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Encyclopedia > Treaty of Cusseta
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Creek land ceded by the Treaty of Cusseta is shaded in blue.
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Creek land ceded by the Treaty of Cusseta is shaded in blue.

The Treaty of Cusseta was a treaty between the government of the United States and the Creek Nation signed March 24, 1832. The treaty ceded all Creek claims east of the Mississippi River to the United States. A treaty is a binding agreement under international law concluded by subjects of international law, namely states and international organizations. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Creeks are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in Leap years). ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Length 6,270 km Elevation of the source 450 m Average discharge Saint Louis¹: 5,500 m³/s Vicksburg²: 16,800 m³/s Baton Rouge³: 12,800 m³/s Area watershed 2,980,000 km² Origin  Lake Itasca Mouth  Gulf of Mexico Basin countries United States (98. ...

Contents


Origins

The Treaty of Cusseta was one of several with the "Five Civilized Tribes", facilitated by the Indian Removal Act, that led to the deportation of native peoples in the South to the west. Between 1814 and 1830, Creek lands had been gradually ceded to the United States through treaties such as the Treaty of Fort Jackson and the Treaty of Washington (1826) until Creek territory was constrained to a strip in east central Alabama along the Georgia border. The Five Civilized Tribes is the term applied to five Aboriginal American nations which lived in the Southeastern United States before their removal to other parts of country, especially the future Oklahoma. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Indian Removal Act of 1830 was a law passed by the Twenty-first United States Congress in order to facilitate the relocation of American Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi River in the United States to lands further west. ... Indian Removal refers to the nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States to relocate American Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Southern United States or the South constitute a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States. ... Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Territory in 1891 Indian Territory, also known as Indian Country, Indian territory or the Indian territories, was the land set aside within the United States for the use of American Indians (Native Americans). The general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834. ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Treaty of Fort Jackson, also known as the Treaty with the Creeks, 1814 was signed on August 9, 1814 at Fort Jackson near Wetumpka, Alabama following the defeat of the Red Stick ( Upper Creek) resistance by United States forces at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend on the banks of... Opothleyahola The 1826 Treaty of Washington was a settlement between the United States government and the Creek National Council of Native Americans, led by their spokesman Opothleyahola. ... State nickname: Camellia State, The Heart of Dixie¹, Yellowhammer State, The Roy Moore State Other U.S. States Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Governor Bob Riley (R) Senators Richard Shelby (R) Jeff Sessions (R) Official languages English Area 52,423 mi²/135,775 km² (30th)  - Land 50,750 mi²/131...


Although treaty stipulations prohibited settlement of Creek lands, squatters moving into the territory were common and caused significant friction with tribe members. Tensions eventually resulted in a party of Creek warriors attacking and burning the town of Roanoke, Georgia. In response, federal officials met with Creek leaders in the Creek village of Cusseta (Kasihta) on the Chattahoochee River in Georgia. (Cusseta was sited on the current location of Lawson Air Field in Fort Benning.) The Creeks were compelled to agree to federal terms as outlined in the Treaty of Cusseta. The treaty was later signed in Washington, D.C.. The Chattahoochee River runs from the Chattahoochee Spring in the mountains of northeast Georgia, southwestward by Atlanta and through its suburbs, then turns southward to form the southern half of the Georgia/Alabama state line. ... Fort Benning is a military base facility of the United States military southwest of Columbus, Georgia. ... Washington, D.C. is the capital city of the United States of America. ...


Terms

The Treaty of Cusseta required that the Creek nation relinquish all claims to land east of the Mississippi River, including the territory in Alabama. In return, individual Creeks were to be granted land claims in the former Creek territory. Each of the ninety Creek chiefs was to receive one section (1 mi², 2.6 km²) of land and each Creek family was to receive one half-section (0.5 mi², 1.3 km²) of land of their choosing. Despite the grant of land, the treaty made clear the desire of the United States to remove as many Creeks as possible to the west in the least amount of time, and the United States agreed to pay expenses for Creek emigrants for the first year after being deported. The treaty also called for the United States to make payments to the Creek nation of approximately $350,000 and provide 20 square miles (51 km²) of land to be sold to support Creek orphans. Length 6,270 km Elevation of the source 450 m Average discharge Saint Louis¹: 5,500 m³/s Vicksburg²: 16,800 m³/s Baton Rouge³: 12,800 m³/s Area watershed 2,980,000 km² Origin  Lake Itasca Mouth  Gulf of Mexico Basin countries United States (98. ... State nickname: Camellia State, The Heart of Dixie¹, Yellowhammer State, The Roy Moore State Other U.S. States Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Governor Bob Riley (R) Senators Richard Shelby (R) Jeff Sessions (R) Official languages English Area 52,423 mi²/135,775 km² (30th)  - Land 50,750 mi²/131...


Aftermath

Once the treaty went into effect, many of the new Creek landowners, not being aware of the value of land, were quickly taken advantage of by settlers who often purchased the treaty-promised land for a pittance. Those Creeks who managed to keep legal title to their lands were soon overwhelmed by squatters, who state and federal officials generally refused to evict. When individual Creeks attempted to enforce their property rights against squatters themselves, they were often retaliated against by the local militia. By 1835, the situation became intractable and open conflict broke out once again between Creeks and settlers. The United States government responded by deporting most of the remaining Creeks to the Indian Territory. 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Territory in 1891 Indian Territory, also known as Indian Country, Indian territory or the Indian territories, was the land set aside within the United States for the use of American Indians (Native Americans). The general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834. ...


See also

The Treaty of Fort Jackson, also known as the Treaty with the Creeks, 1814 was signed on August 9, 1814 at Fort Jackson near Wetumpka, Alabama following the defeat of the Red Stick ( Upper Creek) resistance by United States forces at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend on the banks of... Opothleyahola The 1826 Treaty of Washington was a settlement between the United States government and the Creek National Council of Native Americans, led by their spokesman Opothleyahola. ... The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was a treaty signed on September 27, 1830 (and proclaimed on 24 February 1831) between the Choctaws (an American Indian tribe) and the United States. ... The Treaty of New Echota was a removal treaty signed in New Echota, Georgia by officials of the United States government and several members of a faction within the Cherokee nation on December 29, 1835. ...

References

  • Martin, Joel W. (1991). Sacred Revolt: The Muskogees' Struggle for a New World. Boston, Beacon Press. ISBN 0-807054-03-8
  • Nunn, Alexander (Ed.) (1983). Lee County and Her Forebears. Montgomery, Ala., Herff Jones. LCCCN 83-081693
  • Treaty with the Creeks, 1832. Retreived September 29, 2005.
  • Wright, John Peavy (1969). Glimpses into the past from my Grandfather's Trunk. Alexander City, Ala., Outlook Publishing Company, Inc. LCCCN 74-101331

  Results from FactBites:
 
Creek (people) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1523 words)
With the Treaty of New York in 1790, McGillivray ceded a significant portion of Creek lands to the United States under the administration of George Washington in exchange for federal recognition of Creek sovereignty within the remaining territory.
On August 9, 1814, the Creek were forced to sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson, which ended the conflict and required them to cede some 20 million acres (81,000 km²) of land - more than half of their ancestral territorial holdings - to the United States.
President John Quincy Adams was sympathetic, and eventually the treaty was nullified in a new agreement, the Treaty of Washington (1826).
Indian Treaties with Georgia (2509 words)
The treaty thus made was, like its predecessor, indignantly spurned by the chiefs of ninety-eight towns ; who denied the right of any two of their country to make a cession of land which could only be valid by consent of the whole nation as joint proprietors in common.
By this treaty, all the lands south and west of.the Oconee,-including the tract recently claimed and partly occupied by Georgia,-were solemnly guaranteed to the Creeks ; the latter resigning all pretensions to any lands north and east of that river, and acknowledging themselves to be under the sole protection of the United States.
Knowing that his treaty with the United States could not be otherwise than most distasteful to the Spanish authorities in Louisiana and Florida, he quitted the nation and descended to New Orleans, leaving Bowles and his emissaries to exult in the belief that he would never dare to show his face upon the Coosa again.
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