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Encyclopedia > Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
The Mexican Cession (red) and the Gadsden Purchase (orange). Part of the area marked as Gadsden Purchase near modern-day Mesilla, New Mexico was disputed after the Treaty

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is the peace treaty, largely dictated by the United States[1] to the interim government of a militarily occupied Mexico, that ended the Mexican-American War (1846–1848). The treaty provided for the Mexican Cession, in which Mexico ceded 1.36 million km² (525,000 square miles) (55%[2] of its pre-war territory) to the United States in exchange for US$15 million (equivalent to $313 million in 2006 dollars) and the ensured safety of pre-existing property rights of Mexican citizens in the transferred territories, the latter of which the United States subsequently failed to honor. The United States also agreed to take over $3.25 million ($68 million in 2006 dollars) in debts Mexico owed to American citizens. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. ... The Gadsden Purchase (shown with present-day state boundaries and cities) The Gadsden Purchase is a 29,640 mi² (76,770 km²) region of what is today southern Arizona and New Mexico that was purchased by the United States from Mexico in 1853. ... Mesilla is a town located in Doña Ana County, New Mexico. ... A peace treaty is an agreement (a peace treaty) between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a war or armed conflict. ... Ad interim (ad int) is Latin for temporarily or in the meantime. It also refers to a diplomatic officer who acts in place of an ambassador, as in the term chargé daffaires ad interim. Examples from classic literature: No; but she has become queen of Paris, ad interim, and... Belligerent military occupation occurs when the control and authority over a territory belonging to a state passes to a hostile army. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 18,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ... Inflation rates around the world. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city but now a state), and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ...


The Treaty took its name from what is now the suburb of Mexico City where it was signed on 2 February 1848. Nickname: Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ...


The cession that the treaty facilitated included parts of the modern-day U.S. states of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Wyoming, as well as the whole of California, Nevada, and Utah. The remaining parts of what are today the states of Arizona and New Mexico were later ceded under the 1853 Gadsden Purchase. Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties/Parishes/Boroughs, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... there is a jungle in nevada by the park This article is about the U. S. state of Nevada. ... Official language(s) English Capital Salt Lake City Largest city Salt Lake City Area  Ranked 13th  - Total 84,889 sq mi (219,887 km²)  - Width 270 miles (435 km)  - Length 350 miles (565 km)  - % water 3. ... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... The Gadsden Purchase (shown with present-day state boundaries and cities) The Gadsden Purchase is a 29,640 mi² (76,770 km²) region of what is today southern Arizona and New Mexico that was purchased by the United States from Mexico in 1853. ...

Contents

Background

Under U.S. President John Tyler, Texas was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1845. It became the 28th state later that year under President James K. Polk. The Mexican government had long warned that annexation meant war with the United States. Britain and France, which recognized the independence of Texas, repeatedly tried to dissuade Mexico from declaring war against a much more powerful neighbor. British efforts to mediate were fruitless in part because additional political disputes (particularly the Oregon boundary dispute) arose between Mexico, Britain and the United States. Before the outbreak of hostilities, on November 10, 1845, the United States president James K. Polk had sent negotiator John Slidell to Mexico to offer the country around $5 million for the territory of Nuevo Mexico, and up to $40 million for Alta California.[3] Mexican members of government had simply dismissed Slidell, refusing to even meet with him[4] because they were greatly insulted by such an offer. This is because earlier that year Mexico had broken off diplomatic relations with the United States over the annexation of Texas, which Mexico had warned would be considered an act of war if passed by the US Congress. Mexico's basis for this was partly a condition of the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 between Spain and the United States in which the US had relinquished all claims to Texas.
John Tyler, Jr. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... James Knox Polk (November 2, 1795–June 15, 1849) was the eleventh President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1845 to March 4, 1849. ... The Oregon Country/Columbia District Disputed Area is the main area of dispute, although the whole region was disputed The Oregon boundary dispute (often called the Oregon question) arose as a result of competing British and American claims to the Oregon Country, a region of northwestern North America known also... James Knox Polk (November 2, 1795–June 15, 1849) was the eleventh President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1845 to March 4, 1849. ... John Slidell (1793 – July 26, 1871), a native of New York City, moved to Louisiana and became a U.S. representative and a U.S. senator from that state in the mid-nineteenth century. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... Republic of Texas The Texas Annexation of 1845 was the annexation of Texas by the United States of America as the 28th state. ... Act of war can refer to: Casus belli: a political science term meaning the just cause for a war Act of War: Direct Action, Act of War: High Treason and Act of War: Final Option: computer games. ... The Adams-On s Treaty of 1819 (formally titled the Treaty of Amity, Settlement, and Limits Between the United States of America and His Catholic Majesty, and also known as the Transcontinental Treaty of 1819, and sometimes the Florida Treaty) was a historic agreement between the United States and Spain...


After this snub Polk, an unashamed expansionist, himself took insult[4] and actively sought to provoke war with Mexico to take by force what he could not obtain by diplomatic means.[5][6] Expansionism is the doctrine of expanding the territorial base (or economic influence) of a country, usually by means of military aggression. ...


He finally found an excuse to do this in the Thornton Affair an incident that took place on disputed territory near the Rio Grande (see the Treaties of Velasco). United States President Polk signed a declaration of war into effect on May 13, 1846, almost two months before the Mexican congress was forced to formally declare war on July 1. The Thornton Affair, also known as the Thornton Skirmish, was an incident between the militaries of the United States and Mexico. ... A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more states, or over the possession/control of land by one state after it has conquered it from a former state no longer currently recognized by the occupying power. ... Río Bravo redirects here. ... The Treaties of Velasco were two treaties signed at Velasco, Texas, on 14 May 1836 between the republics of Mexico and Texas, in the aftermath of the Battle of San Jacinto (21 April 1836). ... President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ...


Following Mexico's subsequent defeat in the Mexican-American war it left them with little choice but to accept the United States' demands, or risk total annexation of Mexico.[4][7] A movement in the United States that was not content with seizing half of Mexico’s national territory after the Mexican-American War of 1846, and thus wanted to annex all of Mexico. ...

Part of the original treaty
Part of the original treaty

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 382 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 940 pixel, file size: 112 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Original Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, from the Library of Congress. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 382 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 940 pixel, file size: 112 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Original Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, from the Library of Congress. ...

Treaty agreed upon

The treaty was signed by Nicholas Trist on behalf of the United States and Luis G. Cuevas, Bernardo Couto and Miguel Atristain as plenipotentiary representatives of Mexico on February 2, 1848, at the main altar of the old Cathedral of Guadalupe at Villa Hidalgo (today Gustavo A. Madero, D.F.), slightly north of Mexico City as U.S troops under the command of General Winfield Scott were occupying Mexico City. It was subsequently ratified by the United States Senate by a vote of 38 to 14 on March 10, 1848 and by the Mexican government on May 19, 1848. This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The term plenipotentiary (from the Latin, plenus + potens, full + power) refers to, as a noun, a person who has, or as an adjective that confers, full powers. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Gustavo A. Madero is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


However, the version of the treaty ratified by the United States Senate eliminated Article X, which stated that the U.S. government would honor and guarantee all land grants awarded in lands ceded to the United States to citizens of Spain and Mexico by those respective governments. Article VIII guaranteed that Mexicans who remained more than one year in the ceded lands would automatically become full-fledged American citizens (or they could declare their intention of remaining Mexican citizens); however, this Article was effectively weakened by Article IX, modified by the U.S. Senate to significantly change the first paragraph of this article and exclude the last two, to ambiguously state that Mexican citizens would "be admitted at the proper time (to be judged of by the Congress of the United States)" instead of "admitted as soon as possible", which the original article agreed upon had stated. - Emo Philips A word, phrase, sentence, or other communication is called ambiguous if it can be reasonably interpreted in more than one way. ...


Protocol of Querétaro

On May 26 1848, when the two countries exchanged ratifications of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, U.S. emissaries sought to reassure Mexico that civil and property rights were not threatened by the Senate's modifications. They attempted to do this by offering three explanations contained within the written protocol.


The protocol was signed in the city of the same name by A. H. Sevier, Nathan Clifford and Luis de la Rosa. Nathan Clifford (August 18, 1803–July 25, 1881) was an American statesman, diplomat and jurist. ...

Effects

The main outcome of the treaty was the huge loss of Mexico's northern territories to the United States. In addition, the recognition of the Rio Grande as the boundary between the State of Texas and Mexico, and the legitimacy of the state of Texas itself, came about as a result of the treaty. Whereas before the Americans (who were known as anglos) were considered an unwelcome nuisance in the Mexican provinces of Nuevo Mexico and Alta California, who refused to obey Mexican law, the opposite now became true of the Mexicans in the eyes of American settlers, who now found themselves in newly created US Territories. Official language(s) No Official Language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) No Official Language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Look up anglo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Alta California (Upper California) was formed in 1804 when the province of California, then a part of the Spanish colony of New Spain, was divided in two along the line separating the Franciscan missions in the north from the Dominican missions in the south. ...


The amount of money given to Mexico for the territory annexed, half the amount the United States was willing to pay for it before the outbreak of war, was openly seen as a token gesture and a ploy to divert attention away from the fact that the U.S. had used military force to gain the Mexican land. A leading U.S. newpaper at the time, the Whig intelligencer sardonically concluded that; A military or military force (n. ...

We take nothing by conquest.... Thank God.[8][9]

Border disputes continued; the United States's desire to expand its territory continued unabated and Mexico's economic problems presisted, leading to the controversial Gadsden Purchase in 1854 and the obscure Republic of Lower California filibustering incident in that same year. The treaty of Mesilla, which concluded the Gadsden purchase of 1854, also reaffirmed the property guarantees of Guadalupe Hidalgo.[10] The Gadsden Purchase (shown with present-day state boundaries and cities) The Gadsden Purchase is a 29,640 mi² (76,770 km²) region of what is today southern Arizona and New Mexico that was purchased by the United States from Mexico in 1853. ... The Republic of Lower California, was established by American William Walker in the area of North America subject to the jurisdiction of Mexico. ... Filibuster can mean a legislative tactic. ...


The shifting of the Rio Grande would much later cause a dispute over the boundary between Purchase lands and those of the state of Texas. (See Country Club Dispute) The Country Club Area is a suburb of El Paso, Texas. ...


See also

The Gadsden Purchase (shown with present-day state boundaries and cities) The Gadsden Purchase is a 29,640 mi² (76,770 km²) region of what is today southern Arizona and New Mexico that was purchased by the United States from Mexico in 1853. ... The Treaty of Cahuenga ended the fighting of the Mexican-American War in California. ... Native Americans of the Tohono Oodham (Papago) Tribe, from the Report The United States and Mexican Boundary Survey (1848-1855) set the boundary between the United States and Mexico according to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican-American War. ... The Annexation Bill of 1866 was a bill introduced on July 2, 1866 but not passed in the United States House of Representatives. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ War's End: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Richard Griswold del Castillo. Retrieved on 14 June 2007.
  2. ^ Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. www.ourdocuments.gov. Retrieved on 27 June 2007.
  3. ^ Bronwyn Mills U.S.-Mexican war p. 23 ISBN 0816049327
  4. ^ a b c James K. Polk's Third Annual Message, December 7th, 1847. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved on 27 June 2007.
  5. ^ "We were sent to provoke a fight, but it was essential that Mexico should commence it." Personal memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant, Volume I. Chapter IV
  6. ^ "It looks as if the government sent a small force on purpose to bring war, so as to have a pretext for taking California and as much of this country(Mexico) as it chooses." Diary of Colonel Ethan Allen Hitchcock
  7. ^ Mexican Argument for Annexation, The Living age ... Volume 10, Issue 123, September 19, 1846 available by searching [1]
  8. ^ Kenneth C. Davis, “Don’t Know Much About History” (Avon Books, New York 1995) p.143
  9. ^ Howard Zinn, “A People’s History of the United States” (HarperCollins Publishers, New York 2003) p.169
  10. ^ Bronwyn Mills U.S.-Mexican war p. 122 ISBN 0816049327

June 14 is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Ulysses S. Grant[2] (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American general and the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... There were at least two men named Ethan A. Hitchcock: Ethan Allen Hitchcock (1798 – 1870) U.S. Army general Ethan Allen Hitchcock (1835 – 1909) United States Secretary of the Interior This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...

References

  • Griswold del Castillo, Richard. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: A Legacy of Conflict. University of Oklahoma Press, 1990
  • Ohrt, Wallace. Defiant Peacemaker: Nicholas Trist in the Mexican War Texas A&M University Press, 1997
  • Jesse S. Reeves, "The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo," The American Historical Review, 10 (Jan. 1905), 309-324, full text online at JSTOR

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: Primary Documents of American History (Virtual Programs & Services, Library of ... (745 words)
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed by the United States and Mexico on February 2, 1848, ending the Mexican War and extending the boundaries of the United States by over 525,000 square miles.
Upon completion of a peace treaty nearly two years later, the Senate ratified the Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty by a vote of 38 to 14 on March 10, 1848.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: A Legacy of Conflict.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo - Search Results - MSN Encarta (189 words)
Guadalupe Hidalgo, Treaty of, agreement, signed on February 2, 1848, between the United States and Mexico that marked the end of the Mexican War...
On February 2, 1848 the Treaty was signed in Guadalupe Hidalgo, a city north of the capital where the Mexican government had fled as U.S. troops advanced.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is the peace treaty, largely dictated by the United States to the interim government of a militarily occupied Mexico, that ended the Mexican...
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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