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Encyclopedia > Treaty of Berlin, 1878
The separate Bulgaria after The "Treatry of Berlin" - Lithography Nikolay Pavlovich
The separate Bulgaria after The "Treatry of Berlin" - Lithography Nikolay Pavlovich

The Treaty of Berlin was the final Act of the Congress of Berlin (June 13-July 13, 1878), by which the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman government under Sultan Hamid revised the Treaty of San Stefano signed on March 3 of the same year. Image File history File links Litografia. ... Image File history File links Litografia. ... The Congress of Berlin was a meeting of the European Great Powers and the Ottoman Empires leading statesmen in Berlin in 1878. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Sultan Abdul Hamid II Abd-ul-Hamid II also Abdulhamid, Abdülhamit, Abdul Hamid, Abd al-Hamid II, or Abdul-Hamid (Arabic: عبد الحميد الثاني) Wednesday, (September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the last real Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... Borders of Bulgaria according to the Treaty of San Stefano of March 3rd, 1878 The Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire at the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ...


The treaty recognised the complete independence of the principalities of Romania, Serbia and Montenegro and the autonomy of Bulgaria, though the latter remained under formal Ottoman overlordship and was divided between the two principalities of Bulgaria proper and Eastern Rumelia, undoing Russian plans for an independent "Greater Bulgaria". The Ottoman province of Bosnia-Herzegovina as well as the former Sanjak of Novi Pazar were placed under Austro-Hungarian occupation, though formally remaining a part of the Ottoman Empire. Motto: none Anthem: Bože Pravde Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Official language(s) Serbian1 Government Republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Formation and independence    - Formation of Serbia 814   - Formation of the Serbian Empire 1345   - Independence from the Ottoman Empire July 13, 1878   - Serbia and Montenegro union... Motto: None Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Capital Podgorica Largest city Podgorica Official language(s) Serbian of the Ijekavian dialect1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Milo Đukanović Independence Collapse of the Serbian Empire   - Formation 1356   - Recognition March 3, 1878   - Unification with Serbia July 20, 1917   - Independence June 3... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl... Flag of Eastern Rumelia Eastern Rumelia or Eastern Roumelia (Bulgarian: ; Ottoman Turkish: Rumeli-i Sarki; Modern Turkish: Sarki Rumeli, Greek Ανατολική Ρωμυλία) was an autonomous province in the Ottoman Empire from 1878 to 1885 (nominally to 1908). ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... Map of Sandžak within Serbia and Montenegro Sandžak (Санџак) is a geographical region in central Balkans. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


The three newly-independent states subsequently proclaimed themselves kingdoms (Romania in 1881, Serbia in 1882 and Montenegro in 1910), while Bulgaria proclaimed full independence in 1908 after uniting with Eastern Rumelia in 1885. Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia in 1908, sparking a major European crisis. Flag of Eastern Rumelia Eastern Rumelia or Eastern Roumelia (Bulgarian: ; Ottoman Turkish: Rumeli-i Sarki; Modern Turkish: Sarki Rumeli, Greek Ανατολική Ρωμυλία) was an autonomous province in the Ottoman Empire from 1878 to 1885 (nominally to 1908). ... The Bosnian Crisis of 1908-1909 was caused by the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary in October, 1908. ...


The Treaty of Berlin accorded special legal status to some religious groups; it also served as a model for the Minorities System that was subsequently established within the framework of the League of Nations.[1] The Palais des Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, built between 1929 and 1938, was constructed as the Leagues headquarters. ...


The Treaty of Berlin caused many problems in the following decades. The attempts of Great West-European Powers (Britain, Germany, Austria-Hungary and France) to preserve the existence of the dying Ottoman Empire led to several conflicts on the Balkans. Large portions of Christian population were left under the Muslim administration of the Ottoman Empire. The struggles for freedom by the Balkan nations continued to cause diplomatic incidents and wars.


One of the failures of the Treaty of Berlin was its failure to establish a border between Greece and the Ottoman Empire. It simply proved impossible to create a border there in 1878, and the seeking of a solution was carried out after the Congress ended. Negotiations continued until 1881 when a shaky agreement established a border between the two nations; however, armed conflicts arose thereafter in the succeeding decades. Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl... 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Notes

  1.   Buergenthal, Thomas (July 1, 2002). International Human Rights in a Nutshell (3rd Edition). West Publishing Company. ISBN 0314260145. p. 7

 
 

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