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Encyclopedia > Treaty of Fort McIntosh

The Treaty of Fort McIntosh was a treaty between the United States government and representatives of the Wyandotte, Delaware, Chippewa and Ottawa nations of Native Americans. The treaty was signed at Fort McIntosh (present Beaver, Pennsylvania) on January 21, 1785. The Wyandot or Wendat (also called the Huron) are a First Nations people originally from modern day Southern Ontario, Canada. ... The Lenape or Lenni-Lenape (later named Delaware Indians by Europeans) were, in the 1600s, loosely organized bands of Native American people practicing small-scale agriculture to augment a largely mobile hunter-gatherer society in the region around the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, and western Long Island Sound. ... For other uses of Chippewa, see Chippewa (disambiguation). ... The Ottawa (also Odawa or Odaawa) are a Native American people. ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... Beaver is a borough located in Beaver County, Pennsylvania. ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


In a follow up to the 1784 Treaty of Fort Stanwix, where the Seneca nation had given up claims to the Ohio Country, The American government sought a treaty with the remaining tribes having claims in the Ohio Country. The United States sent a team of diplomats including George Rogers Clark, Richard Butler, and Arthur Lee to negotiate a new treaty. 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Two different treaties between Native Americans and European-Americans were signed at Fort Stanwix, which was located near present-day Rome, New York. ... The Seneca Tribe, or Onodowohgah (People of the Hill Top), traditionally lived in New York State between the Genesee River and Canandaigua Lake. ... The Ohio Country, showing the present-day U.S. state boundaries The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory) was the name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake... George Rogers Clark Painted by Rosemary Brown Beck George Rogers Clark (November 9, 1752–February 13, 1818) was the preeminent American military leader on the northwestern frontier during the American Revolutionary War. ... Richard Butler (April 1, 1743-November 4, 1791) was an officer in the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War who later died fighting Indians in Ohio. ... Arthur Lee (1740-1792), was an American diplomat during the American Revolutionary War. ...


In January 1785, the representatives of the two sides met at Fort McIntosh at the confluence of the Ohio and Beaver Rivers. The tribes ceded all claims to land in the Ohio Country east of the Cuyahoga and Muskingum rivers. The tribes also ceded the areas surrounding Fort Detroit and Fort Michilimackinac to the American government and gave back captives taken in raids along the frontier. Carl D. Perkins Bridge in Portsmouth, Ohio with Ohio River and Scioto River tributary on right. ... The Beaver River is a tributary of the Ohio River, approximately 21 mi (34 km) long, in western Pennsylvania in the United States. ... The Cuyahoga River is located in northeast Ohio. ... The Muskingum River is a tributary of the Ohio River, approximately 111 mi (179 km) long, in eastern Ohio in the United States. ... Fort Michilimackinac was an 18th century French, and later British, fort and trading post in the Great Lakes of North America. ...


Problems with the new treaty soon arose. Connecticut's Western Reserve extended west of the Cuyahoga River into the reservation lands. Connecticut had already granted large tracts of land, later to be nicknamed the "Firelands", in the region to Revolutionary War veterans and Patriots who had lost their homes in the war. State nickname: The Constitution State Other U.S. States Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Governor M. Jodi Rell (R) Official languages English Area 14,371 km² (48th)  - Land 12,559 km²  - Water 1,809 km² (12. ... The Connecticut Western Reserve was land claimed by Connecticut in the Northwest Territory in what is now northeastern Ohio. ... Before the Revolution: The 13 colonies are in red, the pink area was claimed by Great Britain after the French and Indian War, and the orange region was claimed by Spain. ... This article concerns Patriots in the American Revolution. ...


Conflict between the tribes and the new settlers soon broke out. Further complicating the matter was that Great Britain also continued to claim part of the region and would do so until the Jay Treaty was signed in 1794. Some British agents in the region, still stinging from their defeat in the Revolution, encouraged tribes to attack American settlements. John Jay The Jay Treaty of 1795 (also known as Jays Treaty or the Treaty of London), named after U.S. Supreme Court chief justice John Jay, was a treaty between the United States and Great Britain signed on November 19, 1794 that attempted to clear up some of... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


The American government sent General Arthur St. Clair into the Ohio Country to reestablish peace. He had been instructed to offer back to the tribes some lands north of the Ohio River and east of the Muskingum River in exchange for the disputed territory. St. Clair however defied orders and instead threatened and bribed several pliable chiefs into a one sided agreement. St. Clair and the chiefs of several tribes signed the Treaty of Fort Harmar on January 9, 1789. Arthur St. ... Carl D. Perkins Bridge in Portsmouth, Ohio with Ohio River and Scioto River tributary on right. ... The Muskingum River is a tributary of the Ohio River, approximately 111 mi (179 km) long, in eastern Ohio in the United States. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Several nations, most notably the Shawnee who had been excluded from the negotiations, refused to abide by the new treaty and conflict continued. The raids continued until the tribal alliance was defeated at the Battle of Fallen Timbers and the of the Treaty of Greenville was signed in 1795. Shawnee The Shawnee are a people native to North America. ... The Battle of Fallen Timbers (August 20, 1794) was the final battle of the Northwest Indian War, a struggle between American Indians and the United States for control of the Northwest Territory. ... The Treaty of Greenville was signed on August 3, 1795 between a coalition of Native Americans (Indians) and the United States following the Native American loss at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


External links

Text of the Treaty


 
 

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