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Encyclopedia > Treaty of Gulistan
Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty

The Treaty of Gulistan (Russian: Гюлистанский договор; Persian: عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia on October 24, 1813 in the village of Gulistan in Karabakh as a result of the first Russo-Persian War. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 782 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1565 × 1200 pixel, file size: 331 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: User:Siamax Source: Farsi Wikipedia Tag: Persia-Russia bodreds before and after the Treaty of Gulistan Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 782 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1565 × 1200 pixel, file size: 331 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: User:Siamax Source: Farsi Wikipedia Tag: Persia-Russia bodreds before and after the Treaty of Gulistan Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... A peace treaty is an agreement (a peace treaty) between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a war or armed conflict. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Moscow Language(s) Russian Religion Russian Orthodoxy Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721–1725 Peter the Great  - 1894–1917 Nicholas II History  - Accession of Peter I May 7, 1682 NS, April 27, 1682 OS²  - Empire proclaimed October 22, 1721 NS, October... The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: ‎ - or دودمان قاجار - Qâjâr) was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Gulistan or Golestan (Rose garden in Persian) can mean: The Iranian province of Golestan. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


The peace negotiations were precipitated by Lankaran's fall to Gen. Pyotr Kotlyarevsky on January 1, 1813. The text was prepared by the British diplomat Sir Gore Ouseley who served as the mediator and wielded great influence at the Persian court. It was signed by Nikolai Fyodorovich Rtischev from the Russian side[1] and Haji Mirza Abol Hasan Khan from the Iranian side in eleven chapters. Lankaran, or Lenkoran, (Azeri: Lənkəran) is a small city in Azerbaijan, on the coast of the Caspian Sea, near the southern border with Iran, with a population of 48,400 (2002), at least half of which are Talysh. ... Pyotr Stepanovich Kotlyarevsky (1782-1852) was a Ukrainian military hero in the Russian imperial service. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ...

Contents

Stipulations

By this treaty:

  1. "Russia by this instrument was confirmed in possession of all the khanates -- Karabagh, Gandja, Shekeen, Shirvan, Derbend, Kouba, and Baku, together with part of Talish and the fortress of Lenkoran. Persia further abandoned all pretensions to Daghestan, Georgia, Mingrelia, Imeretia, and Abkhazia." [2]
  2. These lands include:
    1. All the cities, towns, and villages of Georgia, including all the villages and towns on the coast of the Black Sea, such as:
    2. Megrelia,
    3. Abkhazia,
    4. Imeretia,
    5. Guria;
    6. Almost all the cities, towns and villages of the khanates in South Caucasus, including:
    7. Baku khanate (now capital of Azerbaijan Republic),
    8. Shirvan Khanate,
    9. Derbent,
    10. Karabakh khanate,
    11. Ganja khanate,
    12. Shaki Khanate,
    13. Quba Khanate,
    14. part of the Talysh Khanate;
  3. Iran loses all rights to navigate the Caspian Sea, and Russia is granted exclusive rights to station its military fleet in the Caspian Sea.
  4. Both countries agree on the establishment of free trade, with Russians having free access to conduct business anywhere in Iran.
  5. Russia in return promises to support Abbas Mirza as heir to the Persian throne after the death of Fath Ali Shah. (which did not happen)

NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The historic region of Samegrelo in Georgia. ... Capital Sokhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Georgian Government  -  Chairman, Cabinet of Ministers  -  Chairman, Supreme Council Temur Mzhavia Autonomous republic of Georgia  -  Georgian independence Declared Recognised 9 April 1991 25 December 1991  Currency Georgian lari (GEL) Anthem Aiaaira Capital Sukhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Russian1 Government  -  President Sergei Bagapsh  -  Prime Minister Alexander Ankvab... Imereti is a historic province in Western Georgia, situated along the middle and upper reaches of the Rioni river. ... Guria is a region in Georgia (Caucasus), in the western part of the country, bordered by the eastern end of the Black Sea. ... South Caucasus: Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan South Caucasus (also referred sometimes as Transcaucasus) is a name to the transitional region between Europe and Asia extending from the Greater Caucasus to the Turkish and Iranian borders, between the Black and Caspian seas. ... Baku Khanate was independent principality on the territory of modern day Azerbaijan between 1747 and 1806. ... In 1742 Shemakha was taken and destroyed by Nadir Shah of Persia, who relocated inhabitants into a new town under the same name about 16 miles to the west (Agsu) , at the foot of the main chain of the Caucasus. ... Derbent is built around a Sassanid fortress, the only one preserved in the world. ... The Karabakh khanate (QarabaÄŸ xanlığı in Azeri) was a Persian ruled[1] feudal state that existed in 1748-1822 in the present-day Nagorno-Karabakh and adjacent lowland areas. ... Ganja khanate was an independent principality that existed in the territory of Azerbaijan in 1747-1805. ... Shaki khanate was a principalty on the territory of Azerbaijan between 1743 and 1819 with a capital in a town of Shaki. ... Quba Khanate was independent principality on the territory of modern day Azerbaijan between 1747 and 1806. ... Talysh khanate was an independent principality that existed on the territory of modern Azerbaijan Republic between 1747 and 1813. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... A rare occurance of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Abbas Mirza (عباس میرزا in Persian) ‎(August 26, 1789 - October 25, 1833), was a crown prince of Persia, known because of his wars with Russia and the Ottoman empire, and his death before his father, the shah. ... Fath Ali Shah was the second Qajar King of Persia. ...

Assessment

Iran officially sees this and the succeeding Treaty of Turkmenchay as one of its most humiliating treaties ever signed. The treaty is also regarded by Iranians as the main reason why Fath Ali Shah is seen as one of Iran's most incompetent rulers in memory. Treaty of Turkmenchay (also Turkmenchai, Torkamanchay) was signed on February 10, 1828 between Persia (now Iran) and Russia. ... Fath Ali Shah was the second Qajar King of Persia. ...


The scholars in Azerbaijan point out that the Karabakh khanate, where the treaty was signed, had pursued independent foreign policy as early as 1795, when "Ibrahim Khalil Khan, the wali of Qarabagh, fearing for his independence, warned Sultan Selim III of Agha Muhammad Khan Qajar's ambitions to subdue Azerbaijan and later Qarabagh, Erivan and Georgia. In the same year Muhammad Khan, the hakim of Erivan, also wrote the Sultan alerting him to Agha Muhammad's "aggression" and seeking Ottoman protection" [3].


Russian imperial historians maintain that Russia's absorption of the Transcaucasus territories delivered their population from constant Iranian and Ottoman invasions, the Christian nations of Caucasus were liberated from Muslim repression, ushering in the years of peace and relative economic stability. The Transcaucasus is a region covering the majority of Caucasus mountain range. ... This article is about the Republic of Turkey. ...


Aftermath


According to Prof. Tadeusz Swietochowski:

"The brief and successful Russian campaign of 1812 was concluded with the Treaty of Gulistan, which was signed on October 12 of the following year. The treaty provided for the incorporation into the Russian Empire of vast tracts of Iranian territory, including Daghestan, Georgia with the Sheragel province, Imeretia, Guria, Mingrelia, and Abkhazia, as well as the khanates of Karabagh, Ganja, Sheki, Shirvan, Derbent, Kuba, Baku, and Talysh.

[4]


According to Prof. Svante Cornell:

In 1812 Russia ended a war with Turkey and went on the offensive against Iran . This lead to the treaty of Gulistan in 1813, which gave Russia control over large territories that hitherto had been at least nominally Iranian, and moreover a say in Iranian succession politics. The whole of Daghestan and Georgia, including Mingrelia and Abkhazia were formally ceded to Russia , as well as eight Azeri Khanates (Karabakh, Ganja, Sheki, Kuba, Shirvan, Talysh, Baku , and Derbent). However as we have seen the Persians soon challenged Russia ’s rule in the area, resulting in a military disaster. Iran lost control over the whole of Azerbaijan , and with the Turkemenchai settlement of 1828 Russia threatened to establish its control over Azerbaijan unless Iran paid a war indemnity. The British helped the Iranians with the matter, but the fact remained that Russian troops had marched as far as south of Tabriz . Although certain areas (including Tabriz ) were returned to Iran , Russia was in fact at the peak of its territorial expansion. [5]

According to Cambridge History of Iran:

"Even when rulers on the plateau lacked the means to effect suzerainty beyond the Aras, the neighboring Khanates were still regarded as Iranian dependencies. Naturally, it it was those Khanates located closes to the province of Azarbaijan which most frequently experienced attempts to re-impose Iranian suzerainty: the Khanates of Erivan, Nakhchivan and Qarabagh across the Aras, and the cis-Aras Khanate of Talish, with its administrative headquarters located at Lankaran and therefore very vulnerable to pressure, either from the direction of Tabriz or Rasht. Beyond the Khanate of Qarabagh, the Khan of Ganja and the Vali of Gurjistan (ruler of the Kartli-Kakheti kingdom of south-east Georgia), although less accessible for purposes of coercion, were also regarded as the Shah's vassals, as were the Khans of Shakki and Shirvan, north of the Kura river. The contacts between Iran and the Khanates of Baku and Qubba, however, were more tenuous and consisted mainly of maritime commercial links with Anzali and Rasht. The effectiveness of these somewhat haphazard assertions of suzeiranty dependend on the ability of a particular Shah to make his will felt, and the determination of the local khans to evade obligations they regarded as onerous." [6]

The two treaties of Gulistan and Turkemenchai also divided Azerbaijani[7]. and Talysh[8] from their brethren in Iran and the wider Iranian cultural world. Treaty of Turkmenchay (also Turkmenchai, Torkamanchay) was signed on February 10, 1828 between Persia (now Iran) and Russia. ...


References

  1. ^ (Russian) Treaty of Gulistan
  2. ^ John F. Baddeley, "The Russian Conquest of the Caucasus", Longman, Green and Co., London: 1908, p. 90
  3. ^ Muhammad Riza Nasiri, "Asnad va Mukatabat-i Tarikh-i Qajariya", Tehran, Intisharat-i Kayhan, 1366/1987, 7 - 8
  4. ^ Tadeusz Swietochowski,Russia and Azerbaijan. A Borderland in Transition. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995
  5. ^ Prof. Svante Cornell, "Small nations and great powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus", Richmond: Curzon Press, 2001, p. 37.
  6. ^ The Cambridge history of Iran By William Bayne Fisher, Published by Cambridge University Press, 1991, pp. 145-146
  7. ^ "However the result of the Treaty of Turkmenchay was a tragedy for the Azerbaijani people. It demarcated a borderline through their territory along the Araxes river, a border that still today divides the Azerbaijani people." in Svante Cornell, "Small nations and great powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus", Richmond: Curzon Press, 2001, p. 37.
  8. ^ Michael P. Croissant,"The Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict: causes and implications",Praeger/Greenwood,1998 - Page 67: The historical homeland of the Talysh was divided between Russia and Iran in 1813
  • H. Pir Nia, Abbas Eghbal Ashtiani, B. Agheli. History of Persia. Tehran, 2002. p.673-686. ISBN 964-6895-16-6

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gulistan Treaty - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (389 words)
Gulistan Treaty of 1813 (also written Golestan, Gulestan, and Golistan), was a peace treaty between imperial Russia and Qajarid Persia, signed on October 24 (November 5) in a village of Gulestan in Karabakh at the end of the first Russo-Persian Wars (1804-1813).
The treaty was set up by Sir Gore Ouseley of Great Britain who served as the mediator, and was signed by Haji Mirza Abol Hasan Khan from the Iranian side in 11 chapters.
The treaty is also regarded by Iranians as the main reason why Fath Ali Shah is seen as one of Iran's most incompetent rulers in memory.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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