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Encyclopedia > Treaty Ports (Ireland)

After the Irish Free State won independence in 1922, three deep water Treaty Ports, at Berehaven, Queenstown (renamed Cobh) and Lough Swilly, were retained by the United Kingdom as sovereign bases. This was a condition of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which ended the Irish War of Independence. The Irish Free State (Irish: Saorstát Éireann) was (1922–1937) the name of the state comprising the 26 of Irelands 32 counties which were separated from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Irish Free State Agreement (or Anglo-Irish Treaty) signed by British and Irish... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Castletownbere (Baile Chaisleáin Bhéarra in Irish) is a town in County Cork, Republic of Ireland. ... Cobh (An Cóbh in Irish, derived from English the cove) is a seaport in County Cork, Ireland ( 51°51′ N 8°18′ W). ... Lough Swilly (Loch Súilí in Irish) in Ireland is a fjord-like body of water lying between the eastern side of the Ininshowen Peninsula in County Donegal and the rest of northern Donegal. ... The UK Sovereign Base Areas are those British military base areas located in countries formerly ruled by the United Kingdom which were retained by it and not handed over when those countries attained independence. ... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty was a treaty between the British government and the Irish Republic which brought the Anglo-Irish War to an end and established the Irish Free State. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army under the proclaimed legitimacy of the First Dáil, the extra-legal Irish parliament...

The existence of the ports was one of the causes of the Irish Civil War, where those who regarded the Treaty as a betrayal of Irish Republicanism fought against the forces of the nascent Free State. The Irish Civil War (June 1922–April 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of todays Republic of Ireland. ... Irish Republicanism is the nationalist belief that all of Ireland should be a united independent republic. ...

The ports remained under the control of the UK until Anglo-Irish Free Trade Agreement in 1938, when they were returned to Ireland. From an Irish point of view, the handover of the ports in the leadup to World War II was felt to be vital to consolidate Ireland's neutrality during "The Emergency". 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (over 11 miles) into the air, August 9, 1945 after the Allied atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. ... A neutral country takes no side in a war between other parties, and in return hopes to avoid being attacked by either of them. ... For information about the 1975-1977 Emergency in India under Indira Gandhi, please see Indian Emergency. ...

Some in Britain, including Winston Churchill, considered the handover a short-sighted decision, since at the start of the Battle of the Atlantic in 1939, the convoy escort refuelling facilities which Berehaven and Queenstown would have provided were 370 kilometres (200 miles) further out into the Atlantic than those which were available in Northern Ireland and Britain. However, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was reluctant to antagonise Ireland while facing a greater enemy in Nazi Germany. The bases became less important after the Allies established bases in Iceland following the British occupation in 1940. Moreover, the ports had been neglected by the British Admiralty and would not have been ready for war. The Right Honourable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG , OM , CH , FRS , PC (November 30, 1874 – January 24, 1965) was a British statesman, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... The Second Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign of World War II, running from 1939 right through to the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, and was at its height from mid-1940 through to about the end of 1943. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Northern Ireland is one of four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... The Right Honourable Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869–9 November 1940) was a British politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937–1940. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... When spelt with a capital A, Allies usually denotes the countries that fought together against the Central Powers in World War I and against the Axis Powers in World War II. // Other uses In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... For the international law of the sea, see Admiralty law. ...

  Results from FactBites:
Treaty Ports - Search Results - MSN Encarta (263 words)
Treaty Ports, Asian cities that were opened to foreign trade and residence by treaty beginning in the mid-1800s.
Treaty ports were port cities in China, Japan and Korea opened to foreign trade by the Unequal Treaties, i.e.
Treaty Ports and Extraterritorality in China - 1921-22
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Treaty ports (976 words)
Treaty ports were port cities in China, Japan and Korea opened to foreign trade by the Unequal Treaties, i.e., imposed by Western naval powers and Japan on militarily helpless Asian states.
The first five treaty ports in China were established at the conclusion of the First Opium War by the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842.
Some of these port areas were directly leased by foreign powers such as in the concessions in China, effectively removing them from the control of local governments.
  More results at FactBites »



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