum
Stoluck-wha-mish
Sno-ho-mish
Lummi
Skagit
Kik-i-allus
Swin-a-mish (Swinomish)
Squin-ah-mish
Sah-ku-mehu
Noo-wha-ha
Nook-wa-chah-mish
Mee-see-qua-guilch
Cho-bah-ah-bish[16]

Non-signatory tribes

For various reasons, the Nooksack, Samish, Semiahmoo, Lower Puyallup and Quileute tribes did not take part in the treaty councils, though the rights of the Nooksack were signed over by the Lummi chief Chow-its-hoot, without their presence. Several of them, like the Duwamish and Samish tribes, continue working toward official recognition.[10] See also, for example, Duwamish (tribe) #After the treaty. Nooksack is a Native American tribe in western Washington state in the United States. ... The Samish are a Native American tribe. ... The Puyallup are a Native American tribe from western Washington state, U.S.A. They settled onto reservation lands in what is today Tacoma, Washington, in late 1854, after signing the Treaty of Medicine Creek. ... Quileute is a group of Native American peoples from western Washington state in the United States. ... The Lummi Nation is a Native American tribe in western Washington state in the United States. ... Duwamish (the People of the Inside) is a Native American tribe in western Washington. ...


Selected articles

The treaty contains the now-famous provision cited by Judge George Boldt in the Boldt Decision (1974, upheld 1979) (see also the Treaty Article via link, below): United States v. ...

ARTICLE 5.

The right of taking fish at usual and accustomed grounds and stations is further secured to said Indians in common with all citizens of the Territory,

The treaty contains provisions that would raise concern by an attorney in the employ of the Natives during negotiations:

ARTICLE 7.

The President may hereafter, when in his opinion the interests of the Territory shall require and the welfare of the said Indians be promoted, remove them from either or all of the special reservations hereinbefore make to the said general reservation, or such other suitable place within said Territory as he may deem fit, on remunerating them for their improvements and the expenses of such removal, or may consolidate them with other friendly tribes or bands; and he may further at his discretion cause the whole or any portion of the lands hereby reserved, or of such other land as may be selected in lieu thereof, to be surveyed into lots, and assign the same to suc[h] individuals or families as are willing to avail themselves of the privilege, and will locate on the same as a permanent home on the same terms and subject to the same regulations as are provided in the sixth article of the treaty with the Omahas, so far as the same may be applicable.

[...]

ARTICLE 12.

The said tribes and bands further agree not to trade at Vancouver's Island or elsewhere out of the dominions of the United States, nor shall foreign Indians be permitted to reside in their reservations without consent of the superintendent or agent.

The complete treaty, unabridged

Treaty of Point Elliott, 1855


Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at Muckl-te-oh, or Point Elliott, in the territory of Washington, this twenty-second day of January, eighteen hundred and fifty-five, by Isaac I. Stevens, governor and superintendent of Indian affairs for the saidTerritory, on the part of the United States, and the undersigned chiefs, head-men and delegates of the Dwamish, Suquamish, Sk-kahl-mish, Sam-ahmish, Smalh-kamish, Skope-ahmish, St-kah-mish, Snoqualmoo, Skai-wha-mish, N'Quentl-ma-mish, Sk-tah-le-jum, Stoluck-wha-mish, Sno-ho-mish, Skagit, Kik-i-allus, Swin-a-mish, Squin-ah-mish, Sah-ku-mehu, Noo-wha-ha, Nook-wa-chah-mish, Mee-see-qua-guilch, Cho-bah-ah-bish, and othe[r] allied and subordinate tribes and bands of Indians occupying certain lands situated in said Territory of Washington, on behalf of said tribes, and duly authorized by them.


ARTICLE 1.


The said tribes and bands of Indians hereby cede, relinquish, and convey to the United States all their right, title, and interest in and to the lands and country occupied by them, bounded and described as follows: Commencing at a point on the eastern side of Admiralty Inlet, known as Point Pully, about midway between Commencement and Elliott Bays; thence eastwardly, running along the north line of lands heretofore ceded to the United States by the Nisqually, Puyallup, and other Indians, to the summit of the Cascade range of mountains; thence northwardly, following the summit of said range to the 49th parallel of north latitude; thence west, along said parallel to the middle of the Gulf of Georgia; thence through the middle of said gulf and the main channel through the Canal de Arro to the Straits of Fuca, and crossing the same through the middle of Admiralty Inlet to Suquamish Head; thence southwesterly, through the peninsula, and following the divide between Hood's Canal and Admiralty Inlet to the portage known as Wilkes' Portage; thence northeastwardly, and following the line of lands heretofore ceded as aforesaid to Point Southworth, on the western side of Admiralty Inlet, and thence around the foot of Vashon's Island eastwardly and southeastwardly to the place of beginning, including all the islands comprised within said boundaries, and all the right, title, and interest of the said tribes and bands to any lands within the territory of the United States.


ARTICLE 2.


There is, however, reserved for the present use and occupation of the said tribes and bands the following tracts of land, viz: the amount of two sections, or twelve hundred and eighty acres, surrounding the small bight at the head of Port Madison, called by the Indians Noo-sohk-um; the amount of two sections, or twelve hundred and eighty acres, on the north side Hwhomish Bay and the creek emptying into the same called Kwilt-seh-da, the peninsula at the southeastern end of Perry's Island, called Shais-quihl, and the island called Chah-choo-sen, situated in the Lummi River at the point of separation of the mouths emptying respectively into Bellingham Bay and the Gulf of Georgia. All which tracts shall be set apart, and so far as necessary surveyed and marked out for their exclusive use; nor shall any white man be permitted to reside upon the same without permission of the said tribes or bands, and of the superintendent or agent, but, if necessary for the public convenience, roads may be run through the said reserves, the Indians being compensated for any damage thereby done them.


ARTICLE 3.


There is also reserved from out the lands hereby ceded the amount of thirty-six sections, or one township of land, on the northeastern shore of Port Gardner, and north of the mouth of Snohomish River, including Tulalip Bay and the before-mentioned Kwilt-seh-da Creek, for the purpose of establishing thereon an agricultural and industrial school, as hereinafter mentioned and agreed, and with a view of ultimately drawing thereto and settling thereon all the Indians living west of the Cascade Mountains in said Territory. Provided, however, That the President may establish the central agency and general reservation at such other point as he may deem for the benefit of the Indians.


ARTICLE 4.


The said tribes and bands agree to remove to and settle upon the said first above-mentioned reservations within one year after the ratification of this treaty, or sooner, if the means are furnished them. In the mean time it shall be lawful for them to reside upon any land not in the actual claim and occupation of citizens of the United States, and upon any land claimed or occupied, if with the pe-mission [sic] of the owner.


ARTICLE 5.

The right of taking fish at usual and accustomed grounds and stations is further secured to said Indians in common with all citizens of the Territory, and of erecting temporary houses for the purpose of curing, together with the privilege of hunting and gathering roots and berries on open and unclaimed lands. Provided, however, That they shall not take shell-fish from any beds staked or cultivated by citizens.


ARTICLE 6.


In consideration of the above cession, the United States agree to pay to the said tribes and bands the sum of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, in the following manner - - that is to say: For the first year after the ratification hereof, fifteen thousand dollars; for the next two year, twelve thousand dollars each year; for the next three years, ten thousand dollars each year; for the next four years, seven thousand five hundred dollars each years; for the next five years, six thousand dollars each year; and for the last five years, four thousand two hundred and fifty dollars each year. All which said sums of money shall be applied to the use and benefit of the said Indians, under the direction of the President of the United States, who may, from time to time, determine at his discretion upon what beneficial objects to expend the same; and the superintendent of Indian affairs, or other proper officer, shall each year inform the President of the wishes of said Indians in respect thereto.


ARTICLE 7.

The President may hereafter, when in his opinion the interests of the Territory shall require and the welfare of the said Indians be promoted, remove them from either or all of the special reservations hereinbefore make to the said general reservation, or such other suitable place within said Territory as he may deem fit, on remunerating them for their improvements and the expenses of such removal, or may consolidate them with other friendly tribes or bands; and he may further at his discretion cause the whole or any portion of the lands hereby reserved, or of such other land as may be selected in lieu thereof, to be surveyed into lots, and assign the same to suc[h] individuals or families as are willing to avail themselves of the privilege, and will locate on the same as a permanent home on the same terms and subject to the same regulations as are provided in the sixth article of the treaty with the Omahas, so far as the same may be applicable. Any substantial improvements heretofore made by any Indian, and which he shall be compelled to abandon in consequence of this treaty, shall be valued under the direction of the President and payment made accordingly therefor.


ARTICLE 8.


The annuities of the aforesaid tribes and bands shall not be taken to pay the debts of individuals.


ARTICLE 9.


The said tribes and bands acknowledge their dependence on the Government of the United States, and promise to be friendly with all citizens thereof, and they pledge themselves to commit no depredations on the property of such citizens. Should any one or more of them violate this pledge, and the fact be satisfactorily proven before the agent, the property taken shall be returned, or in default thereof, of if injured or destroyed, compensation may be made by the Government out of their annuities. Nor will they make war on any other tribe except in self-defence, but will submit all matters of difference between them and the other Indians to the Government of the United States or its agent for decision, and abide thereby. And if any of the said Indians commit depredations on other Indians within the Territory the same rule shall prevail as that prescribed in this article in cases of depredations against citizens. And the said tribes agree not to shelter or conceal offenders against the laws of the United States, but to deliver them up to the authorities for trial.


ARTICLE 10.


The above tribes and bands are desirous to exclude from their reservations the use of ardent spirits, and to prevent their people from drinking the same, and therefore it is provided that any Indian belonging to said tribe who is guilty of bringing liquor into said reservations, or who drinks liquor, may have his or her proportion of the annuities withheld from him or her for such time as the President may determine.


ARTICLE 11.


The said tribes and bands agree to free all slaves now held by them and not to purchase or acquire others hereafter.


ARTICLE 12.

The said tribes and bands further agree not to trade at Vancouver's Island or elsewhere out of the dominions of the United States, nor shall foreign Indians be permitted to reside in their reservations without consent of the superintendent or agent.

ARTICLE 13.


To enable the said Indians to remove to and settle upon their aforesaid reservations, and to clear, fence, and break up a sufficient quantity of land for cultivation, the United States further agree to pay the sum of fifteen thousand dollars to be laid out and expended under the direction of the President and in such manner as he shall approve.


ARTICLE 14.


The United States further agree to establish at the general agency for the district of Puget's Sound, within one year from the ratification hereof, and to support for a period of twenty years, an agricultural and industrial school, to be free to children of the said tribes and bands in common with those of the other tribes of said district, and to provide the said school with a suitable instructor or instructors, and also to provide a smithy and carpenter's shop, and furnish them with the necessary tools, and employ a blacksmith, carpenter, and farmer for the like term of twenty years to instruct the Indians in their respective occupations. And the United States finally agree to employ a physician to reside at the said central agency, who shall furnish medicine and advice to their sick, and shall vaccinate them; the expenses of said school, shops, persons employed, and medical attendance to be defrayed by the United States, and not deducted from the annuities.


ARTICLE 15.


This treaty shall be obligatory on the contracting parties as soon as the same shall be ratified by the President and Senate of the United States.


In testimony whereof, the said Isaac I. Stevens, governor and superintendent of Indian affairs, and the undersigned chiefs, headmen, and delegates of the aforesaid tribes and bands of Indians, have hereunto set their hands and seals, at the place and on the day and year hereinbefore written.

Issac I. Stevens, Governor and Superintendent. (L.S.)[17]
Seattle, Chief of the Dwamish and Suquamish tribes, his x mark. (L. S.)
Pat-ka-nam, Chief of the Snoqualmoo, Snohomish and other tribes, his x mark. (L.S.)
Chow-its-hoot, Chief of the Lummi and other tribes, his x mark. (L. S.)
Goliah, Chief of the Skagits and other allied tribes, his x mark. (L.S.)
Kwallattum, or General Pierce, Sub-chief of the Skagit tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
S'hootst-hoot, Sub-chief of Snohomish, his x mark. (L.S.)
Snah-talc, or Bonaparte, Sub-chief of Snohomish, his x mark. (L.S.)
Squush-um, or The Smoke, Sub-chief of the Snoqualmoo, his x mark. (L.S.)
See-alla-pa-han, or The Priest, Sub-chief of Sk-tah-le-jum, his x mark. (L.S.)
He-uch-ka-nam, or George Bonaparte, Sub-chief of Snohomish, his x mark. (L.S.)
Tse-nah-talc, or Joseph Bonaparte, Sub-chief of Snohomish, his x mark. (L.S.)
Ns'ski-oos, or Jackson, Sub-chief of Snohomish, his x mark. (L.S.)
Wats-ka-lah-tchie, or John Hobtsthoot, Sub-chief of Snohomish, his x mark. (L.S.)
Smeh-mai-hu, Sub-chief of Skai-wha-mish, his x mark. (L.S.)
Slat-eah-ka-nam, Sub-chief of Snoqualmoo, his x mark. (L.S.)
St'hau-ai, Sub-chief of Snoqualmoo, his x mark. (L.S.)
Lugs-ken, Sub-chief of Skai-wha-mish, his x mark. (L.S.)
S'heht-soolt, or Peter, Sub-chief of Snohomish, his x mark. (L.S.)
Do-queh-oo-satl, Snoqualmoo tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
John Kanam, Snoqualmoo sub-chief, his x mark. (L.S.)
Klemsh-ka-nam, Snoqualmoo, his x mark. (L.S.)
Ts'huahntl, Dwa-mish sub-chief, his x mark. (L.S.)
Kwuss-ka-nam, or George Snatelum, Sen., Skagit tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Hel-mits, or George Snatelum, Skagit sub-chief, his x mark. (L.S.)
S'kwai-kwi, Skagit tribe, sub-chief, his x mark. (L.S.)
Seh-lek-qu, Sub-chief Lummi tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
S'h'-cheh-oos, or General Washington, Sub-chief of Lummi tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Whai-lan-hu, or Davy Crockett, Sub-chief of Lummi tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
She-ah-delt-hu, Sub-chief of Lummi tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Kwult-seh, Sub-chief of Lummi tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Kwull-et-hu, Lummi tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Kleh-kent-soot, Skagit tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Sohn-heh-ovs, Skagit tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
S'deh-ap-kan, or General Warren, Skagit tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Chul-whil-tan, Sub-chief of Suquamish tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Ske-eh-tum, Skagit tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Patchkanam, or Dome, Skagit tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Sats-Kanam, Squin-ah-nush tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Sd-zo-mahtl, Kik-ial-lus band, his x mark. (L.S.)
Dahtl-de-min, Sub-chief of Sah-ku-meh-hu, his x mark. (L.S.)
Sd'zek-du-num, Me-sek-wi-guilse sub-chief, his x mark. (L.S.)
Now-a-chais, Sub-chief of Dwamish, his x mark. (L.S.)
Mis-lo-tche, or Wah-hehl-tchoo, Sub-chief of Suquamish, his x mark. (L.S.)
Sloo-noksh-tan, or Jim, Suquamish tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Moo-whah-lad-hu, or Jack, Suquamish tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Too-leh-plan, Suquamish tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Ha-seh-doo-an, or Keo-kuck, Dwamish tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Hoovilt-meh-tum, Sub-chief of Suquamish, his x mark. (L.S.)
We-ai-pah, Skaiwhamish tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
S'ah-an-hu, or Hallam, Snohomish tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
She-hope, or General Pierce, Skagit tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Hwn-lah-lakq, or Thomas Jefferson, Lummi tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Cht-simpt, Lummi tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Tse-sum-ten, Lummi tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Klt-hahl-ten, Lummi tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Kut-ta-kanam, or John, Lummi tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Ch-lah-ben, Noo-qua-cha-mish band, his x mark. (L.S.)
Noo-heh-oos, Snoqualmoo tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Hweh-uk, Snoqualmoo tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Peh-nus, Skai-whamish tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Yim-ka-dam, Snoqualmoo tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Twooi-as-kut, Skaiwhamish tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Luch-al-kanam, Snoqualmoo tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
S'hoot-kanam, Snoqualmoo tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Sme-a-kanam, Snoqualmoo tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Sad-zis-keh, Snoqualmoo, his x mark. (L.S.)
Heh-mahl, Skaiwhamish band, his x mark. (L.S.)
Charley, Skagit tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Sampson, Skagit tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
John Taylor, Snohomish tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Hatch-kwentum, Skagit tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Yo-i-kum, Skagit tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
T'kwa-ma-han, Skagit tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Sto-dum-kan, Swinamish band, his x mark. (L.S.)
Be-lole, Swinamish band, his x mark. (L.S.)
D'zo-lole-gwam-hu, Skagit tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Steh-shail, William, Skaiwhamish band, his x mark. (L.S.)
Kel-kahl-tsoot, Swinamish tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Pat-sen, Skagit tribe, his x mark. (L.S.)
Pat-teh-us, Noo-wha-ah sub-chief, his x mark. (L.S.)
S'hoolk-ka-nam, Lummi sub-chief, his x mark. (L.S.)
Ch-lok-suts, Lummi sub-chief, his x mark. (L.S.)
Executed in the presence of us - -
M. T. Simmons, Indian agent. [Special Indian Agent, Governor's Point Elliott staff]
C. H. Mason, Secretary of Washington Territory.
Benj. F. Shaw, Interpreter. [Governor's Point Elliott staff]
Chas. M. Hitchcock.
H. a.[sic] Goldsborough. [Initial Treaty Adviser staff, Governor's Point Elliott staff]
George Gibbs. [Initial Treaty Adviser staff]
John H. Scranton.
Henry D. Cock. [Governors' Point Elliott staff]
S. S. Ford, jr.
Orrington Cushman.
Ellis Barnes.
R. S. Bailey.
S. M. Collins.
Lafayetee Balch.
E. S. Fowler.
J. H. Hall.
Rob't Davis.
S. Doc. 319, 58-2, vol 2 43

Ratified Mar 8, 1859. Proclaimed Apr 11, 1859.[18]

[End of the "Treaty of Point Elliott" document.]

After the treaty

Fishing rights were increasingly restricted after 1890. State repression increased through the 1950s. Protest fish-ins began in the 1960s, with successful public, peaceful outmaneuvering of police, garnering wide media attention. The Boldt Decision in 1974 was followed by extraordinary repression by the state and resistance by non-Indians, until the Supreme Court upheld the decision in 1979. Nooksacks, Upper Skagits, Sauks-Suiattles, and Stillaguamishes won federal recogntion in the 1970s, largely due to participation in treaty-rights struggles. Federal courts denied Samish, Snohomish, Snoqualmie, Steilacoom, and Duwamish, because they were not recognized as polities (civil governments).[19] United States v. ...


See also

Duwamish (the People of the Inside) is a Native American tribe in western Washington. ... Two conflicting perspectives exist for the early history of Seattle. ... Native Americans are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ The treaty is entitled and listed in catalogs and archives as the "Treaty of Point Elliott, 1855".
  2. ^ (1) Lange
    (2) Thirteen treaties, 26 December 18547 July 1883, most in 1855.
    (2.1) Fraley
  3. ^ (1) Morgan (1951, 1982), p. 14
    (2) "Page 10". Treaty between the United States and the Duwamish, Suquamish, and other allied and subordinate tribes of Indians in Washington Territory: January 22, 1855, ratified April 11, 1859.. University of Washington Libraries: Digital Collections (1999-05-21). Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
  4. ^ Long (20 January 2001, Essay 2951)
  5. ^ (1) Furtwangler (1997), pp. 6–9, 110–111, 162
    (2) Donaldson pp. 295–296 in Ibid, p. 110
  6. ^ Saito
  7. ^ Deloria in Davis (1994), pp. 645–9
  8. ^ Clinton in Davis (1994), pp. 645–9
  9. ^ (1) Speidel (1967), (1978)
    (2) Morgan (1951, 1982), pp. 39–51
  10. ^ a b "Treaties and Councils: Introduction". The Treaty Trail: U.S. - Indian Treaty Councils in the Northwest. Washington State History Museum (2004). Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
  11. ^ (1) Morgan (1951, 1982)
    (2) Speidel (1978)
    (3) Holm in Hoxie
  12. ^ Morgan (1951, 1982), pp. 20–54
  13. ^ (1) Stevens, Hazard (son) (1901). Life of Isaac Ingalls Stevens, Volume 1 of 2. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, Copyright expired.
    (1.1) NB: Not verified by a Wikipedia editor. Referenced in "Treaties and Councils: Stevens' Entourage". The Treaty Trail: U.S. - Indian Treaty Councils in the Northwest. Washington State History Museum (2004). Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
  14. ^ "Treaties and Councils: What is a Treaty?". The Treaty Trail: U.S. - Indian Treaty Councils in the Northwest. Washington State History Museum (2004). Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
  15. ^ "Treaties and Councils: Stevens' Entourage". The Treaty Trail: U.S. - Indian Treaty Councils in the Northwest. Washington State History Museum (2004). Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
  16. ^ "January 22, 1855: Treaty of Point Elliott". The Treaty Trail: U.S. - Indian Treaty Councils in the Northwest. Washington State History Museum (2004). Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
  17. ^ (1) L.S., Locus Sigilli: Latin, the place of the seal . The signer has used a signature as a substitute for a seal, with witnessed "L.S." the equivalent of a modern notary public. It is commonly used within brackets on copies of documents to indicate the position of the seal in the original, though in the nib pen original it is as in the typeset original illustrated with the article, so it may not have been used, as it commonly was, to call the attention of the signer to the place for making his seal (signature) or mark. (At common law, a contract under seal was a formal contract.) Seals were gradually replaced by the phrase locus sigilli or the abbreviation "L.S." Under modern law anything indicating a seal serves the purpose, since it is the intent of the signers rather than the seal that determines the validity of the contract. In many states today the distinction has been abolished altogether.
    (1.1) Black
  18. ^ "Treaty of Point Elliott, 1855". Governors Office of Indian Affairs, State of Washington. Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
  19. ^ Harmon in Hoxie (1996), pp. 522–3

December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 361st in leap years. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 21 is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 21 is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 21 is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 21 is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 21 is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 21 is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An Embossed Notary Seal. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 21 is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Black, Henry Campbell; Garner, Bryan A. (1999). Law dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Group. ISBN 0-314-24130-2 (deluxe), ISBN 0-314-22864-0. 
  • Clinton, Robert N. (1994). "Sovereignty". Native America in the twentieth century: an encyclopedia Garland reference library of social science; v. 452. Ed. Davis, Mary B.. New York: Garland. p. 611. Retrieved on 2006-08-06. 
  • Deloria, Vine, Jr. (1994). "Treaty". Native America in the twentieth century: an encyclopedia. Ed. Davis, Mary B.. New York: Garland. pp. 645–9. ISBN 0-8240-4846-6 (alk. paper). Retrieved on 2006-08-06. 
  • Fraley, Kevin, Washington Archives Manager (2000). "Washington Indian Treaties". US GenWeb Archives. Retrieved on 2006-04-21.
  • Furtwangler, Albert (1997). Answering Chief Seattle. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-97633-0 (alk. paper). 
  • Harmon, Alexandra (1996). "Puget Sound Tribes". Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Ed. Hoxie, Frederick E.. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 522–4. ISBN 0-395-66921-9. Retrieved on 2006-05-21. 
  • Holm, Tom (Cherokee, Creek) (1996). "Warriors and warfare". Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Ed. Hoxie, Frederick E.. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 666–8. ISBN 0-395-66921-9. Retrieved on 2006-05-21. 
  • "January 22, 1855: Treaty of Point Elliott". The Treaty Trail: U.S. - Indian Treaty Councils in the Northwest. Washington State History Museum (2004). Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
  • Lange, Greg (2003-02-19). "U.S. President Millard Fillmore establishes Washington Territory on March 2, 1853.". HistoryLink.org Essay 5244. Retrieved on 2006-04-21.
    Lange referenced Thomas W. Prosch, "A Chronological History of Seattle From 1850 to 1897" Typescript dated 1900-1901, Northwest Collection, University of Washington Library, Seattle, 36-37;
    Edmond S Meany, "The Cowlitz Convention: Inception of Washington Territory" The Washington Historical Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 1 (January 1922), 3-19.
  • Long, Priscilla (2001-01-20). "Duwamish Tribe wins federal recognition on January 19, 2001, but loses it again two days later.". HistoryLink.org Essay 2951. Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
    Long referenced Hector Castro and Mike Barber, "After Decades, Duwamish Tribe Wins Federal Recognition", Seattle Post-Intelligencer January 20, 2001, (www.seattlep-i.com);
    Bernard McGhee, "Duwamish Tribe Wins Recognition", The Seattle Times, January 20, 2001, (www.seattletimes.com);
    Bureau of Indian Affairs, "BIA Issues Final Determination on the Recognition of the Duwamish Tribal Organization", News Release, January 19, 2001 (http://www.doi.gov/bia);
    Sara Jeanne Greene, "Chief Seattle's Tribe Clings to its Identity", The Seattle Times, June 18, 2001 (www.seattletimes.com);
    Susan Gilmore, "Duwamish Denied Tribal Status", Ibid., September 29, 2001 (http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/134347559_duwamish29m.html).
    Note: This file was revised on 3 August 2001 and again on 20 January 2001.
  • Morgan, Murray (1982 (originally published 1951, 1982 revised and updated, first illuntrated edition)). Skid Road: an Informal Portrait of Seattle. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-95846-4. 
  • "Page 10". Treaty between the United States and the Duwamish, Suquamish, and other allied and subordinate tribes of Indians in Washington Territory: January 22, 1855, ratified April 11, 1859.. University of Washington Libraries: Digital Collections (1999-05-21). Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
  • Saito, Natsu Taylor (2006). "Introduction to American Indian Sovereignty: Indian Rights to Sovereignty". Georgia State University College of Law. Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
  • Speidel, William C. ("Bill") (1978). Doc Maynard: the man who invented Seattle. Seattle: Nettle Creek Publishing Company, 196–197, 200. ISBN 0-914890-02-6. 
    Speidel provides a substantial bibliography with extensive primary sources.
  • Speidel, William C. ("Bill") (1967). Sons of the profits; or, There's no business like grow business: the Seattle story, 1851-1901. Seattle: Nettle Creek Publishing Company, 196–197, 200. ISBN 0-914890-00-X, ISBN 0-914890-06-9. 
    Speidel provides a substantial bibliography with extensive primary sources.
  • "Treaties and Councils: Introduction". The Treaty Trail: U.S. - Indian Treaty Councils in the Northwest. Washington State History Museum (2004). Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
  • "Treaties and Councils: Stevens' Entourage". The Treaty Trail: U.S. - Indian Treaty Councils in the Northwest. Washington State History Museum (2004). Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
  • "Treaty of Point Elliott, 1855". Governors Office of Indian Affairs, State of Washington. Retrieved on 2006-07-21.

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 21 is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 21 is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 3 is the 215th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (216th in leap years), with 150 days remaining. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 21 is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 21 is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 21 is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 21 is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 21 is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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