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Encyclopedia > Treaty establishing a constitution for Europe
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Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe
The constitutional treaty as signed in Rome on 29 October 2004 by representatives of the EU member states

The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE), commonly referred to as the European Constitution, was an unimplemented international treaty intended to create a constitution for the European Union. It was signed in 2004 by representatives of the member states of the Union but was subject to ratification by all member states, two of which subsequently rejected it in referenda. Its main aims were to replace the overlapping set of existing treaties (see Treaties of the European Union) that compose the Union's current informal Constitution, to codify human rights throughout the EU and to streamline decision-making in what is now a 27-member organisation. Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... This material is offered free of charge for EU-related information and education purposes. ... This material is offered free of charge for EU-related information and education purposes. ... The project of Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe was signed in Rome on 29 October 2004 by 53 senior political figures from the 25 member states of the European Union. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... EU member states and candidates There are currently 25 member states in the European Union. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Ratification is the act of giving official sanction to a formal document such as a treaty or constitution. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ...


The TECE was signed in Rome by representatives of the member states on 29 October 2004, and was in the process of ratification by the member states when, in 2005, French (29 May) and Dutch (1 June) voters rejected the treaty in referenda. The failure of the treaty to win popular support in these two countries caused some other countries to postpone or halt their ratification procedures, and the Constitution now has a highly uncertain future. Had it been ratified, the treaty would have come into force on 1 November 2006. In perspective, 18 member states have ratified or nearly ratified the text and 7 have postponed the ratification process after 2 other have rejected the text. is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into European Union. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Following the failure of the constitution treaty, the European Council meeting in June 2007 decided to start negotiations on a Reform Treaty as a replacement.[1] The European Council (referred to as a European Summit) is a body of the European Union which meets around four times a year. ... The Reform Treaty (also referred to as; future institutional settlement or new legal basis, among others) is a proposed replacement for the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (European Constitution). ...

Contents

History

"Family photo" of European leaders at the signing of the constitutional treaty in Rome; the classical Latin inscription 'Europææ rei publicae status' translates as 'Constitution of the European commonwealth' (i.e. Union)

This material is offered free of charge for EU-related information and education purposes. ... This material is offered free of charge for EU-related information and education purposes. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... Family photo of European leaders at the signing of the constitutional treaty in Rome This article discusses the history of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, which was signed in 2004 and is currently awaiting ratification by European Union member states. ...

A Constitution?

Formally, the approval of the treaty would not have lead to the adoption of a real Constitution for the European Union, as this new Constitution would not have replaced national Constitutions. However, as already prepared by a number of precedent treaties, the provisions made by the TCE would superate national law, thus leading individual countries to put their national Constitution in congruence with the TCE.


Drafting

The TCE took as its starting point the codification of the EU's two primary existing treaties, the Treaty of Rome of 1957 and the Maastricht treaty of 1992, as modified by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997) and Nice (2001). The current debate on the future of Europe is often said to have begun with a speech made by German Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer in Berlin in 2000,[2] calling for a debate on the finality of European integration. The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, commonly known as the Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on... Treaty of Nice The Treaty of Nice is a treaty adopted in Nice by the European Council to amend the two founding treaties of the European Union: the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, which introduced the Euro and the 3-pillar structure of the EU; the Treaty of... Joschka Fischer Joseph Martin Joschka Fischer (April 12, 1948 – ) was German foreign minister and Vice Chancellor in the government of Gerhard Schröder from 1998 to 2005. ...


The process started following the Laeken declaration in December 2001, when the European Convention was established to produce a draft of the Constitution, headed by former French President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. Giscard d'Estaing told the convention members that their countrymen would one day "build statues of you on horseback in the villages you all come from", a comment which provoked widespread derision, particularly when the unpopularity of the draft in Giscard's own country became clear. The "Draft Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe" was published in July 2003. After protracted negotiations during which disputes arose over the proposed framework for qualified majority voting, the final text of the TCE was settled in June 2004 under the Irish Presidency. List of European Councils, by presidency, date, and location. ... The European Convention, sometimes known as the Convention on the Future of Europe, was a body established by the European Council in December 2001 as a result of the Laeken Declaration. ... Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing (born 2 February 1926) is a French center-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ... The Draft Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe has been worked out by the European Convention, amended by its Presidium in two steps presented to the Convention on 13 June and 10 July 2003. ... Qualified Majority Voting (QMV) is a voting procedure employed in the Council of the European Union for some decisions. ...


Ratification

A commemorative Italian euro coin depicting Europa holding a pen over the text of the Constitution was issued on the first anniversary of the signing of the Constitution.

It was initially expected that almost all member states (besides the Republic of Ireland, which must hold a referendum on all EU treaties) would ratify the TCE by a parliamentary or other high political process, which would be quite straightforward, given the support of all ruling governments and its approval by an overwhelming majority in the European Parliament (Report by Richard Corbett and Íñigo Méndez de Vigo). Indeed, the number of EU countries that approved the treaty by a parliamentary vote now forms a large majority. However, unanimity is required before the TCE can come into force. Image File history File links €2_commemorative_coin_Italy_2005. ... Image File history File links €2_commemorative_coin_Italy_2005. ... Italian euro coins have a design unique to each denomination, though there is a common theme of famous Italian works of art from one of Italys renowned artists. ... Europa and Zeus, on the Greek €2 coin A commemorative Italian euro coin depicts Europa holding a pen over the text of the Constitution of Europe. ... Note: this article concerns the contemporary MEP. For the 17th century poet, see Richard Corbett (poet). ... Íñigo Méndez De Vigo Íñigo Méndez De Vigo (born on 21 January 1956 in Tetuan (Maroc)) is a Spanish politician and Member of the European Parliament with the Peoples Party, Member of the Bureau of the European Peoples Party and sits on the European Parliaments... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ...


The first country to attempt a test of public opinion in a popular referendum was Spain. The TCE was approved in the referendum vote by almost 77% of the votes, although participation was around 43%. On 20 February 2005 a consultative referendum was held in Spain to ask whether the country should ratify the proposed Constitution of the European Union. ...


In the United Kingdom, however, Prime Minister Tony Blair unexpectedly promised a referendum. The anti-treaty Conservatives and the pro-treaty Liberal Democrats were both in favour of a referendum. Together, these two parties had a majority in the House of Lords. The Lords could have delayed ratification until after the general election. If that happened, Labour would have been in the uncomfortable position of being the only party against a referendum. The promise of a British referendum put pressure on French President Jacques Chirac, who also then promised a referendum in France. For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... The new logo of the Conservative Party The Conservative Party is the largest centre right political party in the United Kingdom. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The Labour Party is a centre-left or social democratic political party in Britain (see British politics), and one of the United Kingdoms three main political parties. ... “Chirac” redirects here. ...


Post-rejection

Posters from French referendum
Posters from French referendum

The rejection of the constitution in the referendums in France and the Netherlands, made the TCE's future and the implementation of its provisions highly uncertain, provoking a crisis of confidence in the project which has resulted, at least initially, in a degree of strategic paralysis. However, despite the enlargement of the Union to 27 states, it has continued to function without the TCE, the reforms agreed in the Treaty of Nice being particularly important in this respect. A long-planned referendum in Luxembourg went ahead after the defeats in the Netherlands and France, but even there the majority in favour of TCE was unexpectedly narrow. No other country has pursued plans for a referendum, including the United Kingdom. It is considered increasingly unlikely that such referendums could secure support for the TCE in the present political climate. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1704x2272, 719 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1704x2272, 719 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Treaty of Nice The Treaty of Nice is a treaty adopted in Nice by the European Council to amend the two founding treaties of the European Union: the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, which introduced the Euro and the 3-pillar structure of the EU; the Treaty of...


In France, rejection was considered a humiliation for then president Jacques Chirac. The TCE was rejected both by right-wing proponents of national sovereignty, such as Charles Pasqua and Philippe de Villiers, and by the anti-globalisation movement, gathered around Socialist Party MP Laurent Fabius, the Communist Party, the Revolutionary Communist League and the Workers' Struggle party. The Socialist party, which had come out in favour after an internal referendum of all its members, saw some of its supporters follow Laurent Fabius instead of its leader François Hollande. “Chirac” redirects here. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Charles Pasqua (born April 18, French businessman and politician. ... Philippe de Villiers in Toulouse in April 2007 Philippe de Villiers (born Viscount Philippe Le Jolis de Villiers de Saintignon on March 25, 1949) was the Mouvement pour la France nominee for the French presidential election of 2007. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The emblem of the French Socialist Party The Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste or PS), founded in 1969, is the main opposition party in France. ... Laurent Fabius (born 20 August 1946) is a former Socialist Prime Minister of France. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... LCR protesters marching in a workforce demonstration in favour of public services and against privatisation The Revolutionary Communist League (Ligue communiste révolutionnaire) (LCR) is a French Trotskyist political party. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... François Hollande (born August 12, 1954) is a French politician. ...


British Prime Minister Tony Blair supported the TCE and said he would campaign for its ratification in any British referendum. But after its rejection by the voters of France and the Netherlands, he stated in a speech in Oxford in February 2006 that

We locked ourselves in a room at the top of the tower and debated things no ordinary citizen could understand. And yet I remind you the Constitution was launched under the title of 'Bringing Europe closer to its citizens'.

He went on:

The evening of the French result, I remember being in Italy with friends, and someone saying, in despair at the vote: 'What's wrong with them?', meaning those who voted 'no'. I said, 'I'm afraid the question is: 'What's wrong with us?', meaning 'us' the collective political leadership of Europe.

As of June 2007, when the Reform Treaty emerged as one solution to overcome the failed European Constitution, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Romania, Slovenia and Spain had already ratified the constitutional treaty, either at parliamentary level or by referendum (Spain and Luxembourg held referendums, with large majorities in favour). Finland, Germany and Slovakia completed parliamentary procedures required for ratification. The other member-states had postponed ratification of EU constitution indefinitely after French/Dutch rejection. In total, 18 member states have ratified or nearly ratified the text, 7 have postponed the ratification process, and 2 have rejected the text. The Reform Treaty (also referred to as; future institutional settlement or new legal basis, among others) is a proposed replacement for the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (European Constitution). ...


Debate about future possibilities for the Constitution

Further information: Proposed amendments to the European Constitution

The TCE's rejection by France and the Netherlands sent shock waves through the European establishment since these countries had been regarded as committed members of the European project. The failure of the TCE to win popular support in those countries forced a re-examination of the constitutional question. Since the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe was rejected by referenda in France and the Netherlands, various proposals have been made to how it should be amended. ...


Four options present themselves. One is to do nothing for the time being in order to allow the dust to settle: this seems to be the position favoured by the United Kingdom and Germany. A second is to attempt to persuade opponents to accept the TCE in its existing, or substantially in its existing form: this appeared to be the ambition of Austria during its presidency of the Union, but it was persuaded that this was unrealistic. Another is to re-draft the TCE comprehensively so as to make it more palatable: however, there presently appears to be no desire in any country to start from scratch. Finally, French president Jacques Chirac has proposed German Chancellor Angela Merkel to "cut it piece by piece", in other words, to bring in parts only of the existing draft, so as to make the document more digestible and the process less controversial, but Merkel apparently thought it better to wait until 2007, when Germany would be President of the European Council. In June 2006, Italian prime minister Romano Prodi said that he believed the treaty would be significantly revised, but that it should not take place until after the French presidential election, 2007.[3] “Chirac” redirects here. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ...   (IPA: ) (b. ... In Italy, the President of the Council of Ministers (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the countrys prime minister or head of government, and occupies the fourth-most important state office. ...   (born 9 August 1939) is an Italian politician. ... The 2007 French presidential election, the ninth of the Fifth French Republic was held to elect the successor to Jacques Chirac as president of France for a five-year term. ...


The Amato Group presented its proposal replace the current Treaty on European Union, to amend the current Treaty establishing the European Community and to give the current Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union a legally binding status on June 4, 2007. The June 2007 European summit discussed the future of the European Constitution. The German presidency has proposed that a Reform Treaty instead of a constitution should be adopted. Former Prime Minister of Italy Giuliano Amato was the leader of the Action Committee for European Democracy. ... The Maastricht treaty (formally, the Treaty on European Union) was signed on 7 February 1992 in Maastricht between the members of the European Community and entered into force on 1 November 1993. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ... The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing human rights provisions, solemnly proclaimed by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission in December 2000. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into European Council. ... The Reform Treaty (also referred to as; future institutional settlement or new legal basis, among others) is a proposed replacement for the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (European Constitution). ...


Existing, newly codified and strengthened provisions

Functioning of the Union

There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Europe Day and In varietate concordia, accessible from a disambiguation page. ...

Institutional structure

Under the TCE, the Council of the European Union would have been formally renamed the "Council of Ministers", which is already its informal title. The "General Affairs Council" would have been formally split from the "Foreign Affairs Council", which had informally held meetings separately since June 2002. Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ...


The TCE includes a flag, an anthem and a motto, which had previously not had treaty recognition, although none of them are new. Flag Ratio: 2:3 The European flag consists of a circle of twelve golden stars on a blue background. ... 4th movement (European Union anthem) samples: Problems playing the files? See media help. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Europe Day and In varietate concordia, accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


Conferral, subsidiarity, proportionality

The TCE would have reiterated several key principles of how the Union functions:

  • the principle of conferral: that all EU competences are conferred on it voluntarily by member states;
  • the principle of subsidiarity: that governmental decisions should be taken at the smallest level possible while still remaining effective;
  • the principle of proportionality: that the EU may only act to exactly the extent that is needed to achieve its objectives;
  • the primacy of EU law: in areas where member states have made legally binding agreements at EU level, they may not then pass national laws incompatible with those EU laws.

The TCE would have specified that the EU is a union of member states, and that all its competences (areas of responsibility) are voluntarily conferred on it by its member states according to the principle of conferral. The EU would have no competences by right, and thus any areas of policy not explicitly specified in the Constitution would have remained the domain of the sovereign member states (notwithstanding the ‘flexibility clause' – see below). The principle of conferral is a fundamental principle of European Union law. ... Subsidiarity is the idea that matters should be handled by the lowest competent authority. ... The principle of proportionality is a political maxim which states that any layer of government should not take any action that exceeds that which is necessary to achieve the objective of government. ... The principle of conferral is a fundamental principle of European Union law. ...


According to the TCE, the EU may act (i.e. make laws) only where its member states agree unanimously that actions by individual countries would be insufficient. This is the principle of subsidiarity, and is based on the legal and political principle that governmental decisions should be taken as close to the people as possible while still remaining effective. It is a main argument against claims that Europe limits national sovereignty but critics say that it is a principle to which lip service only is paid, and, in practice, the reach of the EU has been increasingly ambitious. Subsidiarity is the idea that matters should be handled by the lowest competent authority. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ...


Primacy of Union law

Amongst European countries, EU law has primacy over the laws of member states since 1964 in the areas where member states allow it to legislate. National law which is incompatible with an agreement already made at European level is deemed to be 'disapplied' when questions arise in courts. This controversial and fundamental principle of European Community law was first recognised in the case of Van Gend en Loos in 1963 which was followed in Costa v. ENEL in 1964. Flamino Costa v. ...


Common values of the Union's member states

As stated in Articles I-1 and I-2, the Union is open to all European States that respect the member states' common values, namely:

Member states also declare that the following principles prevail in their society: This article is about virtue. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Social equality is a social state of affairs in which certain different people have the same status in a certain respect, minimally at least in voting rights, freedom of speech and assembly, and property rights. ... The rule of law is the principle that governmental authority is legitimately exercised only in accordance with written, publicly disclosed laws adopted and enforced in accordance with established procedure. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The definition of a minority group can vary, depending on specific context, but generally refers to either a sociological sub-group that does not form either a majority or a plurality of the total population, or a group that, while not necessarily a numerical minority, is disadvantaged or otherwise has... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy...

Some of these provisions are codified for the first time in the TCE. Pluralism is used, often in different ways, across a wide range of topics: In science, the concept often describes the view that several methods, theories or points of view are legitimate or plausible, see Scientific pluralism. ... This article is about discrimination in the social science context. ... It has been suggested that toleration be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... Solidarity in sociology refers to the feeling or condition of unity based on common goals, interests, and sympathies among a groups members. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Aims of the Union

The aims of the EU, according to the TCE, are made explicit (Article I-3):

In its relations with the wider world the Union's objectives are: A peace dove, widely known as a symbol for peace, featuring an olive branch in the doves beak. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Look up Market in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Competition is the act of striving against others for the purpose of achieving gain, such as income, pride, amusement, or dominance. ... anyone doing this homework. ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... Price stability is zero, or a very low rate of, inflation. ... The Social market economy was the German and Austrian economic model during the Cold War era. ... Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ... See Language (journal) for the linguistics journal. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ...

  • to uphold and promote its values and interests
  • to contribute to peace, security, the sustainable development of the Earth
  • solidarity and mutual respect among people
  • free and fair trade
  • eradication of poverty and the protection of human rights, in particular the rights of the child
  • strict observance and development of international law, including respect for the principles of the United Nations Charter.

This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... For other uses, see Fair trade (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Scope of the Union

Competences

The EU has six exclusive competences, policy areas in which member states have agreed that they should act exclusively through the EU and not legislate at a national level. The list remains unchanged from the previous treaties:

  • customs union;
  • those competition rules that govern the internal market;
  • eurozone monetary policy;
  • conservation of marine biological resources (the Common Fisheries Policy);
  • common commercial policy;
  • the conclusion of certain limited international agreements.

There are a number of shared competences. These are areas in which member states agree to act individually only where they have not already acted through the EU, or where the EU has ceased to act (though these are areas where member states may act both nationally and through the EU if they wish). Three new competences have been added to those in previous treaties (see below). A customs union is a free trade area with a Common External Tariff. ... In economics, a monetary union is a situation where several countries have agreed to share a single currency among them. ... The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the fisheries policy of the European Union. ...


There are a number of areas where the EU may take only supporting, coordinating or complementary action. In these areas, member states do not confer any competences on the Union, but they agree to act through the Union in order to support their work at national level. Again, three new competences have been added to those from previous treaties (see below).


Flexibility clause

The TCE's flexibility clause allows the EU to act in areas not made explicit in the TCE, but only:

  • if all member states agree;
  • with the consent of the European Parliament; and
  • where this is necessary to achieve an agreed objective under the TCE.

This clause has been present in EU law since the original Treaty of Rome, which established the EEC in 1958. Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ...


Common foreign and security policy

The EU is charged with defining and implementing a common foreign and security policy in due time. The wording of this article is taken from the existing Treaty on European Union. The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... The Maastricht treaty (formally, the Treaty on European Union) was signed on 7 February 1992 in Maastricht between the members of the European Community and entered into force on 1 November 1993. ...


New provisions

Scope of the Union

Legal personality

The European Union for the first time has legal personality under the TCE. This means that it is able to represent itself as a single body in certain circumstances under international law. Most significantly, it is able to sign treaties as a single body where all its member states agree. A juristic person is a legal fiction through which the law allows a group of natural persons to act as if it were a single composite individual for certain purposes. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


New competences

The TCE would have conferred upon the EU as new 'shared competences' the areas of territorial cohesion, energy, and space. These are areas where the EU may act alongside its individual member states. The EU has conferred upon it as new areas of 'supporting, coordinating or complementary action' the areas of tourism, sport, and administrative co-operation.


Criminal justice proceedings

Member states would have continued to co-operate in some areas of criminal judicial proceedings where they agree to do so, as at present. Under the TCE, seven new areas of co-operation would have been added:

Terrorist redirects here. ... These lollipops were found to contain heroin when inspected by the US DEA The illegal drug trade is a worldwide black market consisting of production, distribution, packaging and sale of illegal psychoactive substances. ...

Solidarity clause

The new solidarity clause of the TCE specifies that any member state which falls victim to a terrorist attack or other disaster will receive assistance from other member states, if it requests it. The type of assistance to be offered is not specified. Instead, the arrangements will be decided by the Council of Ministers should the situation arise. The Council of the European Union forms, along with the European Parliament, the legislative arm of the European Union (EU). ...


European Public Prosecutor

Provision exists for the creation of a European Public Prosecutor's Office, if all member states agree to it and if the European Parliament gives its consent. The post of European Public Prosecutor is one proposed for the European Union, as set forth in the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, pending ratification. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild...


Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

The TCE includes a copy of the Charter already agreed to by all EU member states. This is included in the Constitution so that EU institutions themselves are obliged to conform to the same standards of fundamental rights. At the time of the Charter's original agreement, the British Government said that it did not have binding effect. Incorporation into TCE would have put its importance beyond doubt. The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing human rights provisions, solemnly proclaimed by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission in December 2000. ...


Simplification

Simplified jargon and legal instruments

The TCE makes an effort to simplify jargon and reduce the number of EU legal instruments (ways in which EU countries may act). However, it is a long document couched in obscure and technical terms, which proved unpopular when presented (for example) to French voters in their referendum on the TCE. For the glossary of hacker slang, see Jargon File. ...


The TCE unifies legal instruments across areas of policy (referred to as pillars of the European Union in previous treaties). Specifically: The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ...

  • 'European Regulations' (of the Community pillar) and 'Decisions' (of the Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJC) pillar) both become referred to as European laws.
  • 'European Directives' (of the Community pillar) and 'Framework Decisions' (of the PJC pillar) both become referred to as European framework laws.
  • 'Conventions' (of the PJC pillar) are done away with, replaced in every case by either European laws or European framework laws.
  • 'Joint actions' and 'Common positions' (of what is now the Common Foreign and Security Policy Pillar) are both replaced by Decisions.

Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ...

Position of Union Minister for Foreign Affairs

Under the TCE, the present role of High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy would be amalgamated with the role of the Commissioner for External Relations. This would create a new Union Minister for Foreign Affairs who would also be a Vice President of the Commission. This individual would be responsible for co-ordinating foreign policy across the Union, representing the EU abroad in areas where member states agree to speak with one voice. The Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... Benita Ferrero Waldner Barroso Commission, 2004 to 2009 The Commissioner for External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy is a member of the European Commission with responsibility over the Commissions external representation in the world and the European Unions Neighbourhood Policy. ... The European Union Minister of Foreign Affairs is a new EU political post envisaged under the proposed EU Constitutional treaty. ...


Functioning of the institutions

Qualified majority voting

More day-to-day decisions in the Council of Ministers would be to be taken by qualified majority voting, requiring a 55% majority of members of the Council representing a 65% majority of citizens. (The 55% is raised to 72% when the Council acts on its own initiative rather than on a legislative proposal from the Commission or the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs.) The unanimous agreement of all member states would only be required for decisions on more sensitive issues, such as tax, social security, foreign policy and defense. Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... Qualified Majority Voting (QMV) is a voting procedure employed in the Council of the European Union for some decisions. ...


President of the European Council

The six-month rotating Presidency of the European Council would switch to a chair chosen by the heads of government, in office for 2½ years and renewable once. The role itself would remain administrative and non-executive, but rather than the Presidency being held by a member state as at present, it would be held by an individual elected by and accountable to the Council. The European Council (referred to as a European Summit) is a body of the European Union which meets around four times a year. ...


President of the Council of Ministers

The six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of Ministers, which currently coincides with the Presidency of the European Council, would be changed to an 18-month rotating Presidency shared by a trio of member countries, in an attempt to provide more continuity. The exception would be the Council's Foreign Affairs configuration, which would be chaired by the newly-created Union Minister for Foreign Affairs. Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... The European Council (referred to as a European Summit) is a body of the European Union which meets around four times a year. ...


Smaller Commission

The Commission would be reduced in size from 27 to 15 by the year 2014. There would be fewer Commissioners, with member states taking it in turn to nominate Commissioners two times out of three. Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ...


Parliamentary power and transparency

  • President of the Commission: The candidate for President of the European Commission would be proposed by the European Council, after consultation with MEPs, and would be elected by the European Parliament. Parliament would have the final say.
  • Parliament as co-legislature: The European Parliament would acquire equal legislative power under the codecision procedure with the Council in virtually all areas of policy. Previously, it had this power in most cases but not all.
  • Meeting in public: The Council of Ministers would be required to meet in public when debating all new laws. Currently, it meets in public only for texts covered under the Codecision procedure.
  • Budget: The final say over the EU's annual budget would be given to the European Parliament. Agricultural spending would no longer be ring-fenced, and would be brought under the Parliament's control.
  • Role of national parliaments: Member states' national parliaments would be given a new role in scrutinising proposed EU laws, and would be entitled to object if they feel a proposal oversteps the boundary of the Union's agreed areas of responsibility. If the Commission wishes to ignore such an objection, it would be forced to submit an explanation to the parliament concerned and to the Council of Ministers.
  • Popular mandate (aka initiative): The Commission would be invited to consider any proposal "on matters where citizens consider that a legal act of the Union is required for the purpose of implementing the Constitution" which has the support of one million citizens. The mechanism by which this would be put into practice has yet to be agreed. (See Article I-46(4) for details.)

François-Xavier Ortoli, Romano Prodi, José Manuel Barroso and Jacques Delors The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union bureaucracy. ... The European Council (referred to as a European Summit) is a body of the European Union which meets around four times a year. ... A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP)[1] is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... The codecision procedure is the main legislative procedure by which law can be adopted in the European Community, the first of the three pillars of the European Union. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... The codecision procedure is the main legislative procedure by which law can be adopted in the European Community, the first of the three pillars of the European Union. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... // This is a list of European Union member states, their forms of government and their parliaments. ... initiative, see Initiative (disambiguation). ...

Further integration, amendment and withdrawal

Enhanced co-operation

There would be a tightening of existing rules for 'enhanced cooperation', where some member states would have chosen to act together more closely and others not. A minimum of one third of member states would now be forced to participate in any enhanced cooperation, and the agreement of the European Parliament is needed. The option for enhanced cooperation would also be widened to all areas of agreed EU policy. Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild...


Treaty revisions

Previously, alteration of treaties was decided by unanimous agreement of the European Council in private meeting. Proponents of the TCE claim that any amendments to the Constitutional treaty will involve the convening of a new Convention, similar to that chaired by Valéry Giscard d'Estaing in drafting the TCE. This process may be bypassed if the European Parliament agrees, in which case, the final say on adopting proposals will rest with the European Council, who must agree unanimously. However, small revisions (switching from unanimity voting to qualified majority voting in specific policy areas) can be made by the European Council through the so-called 'Passerelle Clause' (Article IV-444) if every member state agrees. The European Council (referred to as a European Summit) is a body of the European Union which meets around four times a year. ... Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing (born 2 February 1926) is a French center-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... Qualified Majority Voting (QMV) is a voting procedure employed in the Council of the European Union for some decisions. ... The European Council (referred to as a European Summit) is a body of the European Union which meets around four times a year. ...


Withdrawal clause

A new clause in the TCE allows for the withdrawal of any member state without renegotiation of the TCE or violation of treaty commitments (clause I-60). Under this clause, when a country notifies the Council of its intent to withdraw, a settlement is agreed in the Council with the consent of Parliament. If negotiations are not agreed within two years, the country leaves anyway. The process described is a formalisation of the process which Greenland used to leave the EC in 1985. The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


Points of contention

Versions of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe in the English language, published by the European Union for the general public. From left to right: the draft by the European Convention; the full Intergovernmental Conference version (text as signed by plenipotentiaries to be ratified) with the protocols and annexes; the abridged version with the European Parliament's resolution of endorsement, but without the protocols and annexes, for visitors to the European Parliament. Versions in other European languages were also published.
Versions of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe in the English language, published by the European Union for the general public. From left to right: the draft by the European Convention; the full Intergovernmental Conference version (text as signed by plenipotentiaries to be ratified) with the protocols and annexes; the abridged version with the European Parliament's resolution of endorsement, but without the protocols and annexes, for visitors to the European Parliament. Versions in other European languages were also published.

The TCE's attempt to codify all previous treaties increased its length and complexity tremendously and aroused deep suspicions of its effects among holders of widely differing European points of view. Eurosceptics (particularly in the United Kingdom) saw it as entrenching a European superstate, whilst the left (particularly in France) alleged that it is a sort of neoliberal Washington consensus for Europe. It was also criticised for confusing constitutional and structural questions with questions of policy which would not usually be contained in a constitutional document (although they were contained in the various treaties which preceded it). Opponents to neoliberalism maintain their initial viewpoint, in favour of European integration, but against antisocial policies (it may be compared to the November 2005 Mar del Plata Summit of the Americas and to its opposition to the Free Trade Area of the Americas). Thus, the opposition between proponents and opponents of the TCE is both a "national sovereignty vs. European integration" debate and a "neoliberal vs. social policies" debate. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1760x1168, 239 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): European Convention Intergovernmental Conference Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe History of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1760x1168, 239 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): European Convention Intergovernmental Conference Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe History of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for... The European Convention, sometimes known as the Convention on the Future of Europe, was a body established by the European Council in December 2001 as a result of the Laeken Declaration. ... An Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) is the formal procedure for negotiating amendments to the founding treaties of the European Union. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... The term neoliberalism is used to describe a political-economic philosophy that had major implications for government policies beginning in the 1970s – and increasingly prominent since 1980 – that de-emphasizes or rejects positive government intervention in the economy, focusing instead on achieving progress and even social justice by... The Washington Consensus is a phrase initially coined in 1987-88 by John Williamson to describe a relatively specific set of ten economic policy prescriptions that he considered to constitute a standard reform package promoted for crisis-wracked countries by Washington-based institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, World... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The tourist resort of Mar del Plata, 400 kilometers southeast of the Argentine capital Buenos Aires, is the venue of the Fourth Summit of the Americas, which will gather the leaders of all the countries of the Western Hemisphere, except Cuba. ... This article or section needs to be updated. ...


Length and complexity

Critics of the TCE point out that, compared to some existing national constitutions (such as the 4,600-word United States Constitution), it is very long, at over 160,000 words in its English version, including declarations and protocols. It is also written in technical legal language which has proved difficult even for specialists to understand, and highly inaccessible to the general public. Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ...


Proponents say that the document nevertheless remains considerably shorter and less complex than the existing set of treaties that it consolidates, but even the drafters of the CT have suggested that they were wrong to attempt, at the same time and in one document, both construction of a constitution and consolidation of all previous treaties, regardless of the nature of their provisions. Had they not done so, the TCE could have been much shorter, simpler and easier to grasp. Defenders of the length of the document say it is not an overarching general constitution, but a development of the previous treaties.


Qualified majority voting

Qualified majority voting is extended to an additional 26 decision-making areas that had previously required unanimity. Opponents of the TCE argue that this involves a loss of sovereignty and decision-making power for individual countries. Defenders argue that these provisions only apply in the areas where member states have agreed it should and not otherwise; that it was necessary to prevent decision-making from grinding to a halt in the enlarged Union. (In the past, there have been cases when it appeared that "veto trading" was being used tactically rather than for issues of principle.) Further, the "qualified majority voting" mechanism is structured such that a blocking minority is not difficult to achieve for matters of substance. Qualified Majority Voting (QMV) is a voting procedure employed in the Council of the European Union for some decisions. ...


Union law and national law

Critics sometimes claim that it is unacceptable for the TCE to enshrine European laws as taking precedence over national laws, because this is an erosion of national sovereignty.


Defenders say it has always been the case that EU law supersedes national law. The TCE does not change this arrangement for either existing or future EU law. However, the question of whether the arrangement is considered acceptable in the first place is still an issue for debate.


With the widening of qualified majority voting also envisaged in the TCE, however, the issue of the primacy of EU law becomes more sensitive. This is because there is an increase in the number of areas in which laws can be passed by majority vote, and thus an increase in the number of areas where it is possible for an individual country to vote against a proposal (unsuccessfully) and subsequently find its national legislature to be bound it. Qualified Majority Voting (QMV) is a voting procedure employed in the Council of the European Union for some decisions. ...


Trappings of statehood

It has been argued that the TCE introduces a number of elements that are traditionally the province of sovereign states: flag, motto, anthem. While these have no special legal status, and all exist already, this is something some see as a shift towards the future creation of a single European state, and a possible corresponding loss of national identity. The symbols of the EU in the proposed constitution are listed in Article I-8 of the full document. Many eurosceptics oppose the TCE for this reason. Flag Ratio: 2:3 The European flag consists of a circle of twelve golden stars on a blue background. ... The Council of Europe (COE) has developed a series of European symbols for the continent of Europe, and these have since been shared with the European Union (EU). ... 4th movement (European Union anthem) samples: Problems playing the files? See media help. ... Euroscepticism (a portmanteau of European and scepticism) has become a general term for opposition to the process of European integration. ...


Defenders of the TCE argue that none of these elements are new, although their formal inclusion in a constitutional treaty is obviously new, and that many of them are also used by other international organisations. They also argue that key principles enshrined in the TCE, such as the principles of conferral and subsidiarity, reinforce the status of member states as cooperating sovereign nations. The principle of conferral is a fundamental principle of European Union law. ... Subsidiarity is the idea that matters should be handled by the lowest competent authority. ...


It has likewise been argued that to call the document a "Constitution" rather than a "treaty" implies a change in the nature of the EU, from an association of cooperating countries to a single state or something approaching a state. In response, it has been pointed out that many international organisations, including the World Health Organisation, have constitutions, without implying that they are states. From a legal point of view the TCE will still be a treaty among independent states. “WHO” redirects here. ...


Some people have said that it may be more appropriate to hold Europe Day on the original Council of Europe designated date of May 5, as opposed to the current EU and TCE-proposed May 9, the commemoration date of the end of the Second World War in Europe for much of formerly Soviet dominated eastern Europe – many of which are now EU member states. The western European equivalent, VE Day is on May 8. The choice of May 9 by the European Community in 1985 was because that was the day on which the Schuman declaration was made. Some eurosceptics have said that the Council of Europe day of May 5, celebrating the Council of Europe and its values of human rights, parliamentary democracy and the rule of law, would be more worth celebrating than the presentation of proposals about coal and steel by a French minister to the German government – symbolising as it does the founding of the Franco-German engine, a concept which many see as a mechanism for excluding others from EU decision making. The Council of Europe (COE) has developed a series of European symbols for the continent of Europe, and these have since been shared with the European Union (EU). ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Victory in Europe Day (V-E Day) was May 8, 1945, the date when the Allies during the Second World War formally celebrated the defeat of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitlers Reich. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The Schuman Declaration is the name of the May 9, 1950 public appeal by Robert Schuman, French Foreign Minister, to place Frances and West Germanys coal and steel industries under joint management. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... The rule of law is the principle that governmental authority is legitimately exercised only in accordance with written, publicly disclosed laws adopted and enforced in accordance with established procedure. ... Francois Mitterrand and Helmut Kohl in Verdun in 1984 The Franco-German Cooperation or Franco-German Partnership are terms to describe the high collaboration between the countries of France and Germany in the post-1945 world. ...


Democracy

See also: Democratic deficit

While the TCE does not give any more power to the European Commission, it has been argued that by failing to reduce the Commission's powers, it perpetuates the perceived democratic deficit of the European Union as a whole. The term democratic deficit is usually used to refer to organizations which are democratic to some extent, but are not as democratic as they could be. ...


As Commissioners are nominated by member countries and approved by the European Parliament, rather than being directly elected by the people, it is argued that the Commission – essentially the executive of the Union – holds more power than it should in an optimally democratic system.


Although it remains the case that the Commission has no law-making power, and may only draft proposals for the consideration of directly elected representatives in Parliament and Council, there are several ways in which the Commission can bring pressure to bear on these two bodies nonetheless. It may, for instance, threaten to withdraw a legislative proposal (as in the debate on the Directive on the patentability of computer-implemented inventions on 23 September 2003). It may also require the Council of Ministers to reach unanimous agreement rather than majority approval if the Commission does not approve Parliament's proposed amendments during the first reading of the codecision procedure. However, it cannot impose any laws, as the approval of at least a qualified majority (well over two-thirds of the votes) in the Council and usually of the European Parliament is needed. The European Union (EU) Directive on the patentability of computer-implemented inventions (2002/0047/COD) was a proposal for an EU law which aimed to harmonise EU national patent laws and practices, which involved the granting of patents for computer-implemented inventions provided they meet certain criteria. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The codecision procedure is the main legislative procedure by which law can be adopted in the European Community, the first of the three pillars of the European Union. ...


The TCE would have enhanced parliamentary scrutiny by widening the areas on which the European Parliament's approval is needed to cover almost all legislation adopted by the Council, by providing for the President of the Commission to be elected by the Parliament, by giving national parliaments a right of prior scrutiny before proposals are dealt with by the Council of Ministers and by enhancing parliamentary scrutiny over secondary implementing measures.


But some of the other of the TCE's measures intended to enhance democracy are said by some to be unavailing. For instance, the obligation for the Commission to consider a petition by 1 million citizens only "invites" such a petition to be "considered"; it is open to the Commission to decide how to react, including ignoring the petition if it wishes. Detractors thus argue that this new provision is pointless. In response, it has been argued that it would not be feasible in practice for the Commission to ignore a mandate from a million citizens. Opponents argue that the Commission is not a directly elected body and therefore have no electorate which could bring such pressure to bear against the will of Commissioners, but defenders further point out that MEPs, who are directly elected, have the power to scrutinise, censure and if necessary dismiss the Commission. A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP)[1] is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ...


Drawing on parallels with UK civil service traditions, some in the UK would like to see the power to propose legislation removed from the Commission, and the Commission turned into a less political body along UK civil service lines. This is an alternative to other proposals to make the Commission "more democratic". The power to propose legislation would fall to the legislature, either the Council of Ministers, or the European Parliament, or both. This would remove one of the frequent charges of some quarters of the UK press – that of the Commission being "faceless unelected bureaucrats". The British civil service is the permanent bureaucracy that supports the Government Ministers responsible to the Sovereign and Parliament in administering the United Kingdom. ...


Secularism

There was a debate about whether to include a reference to Christianity in the TCE. The Roman Catholic Church and even the former Polish president Aleksander Kwaśniewski, who himself is an agnostic, advocated such a move to reflect Europe's Christian history, but France and some NGOs took a strongly secular stance. In the end, a compromise agreement included a reference in the preamble to "the cultural, religious and humanist inheritance of Europe". Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... Aleksander KwaÅ›niewski ( ; born November 15, 1954) is a Polish politician who served as the President of Poland from 1995 to 2005. ... Agnosticism (from the Greek a, meaning without, and Gnosticism or gnosis, meaning knowledge) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims—particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality—is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism... “NGO” redirects here. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ...


Militarism

Article I-41(3) states that: "Member States shall undertake progressively to improve their military capabilities". It has been argued that this will prevent all partial disarming of any of the states to require them to increase military capabilities without taking into account the geopolitical situation, or the will of the people. The creation of a European weapon office may also lead to an increase of the worldwide arms race, according to some analyses.


Others point out that the same article limits any EU joint military action to "peace-keeping, conflict prevention and strengthening international security" based on UN principles. It is only under this framework that countries agree to develop their military capabilities. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


Economic policy

Some commentators, especially within France, have expressed a fear that the proposed Constitution may force upon European countries a Neo-Liberal economic framework which will threaten the "European social model". The principles of the "free movement of capital" (both inside the EU and with third countries), and of "free and undistorted competition", are stated several times, and it has been argued that they cover all areas, from health care to energy to transport. However, there are also concerns among commentators in Britain as well as Central and Eastern European countries that it enshrines too many socialist principles, such as the rights of workers' unions, and the right to strike. The principle of free movement of capital and the goal of encouraging competition have already been included in the Treaties of Rome, dating from 1956. The term neoliberalism is used to describe a political-economic philosophy that had major implications for government policies beginning in the 1970s – and increasingly prominent since 1980 – that de-emphasizes or rejects positive government intervention in the economy, focusing instead on achieving progress and even social justice by...


The European Central Bank remains independent of any democratic institution, and its only purpose is to fight inflation. This contrasts with other organisations, such as the U.S. Federal Reserve, which also has the goal of fighting unemployment. Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ... The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. ...


It has also been argued that existing national constitutions do not fix economic policies inside the TCE itself: it is more common for elected governments to retain the power to decide on economic policy.


Human rights

Some opponents argue that since some fundamental human rights are not explicitly enumerated by the TCE's Charter of Fundamental Rights, they are not recognised by that charter. The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing human rights provisions, solemnly proclaimed by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission in December 2000. ...


In response, defenders point out that the charter does not affect the laws of EU member states, since all member states are already signatories to the European Convention on Human Rights. “ECHR” redirects here. ...


Instead, the charter applies only to the EU institutions themselves. The EU's accession to the Convention is intended to solve the question of clash between two human rights bills, so that in actual fact the Constitution's charter would be construed in exactly the same way as the existing and binding Convention. There would thus be no change in legal position.[4]


Ratification

Further information: History of the European Constitution#Ratification
Ratification status in member states and candidate countries     Referendum announced      No referendum planned      Yes - Accession treaty      Yes - Parliament only      Yes - Referendum      No - Referendum      Referendum postponed indefinitely
Ratification status in member states and candidate countries     Referendum announced      No referendum planned      Yes - Accession treaty      Yes - Parliament only      Yes - Referendum      No - Referendum      Referendum postponed indefinitely

The TCE was signed in a ceremony at Rome on 29 October 2004. Before it enters into force, however, it must be ratified by each member state. Ratification takes different forms in each country, depending on its traditions, constitutional arrangements, and political processes. In several member states, the head of state is also required to approve the TCE once it has been approved by parliament or referendum. The President of Germany has not yet done so, due to a pending legal challenge over the way ratification was handled without a referendum. Slovakia's president has also not yet approved the constitution following request from the country's Constitutional Court. Family photo of European leaders at the signing of the constitutional treaty in Rome This article discusses the history of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, which was signed in 2004 and is currently awaiting ratification by European Union member states. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 12 January 2005 the European Parliament voted legally non-binding resolution in support of the TCE with 500 to 137 votes in favour and 40 abstentions.[5] is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild...


Lithuania, Hungary, Slovenia, Italy, Greece, Slovakia, Austria, Germany, Latvia, Cyprus, Malta, Belgium, Estonia and Finland have already completed parliamentary ratification of the TCE.


Ten of the 27 member states have announced their intention to hold a referendum on the subject. In some cases, the result will be legally binding; in others it will be consultative (as was the case in the Netherlands). Four referendums have now taken place, resulting in Spain and Luxembourg ratifying the TCE, and its being rejected in both France and the Netherlands. While the referendum in the Netherlands was consultative only, the Dutch government has pledged that it will not ratify. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


Since the French vote, some EU countries have confirmed their intention to abandon or postpone referendums on ratification, including the United Kingdom, where then Foreign Secretary Jack Straw has said there is "no point" in planning a referendum following the decisions in France and the Netherlands.[6] Other countries have continued with ratification procedures, including Luxembourg, which approved the treaty in a referendum on 10 July 2005 albeit the result was very narrowly in favour.[7] John Whitaker Straw (born August 3, 1946) is a British Labour Party politician. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 15 September 2005, MEPs Johannes Voggenhuber of the Austrian Green Party and Andrew Duff of the Liberal Democrats suggested the following plan of action: is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP)[1] is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ... Johannes Voggenhuber Johannes Voggenhuber (born 5 June 1950 in Salzburg) is an Austrian politician and Member of the European Parliament for the Austrian Green Party, part of the European Greens. ... The Austrian Green Party (de: Die Grünen - Die Grüne Alternative, or Die Grünen) is a political party in the Austrian parliament. ... Andrew Duff (born 25 December 1950) is a Liberal Democrat politician and a Member of the European Parliament for the East of England region of the UK. He initially stood in the European Parliament election, 1984 coming third with 22. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

  • before the end of 2006, write a strongly reduced treaty containing only the non-controversial points (i.e., charter of fundamental rights, European referendum, the principle of "no law without parliament").
  • before the end of 2009, a new constitutional convention should decide on a new European Constitution, especially regarding the "favoured social system" and the Common Foreign and Security Policy.
  • together with the elections for European Parliament in 2009, a European referendum on the constitutional treaty should be called.

Their proposal was not followed by the European Parliament, which preferred to keep options open during the "period of reflection" that member states had agreed following the negative referendum results, in its resolution passed by on 19 January 2006 by 385 in favour to 125 against. Social structure (also referred to as a social system) is a system in which people forming the society are organized by a patterns of prelationships. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Ratification of the Treaty

Member state[8] Date Result[9] Deposition with Italian Government[10]
Flag of Lithuania Lithuania 11 November 2004 Yes Yes. Seimas: 84 to 4 in favour, 3 abstentions.[11] 17 December 2004
Flag of Hungary Hungary 20 December 2004 Yes Yes. Országgyűlés: 323 to 12 in favour, 8 abstention.[12] 30 December 2004
Flag of Slovenia Slovenia 1 February 2005 Yes Yes. Državni zbor: 79 to 4 in favour, 0 abstentions.[13] 9 May 2005
Flag of Italy Italy 25 January 2005
6 April 2005
Yes Yes. Camera dei Deputati: 436 to 28 in favour, 5 abstentions.[14]
Yes Yes. Senato della Repubblica: 217 to 16 in favour, 0 abstentions.[15]
25 May 2005
Flag of Spain Spain 20 February 2005
28 April 2005
18 May 2005
Yes Yes. Consultative referendum: 76.73% to 17.24% in favour, 6.03% blanks, 42.32% participation.[16][17]
Yes Yes. Congreso de los Diputados: 311 to 19 in favour, 0 abstentions.[18]
Yes Yes. Senado: 225 to 6 in favour, 1 abstention.[19]
15 June 2005
Flag of Austria Austria 11 May 2005
25 May 2005
Yes Yes. Nationalrat: Approved by show of hands with 1 against.[20]
Yes Yes. Bundesrat: Approved by show of hands with three against.[21]
17 June 2005
Flag of Greece Greece 19 April 2005 Yes Yes. Βουλή των Ελλήνων: 268 to 17 in favour, 15 abstentions.[22] 28 July 2005
Flag of Malta Malta 6 July 2005 Yes Yes. Il-Kamra: Agreed without a division.[23] 2 August 2005
Flag of Cyprus Cyprus 30 June 2005 Yes Yes. Βουλή των Αντιπροσώπων: 30 to 19 in favour, one abstention.[24] 6 October 2005
Flag of Latvia Latvia 2 June 2005 Yes Yes. Saeima: 71 to 5 in favour, six abstentions.[25] 3 January 2006
Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg 10 July 2005
25 October 2005
Yes Yes. Consultative referendum: 56.52% to 43.48% in favour, 87.77% participation.[26][27]
Yes Yes. Châmber: 57 to 1 in favour, no abstentions.[28]
30 January 2006
Flag of Belgium Belgium 28 April 2005
19 May 2005
17 June 2005
20 June 2005
29 June 2005
19 July 2005
8 February 2006
Yes Yes. Senaat/Sénat: 54 to 9 in favour, one abstention.[29]
Yes Yes. Kamer/Chambre: 118 to 18 in favour, one abstention.[30]
Yes Yes. Parlement Bruxellois/Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Parlement: 70 to 10 in favour, 0 abstentions.[31]
Yes Yes. Parlament der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft: 21 to 2 in favour, no abstentions.[32]
Yes Yes. Parlement wallon: 55 to 2 in favour, 0 abstention.[33]
Yes Yes. Parlement de la Communauté française: 79 to 0 in favour, no abstentions.[34]
Yes Yes. Vlaams Parlement: 84 to 29 in favour, one abstention.[35]
13 June 2006
Flag of Estonia Estonia 9 May 2006 Yes Yes. Riigikogu: 73 to 1 in favour, no abstentions.[36] 26 September 2006
Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria 1 January 2007 Yes Yes. Due to the provisions of Treaty of Accession 2005 Not required
Flag of Romania Romania 1 January 2007 Yes Yes. Due to the provisions of Treaty of Accession 2005 Not required
Flag of Slovakia Slovakia 11 May 2005 Yes Yes. Národná rada: 116 to 27 in favour, four abstentions.[37] Pending. President of the republic has not signed the law.
Flag of Germany Germany 12 May 2005
27 May 2005
Yes Yes. Bundestag: 569 to 23 in favour, two abstentions.[38]
Yes Yes. Bundesrat: 66 to 0 in favour, three abstentions.[39]
Pending decision of Constitutional Court[40]
Flag of Finland Finland
incl. Åland Åland[41]
5 December 2006
Cancelled
Yes Yes. Eduskunta/Riksdag: 125 to 39 in favour, four abstentions.[42]
Lagting[43]
Pending
Flag of France France 29 May 2005
Cancelled
Cancelled
No No. Referendum: 54.68% to 45.32% against, 69.34% participation.[44][45]
Assemblée Nationale:
Sénat:
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands 1 June 2005
Cancelled
Cancelled
No No. Consultative referendum: 61.54% to 38.46% against, 63.30% participation.[46][47]
Tweede Kamer:
Eerste Kamer:
Flag of the Czech Republic Czech Republic Cancelled
Cancelled
Cancelled
Referendum:
Senát:
Poslanecká sněmovna:
Flag of Denmark Denmark Cancelled
Cancelled
Referendum:
Folketing:
Flag of Ireland Ireland Cancelled
Cancelled
Cancelled
Referendum:
Dáil Éireann:
Seanad Éireann:
 Poland Cancelled
Cancelled
Cancelled
Referendum:
Sejm:
Senat:
 Portugal Cancelled
Cancelled
Referendum:
Assembleia da Republica:
Flag of Sweden Sweden Cancelled Riksdag:
 United Kingdom Cancelled
Cancelled
Cancelled
Referendum:
House of Commons:
House of Lords:

Status of ratification process as of 23 June 2007: Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Seimas is the Lithuanian parliament. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... The National Assembly of Hungary (Országgyűlés) is the national parliament of Hungary. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... The National Assembly (Državni zbor) is the assembly of the parliament of the Republic of Slovenia. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Back side of Palazzo Montecitorio designed by architect Ernesto Basile. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Palazzo Madama house of the Senate of the Republic. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... On 20 February 2005 a consultative referendum was held in Spain to ask whether the country should ratify the proposed Constitution of the European Union. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... The Spanish Congress of Deputies (Spanish: Congreso de los Diputados) is the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spains legislative branch. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... The Spanish Senate (Spanish: Senado) is the upper house of the Cortes Generales, Spains legislative branch. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... The National Council or Nationalrat is one of the two houses of the Federal Assembly, the bicameral federal parliament of the Federal Republic of Austria. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... The Federal Council of Austria or Bundesrat is one of the two separate councils of parliament of Austria. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... The Hellenic Parliament (Greek: Βουλή των Ελλήνων; transliterated Vouli ton Ellinon; literally Council of the Greeks) is the parliament of Greece, located in Syntagma Square in Athens. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... The Parliament of Malta, the House of Representatives (Il-Kamra tar-Raprezentanti), has 65 members, elected for a five year term in 13 5-seat constituencies with a possibility of rewarding bonus members for the popular largest party which doesnt succeed in getting absolute majority in parliament. ... It has been suggested that Division of the house be merged into this article or section. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... The House of Representatives (Greek: Βουλή των Αντιπροσώπων; Vouli ton Antiprosópon;Turkish:Temsilciler Meclisi) is the parliament of Cyprus. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... The Saeima is the parliament of the Republic of Latvia. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... The Luxembourgish referendum on the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe is a referendum that was held on 10 July 2005 to decide whether Luxembourg should ratify the proposed Constitution of the European Union. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... The Chamber of Deputies (French: Chambre des Députés) is the unicameral legislative branch of the government of Luxembourg. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... The Belgian Senate (Dutch: de Senaat, French: le Sénat) is one of the two chambers of the Belgian Federal Parliament. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... The Belgian Chamber of Representatives (Dutch: de Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers, French: la Chambre des Représentants) is one of the two chambers of the Belgian Federal Parliament. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... The Council of the Region of Brussels-Capital, or Brussels Regional Parliament (French: Conseil de la Région de Bruxelles-Capitale or Parlement Bruxellois, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Parlement or Brusselse Hoofdstedelijke Raad), is the Parliament of the Brussels-Capital Region, one of the three regions of Belgium. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... The Parliament of the German Speaking Community (Parlament der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft or PDG) is the legislative assembly of the German-speaking community of Belgium based in Eupen. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... The Walloon Parliament, or Walloon Regional Parliament (French: Parlement wallon or Parlement régional wallon; formerly Walloon Regional Council or Conseil régional wallon), is the parliament of Wallonia, the southern region of Belgium. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... The Parliament of the French Community (Parlement de la Communauté française or PCF) is the legislative assembly of the French community of Belgium based in the Quartier Royal. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... The Flemish Parliament (Dutch: Vlaams Parlement, and formerly called Flemish Council or Vlaamse Raad) constitutes the legislative power in Flanders, for matters which fall within the competence of Flanders, both as a geographic region and a cultural and linguistic community of Belgium. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Riigikogu is the name of the national parliament of Estonia. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... European Union 2007  Member states The Treaty of Accession 2005 is an agreement between the member states of European Union and Bulgaria and Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... European Union 2007  Member states The Treaty of Accession 2005 is an agreement between the member states of European Union and Bulgaria and Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Building of the National Council of the Slovak Republic next to the Bratislava Castle The National Council of the Slovak Republic (in Slovak: Národná rada Slovenskej republiky, often just: Národná rada, abbr. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Type Lower house President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU since October 18, 2005 Members 614 Political groups (as of September 18, 2005 elections) Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226), Social Democratic Party of Germany (222), Free Democratic Party (61), The Left Party. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Federal States (Länder) of Germany at the federal level. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Aaland. ... “Aland” redirects here. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... The Eduskunta (in Finnish), or the Riksdag (in Swedish), is the Parliament of Finland. ... The Lagting, or Lagtinget, is the parliament of Ã…land, an autonomous, demilitarised and unilingually Swedish territory of Finland. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... On 29 May 2005 a referendum was held in France to decide whether the country should ratify the proposed Constitution of the European Union. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... The Senate amphitheater in the Luxembourg Palace The Senate (in French :le Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... On 1 June 2005 a consultative referendum was held in the Netherlands to ask whether the country should ratify the proposed Constitution of the European Union. ... The Tweede Kamer (second chamber) is the lower house of the Staten-Generaal, the parliament in the Netherlands. ... The Eerste Kamer (literally First Chamber in Dutch) is the Upper House or Senate of the Netherlands parliament, the States-General. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... After the Nos in France and Netherlands the Czech government announced that the proposed referendum would not be held. ... The Senate of the Parliament of the Czech Republic (Czech: , usually referred to as Senát) is the upper chamber of the Parliament of the Czech Republic. ... The Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic (in Czech Poslanecká snÄ›movna Parlamentu ÄŒeské republiky, abbr. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... The Danish government had announced it would hold a referendum on 27 September 2005 in order decide whether it should ratify the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe. ... The Folketing [], or Folketinget, is the national parliament of Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... The Irish referendum on the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe is a referendum expected to be held in late 2005 or early 2006 to decide whether the Republic of Ireland should ratify the proposed Constitution of the European Union. ... This article is about the current Irish body. ... Type Upper house of Oireachtas Cathaoirleach Pat Moylan, Fianna Fáil since 13 September 2007 Members 60 Political groups Fianna Fáil Fine Gael Labour Party Independents Progressive Democrats Green Party Sinn Féin Last elections 2007 Meeting place Leinster House Web site www. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... The Polish referendum on the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe was a referendum expected to be held on in October 2005 to decide whether Poland should ratify the proposed Constitution of the European Union. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... The Polish Senate The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... On March 12, 2005, the prime minister of Portugal, José Sócrates said that he would seek to have the Constitution of Portugal amended to allow that a referendum on the proposed Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe be held on December 2005 alongside the municipal elections taking place that... São Bento Palace, home of the Portuguese Parliament. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... The Riksdag or Sveriges Riksdag is the Parliament of Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... On April 20, 2004, the British Prime Minister Tony Blair announced in the House of Commons that Britain would hold a referendum on its ratification of the proposed Treaty establishing a constitution for Europe when it was agreed by the European Council. ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

Stage of the process Number of countries with Referendums
Ratification completed 15
Flag of Austria Austria
Flag of Belgium Belgium
Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria
Flag of Cyprus Cyprus
Flag of Estonia Estonia
Flag of Greece Greece
Flag of Hungary Hungary
Flag of Italy Italy
Flag of Latvia Latvia
Flag of Lithuania Lithuania
Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg
Flag of Malta Malta
Flag of Romania Romania
Flag of Slovenia Slovenia
Flag of Spain Spain
2










Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg



Flag of Spain Spain
Ratification by the parliament completed 3
Flag of Finland Finland
Flag of Germany Germany
Flag of Slovakia Slovakia
0



Rejected 2
Flag of France France
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands
2
Flag of France France
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands
Abandoned 7
Flag of the Czech Republic Czech Republic
Flag of Denmark Denmark
Flag of Ireland Ireland
 Poland
 Portugal
Flag of Sweden Sweden
 United Kingdom
5

Flag of Denmark Denmark
Flag of Ireland Ireland
 Poland
 Portugal

 United Kingdom

Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ...

Quotes

Our Constitution ... is called a democracy because power is in the hands not of a minority but of the greatest number.

Thucydides II, 37. Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ...

This was the first sentence of the preamble of the draft treaty establishing a constitution for Europe in the version of the European Convention. The Heads of State and Government deleted it during their Intergovernmental Conference. The European Convention, sometimes known as the Convention on the Future of Europe, was a body established by the European Council in December 2001 as a result of the Laeken Declaration. ... An Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) is the formal procedure for negotiating amendments to the founding treaties of the European Union. ...


Timeline

Timeline of the Treaties and EU Constitution

The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ... The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ... The European Union is a unique geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European peninsula. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Members of the European Coal and Steel Community Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member... The European Atomic Energy Community, or EURATOM, is an international organization composed of the members of the European Union. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism. ... Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... “EU” redirects here. ... The Treaty of Paris, signed on April 18, 1951 between Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands established the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which subsequently became part of the European Union. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ... The Merger Treaty, signed in Brussels on 8 April 1965 and in force since 1 July 1967, first gathered together the organizational structures of the then three European Communities (European Coal and Steel Community, European Economic Community and Euratom). ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, commonly known as the Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on... Treaty of Nice The Treaty of Nice is a treaty adopted in Nice by the European Council to amend the two founding treaties of the European Union: the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, which introduced the Euro and the 3-pillar structure of the EU; the Treaty of... The Reform Treaty (also referred to as; future institutional settlement or new legal basis, among others) is a proposed replacement for the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (European Constitution). ... The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ...

See also

The Reform Treaty (also referred to as; future institutional settlement or new legal basis, among others) is a proposed replacement for the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (European Constitution). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with European Constitution. ... The Reform Treaty (also referred to as; future institutional settlement or new legal basis, among others) is a proposed replacement for the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (European Constitution). ... Javier Solana, expected to be the first combined High Representative The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy is a new European Union political post envisaged under the proposed Reform Treaty. ... The post of European Public Prosecutor is one proposed for the European Union, as set forth in the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, pending ratification. ... The European Council, sometimes informally called the European Summit, is a meeting of the heads of state or government of the European Union, and the President of the European Commission (not to be confused with the Council of the European Union, or the Council of Europe). ... The procedures for Voting in the Council of the European Union are described in the treaties of the EU. The Council of the European Union was instituted under this name in the Maastricht Treaty. ... There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ... The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing human rights provisions, solemnly proclaimed by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission in December 2000. ... The Democratic deficit in the European Union is an argument made against the perceived democratic problems that have been a result of the process of creating the European Union after the first energy transition from coal to gas in 1963 (Gasunie) as the worlds root cause for globalization. ... The codecision procedure is the main legislative procedure by which law can be adopted in the European Community, the first of the three pillars of the European Union. ... The project of Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe was signed in Rome on 29 October 2004 by 53 senior political figures from the 25 member states of the European Union. ... The constitutional treaty as signed in Rome on 29 October 2004 by representatives of the EU member states The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TECE), commonly referred to as the European Constitution, was an international treaty intended to create a new constitution for the European Union. ... Patrick Bartholomew Bertie Ahern (Irish: ; born 12 September 1951) is an Irish politician who, since 26 June 1997, has served as the tenth Taoiseach. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... “Chirac” redirects here. ... Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing (born 2 February 1926) is a French center-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ...   IPA: [] (born June 18, 1949) has been the Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland since July 14, 2006 and is the chairman of Law and Justice (Polish: ), a party which he co-founded in 2001. ...   (IPA: ) (b. ... Nicolas Sarkozy (IPA: —  ), (born Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa on 28 January 1955 in Paris, France is the current President of France, elected on 6 May 2007 after defeating Socialist Party contender Ségolène Royal during the second round of the 2007 election. ... José Sócrates de Carvalho Pinto de Sousa, GCIH (pron. ...   [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ... Family photo of European leaders at the signing of the constitutional treaty in Rome This article discusses the history of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, which was signed in 2004 and is currently awaiting ratification by European Union member states. ... The European Convention, sometimes known as the Convention on the Future of Europe, was a body established by the European Council in December 2001 as a result of the Laeken Declaration. ... An Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) is the formal procedure for negotiating amendments to the founding treaties of the European Union. ... List of European Councils, by presidency, date, and location. ... Berlin is symbolic in European history, the divided city reflecting the divided continent, both reunited after the fall of Communism. ... The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ... The Draft Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe has been worked out by the European Convention, amended by its Presidium in two steps presented to the Convention on 13 June and 10 July 2003. ... Since the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe was rejected by referenda in France and the Netherlands, various proposals have been made to how it should be amended. ... Former Prime Minister of Italy Giuliano Amato was the leader of the Action Committee for European Democracy. ... The Reform Treaty (also referred to as; future institutional settlement or new legal basis, among others) is a proposed replacement for the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (European Constitution). ...

References

  1. ^ "Presidency Conclusions Brussels European Council 21/22 June 2007", Council of the European Union, 23 June 2007. 
  2. ^ "From Confederacy to Federation - Thoughts on the finality of European integration", Joschka Fischer, 12 May 2000. 
  3. ^ "Prodi comments on future of treaty", Mainichi Japan, 13 June 2006. 
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ European Parliament results
  6. ^ BBC – Straw sees 'no point' in EU vote
  7. ^ BBC – Luxembourg backs EU constitution
  8. ^ Article IV-447 of the Treaty requires that instruments of ratification be deposited with the Government of the Italian Republic in order for the Treaty to enter into force. Each country deposits the instrument of ratification after its internal ratification process is finalised by all required state bodies (parliament and the head of state). Countries are ordered according to the date of deposition of ratification documents. When two countries have deposited the necessary documents on the same date the order is alphabetical.
  9. ^ Results refer to the final round of parliamentary vote when more than one vote is required.
  10. ^ Ratification details
  11. ^ Lithuanian Parliament results
  12. ^ Hungarian Parliament results
  13. ^ Slovenian National Assembly results
  14. ^ Italian Chamber of Deputies results
  15. ^ Italian Senate results
  16. ^ Participation in Spanish referendum is calculated based on the total number of votes. Results are calculated based on the valid votes only.
  17. ^ Spanish referendum results
  18. ^ Spanish Chamber of Representatives results
  19. ^ Spanish Senate results
  20. ^ Austrian Nationalrat results
  21. ^ Austrian Bundesrat results
  22. ^ Greek Parliament results
  23. ^ Parliament of Malta results
  24. ^ Cyprus Parliament results
  25. ^ Latvian Parliament results
  26. ^ Participation in Luxemburg referendum is calculated based on the total number of valid, non-blank votes. Results are calculated based on the valid, non-blank votes.
  27. ^ Luxemburg referendum results
  28. ^ Luxemburg Chamber of Deputies results
  29. ^ Belgian Senate results
  30. ^ Belgian Chamber of Representatives results
  31. ^ Brussels Parliament results
  32. ^ Belgian Parliament of the German Speaking Community results
  33. ^ Wallon Parliament results
  34. ^ Belgian Parliament of the French Community results
  35. ^ Belgian Parliament of the Flemish Community results
  36. ^ Estonian Parliament results
  37. ^ Slovak National Council results
  38. ^ German Bundestag results
  39. ^ German Bundesrat results
  40. ^ Opinion of German constitutional court
  41. ^ Åland is an autonomous province of Finland. It is part of European Union, but is subject of certain exemptions. Åland are not party in the Treaty to establish European constitution, but according to Article IV-440, Paragraph 5 the Treaty will apply on the territory but with derogation. So Åland Parliament ratification is not necessary for European Constitution to enter into force, but is needed for provisions of Article IV-440, Paragraph 5 to be applied.
  42. ^ Finish Parliament results
  43. ^ Åland Parliament position on European constitution
  44. ^ Participation in French referendum is calculated based on the total number of votes(2.51% of votes were blank or invalid). Results are calculated based on the valid, non-blank votes.
  45. ^ French referendum results
  46. ^ Participation in French referendum is calculated based on the total number of votes (0.76% of votes were blank or invalid). Results are calculated based on the valid, non-blank votes.
  47. ^ Dutch referendum results

Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...

External links

European Union Portal
  • A Constitution for Europe – EU's official Constitution site, including full text in the official languages.
  • Reader-friendly edition of the EU Constitution – Highlights and commentary (PDFs).
  • European constitution – full text at Titiland Law.
  • Good overview of the TCE from Chatham House
  • History of the Constitution – Academic site linking to many documents concerning the preparation, negotiation and ratification stages of the TCE and previous treaties.
  • The Constitution for the European Union European NAvigator
  • Everyone's a Citizen Baby, writing A People’s EU Constitution – http://everyones-a-citizen-baby.org
  • Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe – Text with hyperlinked cross-references.
  • Europedia: Guide to European policies and legislation

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

News coverage

  • BBC: Questions and answers about the TCE
    • BBC: Quick guide to the Constitution
  • BBC: Progress of ratification

Campaigning and advocacy sites

  • European Campaign for the Constitution
  • European Yes Campaign
  • European No Campaign
  • Democracy in Europe
  • our-constitution.org Our Constitution – grassroots campaign to include the people in the process of constitution building in Europe
  • ERC, European Referendum Campaign, demanding referendums on the European Constitution in all countries concerned
  • A roller coaster ride towards democracy – how the European Citizens Initiative found its way into the EU Constitution

Discussion sites

  • talkeuro – an open annotatable European Constitution in English and French

Monitoring reports

  • These reports evaluate the fairness of the referendums in Spain, France and the Netherlands using internationally recognised standards (p.4 250 KB pdf 20p.) for a referendum.

Commentary

  • The Future of the EU Constitution: Escaping the Ratification Maze, JURIST

A jurist is a professional who studies, develops, applies or otherwise deals with the law. ...

Creative

  • Part Three, a story inspired by the draft EU constitution


  Results from FactBites:
 
Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5967 words)
The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE), commonly referred to as the European Constitution, is an international treaty intended to create a constitution for the European Union.
The current debate on the future of Europe is often said to have begun with a speech made by German Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer in Berlin in 2000 [1], calling for a debate on the finality of European integration.
The rejection of the constitution in the referenda in France and the Netherlands, made the TCE's future and the implementation of its provisions highly uncertain, provoking a crisis of confidence in the project which has resulted, at least initially, in a degree of strategic paralysis.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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