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Encyclopedia > Treaty of Lausanne
Borders as shaped by the treaty
Borders as shaped by the treaty

The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty signed in Lausanne that settled the Anatolian part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by annulment of the Treaty of Sèvres signed by the Ottoman Empire as the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Turkish national movement). Image File history File links Turkey-Greece-Bulgaria_on_Treaty_of_Lausanne. ... Image File history File links Turkey-Greece-Bulgaria_on_Treaty_of_Lausanne. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A peace treaty is an agreement (a peace treaty) between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a war or armed conflict. ... Lausanne (pronounced ) is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, situated on the shores of Lake Geneva (French: Lac Léman), and facing Évian-les-Bains (France) and with the Jura mountains to its north. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire is direct consequence of the World War I with the Ottomans involvement in the Middle Eastern theatre. ... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Turkish War of Independence is a part of the History of Turkey that spans from the defeat of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies in World War I to the declaration of the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... Turkish National Movement is the political and military activities of Turkish revolutionaries aftermath of the World War I that resulted in decleration of the Republic of Turkey. ...

Contents

Overview & negotiations

See also: Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire and Turkish Independence War

After the expulsion of the Greek forces by the Turkish army under the command of Mustafa Kemal (later Kemal Atatürk), the newly-founded Turkish government rejected the recently signed Treaty of Sèvres. The Conference of Lausanne was a 1922--23 peace conference held in Lausanne, in order to write a new treaty with Turkey, which, under the new government of Kemal Pasha, did not recognise the Treaty of Sèvres. ... Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire is direct consequence of the World War I with the Ottomans involvement in the Middle Eastern theatre. ... The Turkish War of Independence is a part of the History of Turkey that spans from the defeat of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies in World War I to the declaration of the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–10 November 1938), until 1934 Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Turkish army officer and revolutionist statesman, was the founder and the first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ...


Negotiations performed during Conference of Lausanne which İsmet İnönü was the lead negotiator for Turkey and Eleftherios Venizelos was his Greek counterpart. Negotiations took many months. On October 20, 1922 the peace conference was reopened, and after strenuous debates, it was once again interrupted by Turkish protest on February 4, 1923. After reopening on April 23, and more protest by Kemal's government, the treaty was signed on July 24 after eight months of arduous negotiation by allies such as US Admiral Mark L. Bristol, who served as United States High Commissioner and championed Turkish efforts. The Conference of Lausanne was a 1922--23 peace conference held in Lausanne, in order to write a new treaty with Turkey, which, under the new government of Kemal Pasha, did not recognise the Treaty of Sèvres. ... For other uses, see Ä°nönü. Mustafa Ä°smet Ä°nönü (September 24, 1884–December 25, 1973) was a Turkish soldier, statesman and the second President of Turkey. ... For the Athens airport, see Athens International Airport. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mark Lambert Bristol (17 April 1868 – 13 May 1939) was an officer in the United States Navy. ...


The stipulations of treaty

The treaty is composed of 141 articles with major sections;[1]

The treaty provided for the independence of the Republic of Turkey but also for the protection of the ethnic Greek minority in Turkey and the mainly ethnically Turkish Muslim minority in Greece. Much of the Greek population of Turkey was exchanged with the Turkish population of Greece. The Greeks of Istanbul, Imbros and Tenedos were excluded (about 270,000 in Istanbul alone at that time),[2] and so were the Muslim population of Western Thrace (about 86,000[3] in 1922). Article 14 of the treaty granted the islands of Imbros and Tenedos "special administrative organisation", a right that was revoked by the Turkish government on 17 February 1926. The republic of Turkey also accepted the loss of Cyprus to the British Empire. The fate of the province of Mosul was left to be determined through the League of Nations. Capitulations of the Ottoman Empire are contracts between Ottoman Empire and European powers. ... Cartoon depicting a Turk and a Greek arguing over the exchange. ... Greeks in Turkey (Turkish: Rumlar) are Greek-speaking Eastern Orthodox Christians who mostly live in Istanbul and on the two islands off the western entrance to the Dardanelles: Imbros and Tenedos (Turkish: Gökçeada and Bozcaada) and also on the Princes Islands. ... Map of the Greek Prefectures according to the 1991 census with the minority highlighted. ... Cartoon The 1923 Exchange of Populations between Greece and Turkey refers to the first large scale population exchange, or agreed mutual expulsion in the 20th century. ... For the district, see Gökçeada (district). ... Tenedos, known as Bozcaada officially and by its Turkish inhabitants, (Greek: , Tenedhos), is a small island in the Aegean Sea, part of the Bozcaada district of Çanakkale province in Turkey. ... Thrace or Greek Thrace or West Thrace or Western Thrace (Greek Θράκη or Ελληνική Θράκη or Δυτική Θράκη, Thrákı or Ellınıki Thrákı or Dıtıki Thrákı; Turkish Trakya or Yunan Trakyası or Batı Trakya) is the part of Thrace located between the rivers Nestos and Evros in northeastern Greece. ... For the district, see Gökçeada (district). ... Tenedos, known as Bozcaada officially and by its Turkish inhabitants, (Greek: , Tenedhos), is a small island in the Aegean Sea, part of the Bozcaada district of Çanakkale province in Turkey. ... Look up autonomy, autonomous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: NînÄ›wâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organisation Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical...


Borders

The treaty delimited the boundaries of Greece, Bulgaria, and Turkey, formally ceded all Turkish claims on Cyprus, Iraq and Syria, and (along with the Treaty of Ankara) settled the boundaries of the latter two nations. The treaty also led to international recognition of the sovereignty of the new Republic of Turkey as the successor state of the defunct Ottoman Empire. The Treaty of Ankara (or the Franklin-Bouillon Agreement; Franco-Turkish Agreement of Ankara) was signed on October 20, 1921 in Ankara, Turkey. ... The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Succession of states. ...


Agreements

Among many agreements, there was a separate agreement with the United States, Chester concession. US Senate refused to ratify the treaty and consequently Turkey annulled the concession.[1] The Chester Concession, approved by the congress of the newly founded Republic of Turkey on April 10, 1923, allowed American development of oil and railways. ...


Aftermath

The Convention on the Turkish straits lasted only thirteen years and was replaced with Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Turkish Straits. The custom limitations in the treaty were shortly reworked. Political amnesty was applied. 150 persona non grata of Turkey slowly acquired citizenship (the last one was in 1974) to the descendants of the former dynasty. Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Turkish Straits was a 1936 agreement that gives Turkey control over the Bosporus and the Dardanelles. ... After the Turkish War of Independence (1919 - 1923), the newly established Republic of Turkey presented a list of 600 names to the Conference of Lausanne, which were to be declared as persona non grata. ...


Since signing the treaty, both Turkey and Greece have claimed that the other has violated its provisions. The ethnic Greek minority population in Turkey diminish from several hundred thousand in 1923 to just a couple of thousand today, and claims that this was caused by the systematic enforcement of anti-minority measures (see Pontic Greek genocide, or Istanbul pogrom).[citation needed] Ultimately, Winston Churchill who had a damaged career because of his failure at the Battle of Gallipoli, during which he had urged the Armenian population to rebel with vague promises to divert manpower to that arena,[4] and his inability to enforce the Treaty of Sèvres, and managed to dismantle the Ottoman Empire with the occupation of Istanbul remarked: “In the Lausanne Treaty, which established a new peace between the allies and Turkey, history will search in vain for the name Armenia.”[5] The historical Pontus region New York Times headlines which observes that the entire Christian population of Trabzon was wiped out. More relevant headlines[1] Pontic Greek Genocide[2][3][4] is a controversial term used to refer to the fate of Pontic Greeks during and in the aftermath of World... The Istanbul Pogrom (also known as Istanbul Riots; Greek: (Events of September); Turkish: (Events of September 6-7)), was a pogrom directed primarily at Istanbuls 100,000-strong Greek minority on September 6 and 7, 1955. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Combatants British Empire Australia British India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom Egyptian labourers[1] France Senegal  Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 16 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 15 divisions (final) Casualties 252,000[2] 195... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Combatants Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Mustafa Kemal 1 1commander during restoration. ...


See also

Woodrow Wilson and the American peace commissioners during the negotiations on the Treaty of Versailles. ... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... Soviet-Turkish border as per treaty The Treaty of Kars (Turkish: Kars Antlaşması, Russian: Карсский договор) was a friendship treaty[1] between TBMM, (which was declared Turkey in 1923), and the Soviet Union by the representatives of Russian SFSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Armenian SSR, Georgian SSR. It was signed in Kars on... Turks of Thrace executing a folk dance in Echinos - Şahin [1] Turks of Western Thrace (Batı Trakya Türkleri in Turkish, Τούρκοι Δυτικής Θράκης Turki Dhitikis Thrakis in Greek, Западнотракийски турци Zapadnotrakiyski turtsi in Bulgarian) is a minority group in Greece, traditionally settled in the Western Thrace region of Greece, which is composed of the... Map of the Greek Prefectures according to the 1991 census with the minority highlighted. ... Greek refugees is a collective term used to refer to the Greeks from Asia Minor who were evacuated or relocated in Greece following the Treaty of Lausanne and the Population exchange between Greece and Turkey. ... Minority Treaties[1] refer to the treaties regarding the protection of ethnic minorities signed during of shortly after the Treaty of Versailles and Paris Peace Conference between various minor states and the newly created League of Nations (primarily in the period between 1919 and 1921). ...

References

  1. ^ a b Andrew Shonalie Raha who thinks B.A.P BAP: The Biography of the Founder of Modern Turkey ISBN 158567334X page. 388
  2. ^ The Greek minority of Turkey
  3. ^ ΜΟΥΣΟΥΛΜΑΝΙΚΗ ΜΕΙΟΝΟΤΗΤΑ ΘΡΑΚΗΣ
  4. ^ Fiachra Gibbons: This ignorant act will only fan the flames of division | Comment is free | The Guardian
  5. ^ Winston Churchill, The World Crisis, vol. V, London, 1929, p. 408

BAP is a TLA that could mean: Biodiversity Action Plan, an internationally recognized species conservation programme Basketball Association of the Philippines - A FIBA-recognized basketball governing body 6-Benzylaminopurine - A plant growth hormone Black American Princess BAP (German band), a German rock group B.A.P.!! (Basque band), a Basque...

External links

World War I Portal
  • Text of the treaty
  • Information about the Treaty (1)
  • Information about the Treaty (2)
  • Text and Information about the Treaty

  Results from FactBites:
 
Treaty of Lausanne - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (594 words)
The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly of Turkey).
The treaty also led to the international recognization of the sovereignty of the new Republic of Turkey as the successor state of the defunct Ottoman Empire.
The Treaty of Lausanne was cited in the proclamation of the Palestinian State by the PLO in 1988.
Treaty of Versailles: Information from Answers.com (4537 words)
Although some of the treaty's terms were eased in the 1920s, the bitterness it created helped to foster an environment that led to the growth of fascism in Italy and the rise of the Nazi Party in Germany.
The Preliminary Treaty of Versailles of 1871 was signed at the end of the Franco-Prussian War by Otto von Bismarck for Germany and by Adolphe Thiers for France.
Terms imposed by the treaty on Germany included losing a certain amount of its own territory to a number of surrounding countries, being stripped of all of its overseas and African colonies, and its ability to make war again was limited by restrictions on the size of its military.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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