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Encyclopedia > Treaty of 1818

The Convention respecting fisheries, boundary, and the restoration of slaves between the United States and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, also known as the London Convention, Anglo-American Convention of 1818, Convention of 1818, or simply the Treaty of 1818, was a treaty signed in 1818 between the United States and the United Kingdom. It resolved standing boundary issues between the two nations, and allowed for joint occupation and settlement of the Oregon Country, known to the British and in Canadian history as the Columbia District of the Hudson's Bay Company, and including the southern portion of its sister fur district New Caledonia. Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right1 Anthem God Save the King (Queen) Territory of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Capital London Language(s) English² Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1801–1820 George III  - 1820–1830 George IV  - 1830–1837 William IV  - 1837–1901... Landscape in Oregon Country, by Charles Marion Russell Map of Oregon Country Oregon Country was a region of western North America that originally consisted of the land north of 42°N latitude, south of 54°40N latitude, and west of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. ... Columbia District was a regional department of the Hudsons Bay Company, and included all of the Columbia River basin, extending as far north as the Thompson River. ... Hudsons Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie dHudson in French) is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and is one of the oldest in the world. ...


Treaty provisions

The treaty name is variously cited as Convention respecting fisheries, boundary, and the restoration of slaves[1], Convention of Commerce (Fisheries, Boundary and the Restoration of Slaves)[2], and Convention of Commerce between His Majesty and the United States of America [3], [4].

  • Article I secured fishing rights along Newfoundland and Labrador for the U.S.
  • Article II set the US-Canadian boundary along "a line drawn from the most northwestern point of the Lake of the Woods, [due south, then] along the 49th parallel of north latitude..." to the "Stony Mountains"[3] (now known as the Rocky Mountains). This settled a boundary dispute caused by ignorance of actual geography in the boundary agreed to in the 1783 Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolutionary War. That earlier treaty had placed the boundary between the United States and British possessions to the north, along a line going westward from the Lake of the Woods to the Mississippi River. The parties failed to realize that the river did not extend that far north, so such a line would never meet the river. The new treaty also created the anomalous Northwest Angle, the small section of the present state of Minnesota that is the only part of the United States outside of Alaska north of the 49th parallel.
  • Article III provided for joint control of land in the Oregon Country for ten years. Both could claim land and both were guaranteed free navigation throughout.
  • Article IV confirmed the Anglo-American Convention of 1815, which regulated commerce between the two parties, for an additional ten years.
  • Article V agreed to refer differences over a U.S. claim arising from the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812, to "some Friendly Sovereign or State to be named for that purpose". The U.S. claim was for return of, or compensation for, slaves that were in British territory or on British naval vessels when the treaty was signed. The Treaty of Ghent article in question was about handing over property, and the U.S. claimed that these slaves were the property of U.S. citizens.[3]
  • Article VI established that ratification would occur within at most six months of signing the treaty.

Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ... Lake of the Woods from space, May 1998 Lake of the Woods. ... The 49th parallel of north latitude forms part of the International Boundary between Canada and the United States from Manitoba to British Columbia on the Canadian side and from Minnesota to Washington on the U.S. side. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... This article is about military actions only. ... Lake of the Woods from space, May 1998 Lake of the Woods. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Northwest Angle (the purple portion) in Minnesota, bordering Manitoba, Ontario, and Lake of the Woods The Northwest Angle viewed from space The Northwest Angle, known simply as the Angle by locals, and coterminous with Angle Township, is a small part of northern Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota that... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... Landscape in Oregon Country, by Charles Marion Russell Map of Oregon Country Oregon Country was a region of western North America that originally consisted of the land north of 42°N latitude, south of 54°40N latitude, and west of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. ... Signing of the Treaty of Ghent. ... This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ... The origins of slavery in Colonial America are complex and there are several theories that have been proposed to explain the trade. ...

History

The treaty was negotiated for the U.S. by Albert Gallatin, ambassador to France, and Richard Rush, ambassador to Britain; and for Britain by Frederick John Robinson, Treasurer of the Royal Navy and member of the privy council, and Henry Goulburn, an undersecretary of state[4]. The treaty was signed on October 20, 1818. Ratifications were exchanged on January 30, 1819[1]. The Convention of 1818, along with the Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1817, marked the beginning of friendly relations between the United Kingdom and its former colonies, and paved the way for future good relations between the USA and Canada. Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin (January 29, 1761 – August 12, 1849) was a Swiss-American ethnologist, linguist, politician, diplomat, Congressman, and the longest-serving United States Secretary of the Treasury. ... Wikipedia also has an entry for Richard Rush (director) Richard Rush Richard Rush (August 29, 1780–July 30, 1859) was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... The Right Honourable Frederick John Robinson, 1st Earl of Ripon PC (November 1, 1782 – January 28, 1859), Frederick John Robinson until 1827, The Viscount Goderich 1827–1833, and The Earl of Ripon 1833 onwards, was a British statesman and Prime Minister (when he was known as Lord Goderich). ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, especially in a monarchy. ... Henry Goulburn (1784–1856) was an English statesman and a member of the Peelite faction after 1846. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Rush-Bagot Treaty was a treaty between the United States and the United Kingdom enacted in 1817. ...


Despite the relatively friendly nature of the agreement, it nevertheless resulted in a fierce struggle for control of the Oregon Country in the following two decades. The British-owned Hudson's Bay Company, having previously established a trading network centered on Fort Vancouver on the lower Columbia River, with other forts in what is now eastern Washington and Idaho as well as on the Oregon Coast and in Puget Sound, undertook a harsh campaign to restrict encroachment by U.S. fur traders to the area. By the 1830s, with pressure in the U.S. mounting to annex the region outright, the company undertook a deliberate policy to exterminate all fur-bearing animals from the Oregon Country, in order to both maximize its remaining profit and to delay the arrival of U.S. mountain men and settlers. The policy of discouraging settlement was undercut to some degree by the actions of John McLoughlin, Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company at Fort Vancouver, who regularly provided relief and welcome to U.S. immigrants who had arrived at the post over the Oregon Trail. John McLoughlin (NSHC statue) Dr. John McLoughlin (pronounced mc-lock-lin, October 19, 1784 – September 3, 1857), the Father of Oregon, was a fur trader and early settler in the Oregon Country in the Pacific Northwest. ... The Ox Team or the Old Oregon Trail 1852-1906 by Ezra Meeker. ...


By the middle 1840s, the tide of U.S. immigration, as well as a U.S. political movement to claim the entire territory, led to a renegotiation of the agreement. The Oregon Treaty in 1846 permanently established the 49th parallel as the boundary between the two nations to the Pacific Ocean. The Oregon Country/Columbia District Disputed Area is the main area of dispute, although the whole region was disputed The Oregon boundary dispute (often called the Oregon question) arose as a result of competing British and American claims to the Oregon Country, a region of northwestern North America known also... Map of the lands in dispute The Treaty with Great Britain, in Regard to Limits Westward of the Rocky Mountains, also known as the Oregon Treaty or Treaty of Washington, is a bilateral treaty between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the United States that was signed... “49th parallel” redirects here. ...


References

  1. ^ a b United States Department of State [2005-01-01] (2005-01-01). Treaties In Force: A List of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States in Force on January 1, 2005 (PDF), Compiled by the Treaty Affairs Staff, Office of the Legal Adviser, U.S. Department of State., 2005 (in English), 326. Retrieved on 2006-03-27. 
  2. ^ Lauterpacht, Elihu, et. al, ed. (2004). "Consolidated Table of Treaties, Volumes 1-125", in Edited by Elihu Lauterpacht, C. J. Greenwood, A. G. Oppenheimer and Karen Lee.: International Law Reports: (in English). Cambridge University Press, 8. ISBN 0-521-80779-4. Retrieved on 2006-03-27. 
  3. ^ a b c LexUM (2000). Convention of Commerce between His Majesty and the United States of America.--Signed at London, 20th October, 1818. Canado-American Treaties. University of Montreal. Retrieved on 2006-03-27.
  4. ^ a b LexUM (1999). CUS 1818/15 Subject: Commerce. Canado-American Treaties. University of Montreal. Retrieved on 2006-03-27.
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Treaty of 1818

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Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Treaty of 1818 (719 words)
The new treaty also created the anomalous Northwest Angle, the small section of the present state of Minnesota that is the only part of the United States outside of Alaska north of the 49th parallel.
The treaty was negotiated for the U.S. by Albert Gallatin, ambassador to France, and Richard Rush, ambassador to Britain; and for Britain by Frederick John Robinson, Treasurer of the Royal Navy and member of the privy council, and Henry Goulburn, an undersecretary of state.
The Convention of 1818, along with the Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1817, marked the beginning of friendly relations between the United Kingdom and its former colony, and paved the way for future good relations between the USA and Canada.
Native Americans (2433 words)
Treaty with the Sauk and Foxes Of Missouri, 1854.
Treaty with the Chippewa Of the Mississippi and the Pillager and Lake Winnibigoshish Bands, 1863.
Treaty with the Northern Cheyenne and Northern Arapaho, 1868.
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