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Encyclopedia > Treatment of Polish citizens by occupiers

This article deals with the treatment of Polish citizens by occupation forces during the Second World War (1939 - 1945). For discussion of treatment of Polish citizens by race, see Holocaust in Poland and Nazi crimes against ethnic Poles. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The entrance to the Auschwitz extermination camp Persecution of the Jews by the German Nazi occupation government, particularly in the urban areas, began immediately after the occupation. ... This article details the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed against ethnic Poles during World War II. 3 million non-Jewish Polish citizens perished during the course of the war, most of them civilians, killed by the actions of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. ...


In the beginning of the war (September, 1939) the territory of Poland was divided between the Nazi Germany and the USSR. By the late-1941 the Soviets were overrun by Nazi Germany over entire territory of the former Second Polish Republic but the 1944-1945 the Red Army's offensive drove the Nazi forces out. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Supreme commander: Adolf Hitler Supreme commander: Josef Stalin Strength ~ 3. ... Second Polish Republic 1921-1939 The Second Polish Republic is an unofficial name applied to the Republic of Poland between World War I and World War II. When the borders of the state were fixed in 1921, it had an area of 388. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ...


After both occupiers divided the territory of Poland between themselves, they conducted a series of actions aimed at suppression of Polish culture and and repression of much of the Polish people. Over 6 million Polish citizens - nearly 21.4% of Poland's population - died between 1939 and 1945. [3] Over 90% of the death toll came through non-military losses, as most of the civilians were targeted by various deliberate actions by Germans and Soviets. [4] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Contents

Treatment of Polish citizens under German occupation

See also: Holocaust in Poland and Nazi crimes against ethnic Poles

It was German policy that the (non-Jewish) Poles were to be reduced to the status of serfs, and eventually replaced by German colonists. In the General Government all education but primary education was abolished and so was all Polish cultural, scientific, artistic life. Universities were closed and many university professors, along with teachers, lawyers, intellectuals and other members of the Polish elite, were arrested and executed. In 1943, the government selected the Zamojskie area for further German colonisation. German settlements were planned, and the Polish population expelled amid great brutality, but few Germans were settled in the area before 1944. The entrance to the Auschwitz extermination camp Persecution of the Jews by the German Nazi occupation government, particularly in the urban areas, began immediately after the occupation. ... This article details the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed against ethnic Poles during World War II. 3 million non-Jewish Polish citizens perished during the course of the war, most of them civilians, killed by the actions of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


The Polish civilian population suffered under German occupation in several ways. Large numbers were expelled from areas intended for German colonisation, and forced to resettle in the General-Government area. Hundreds of thousands of Poles were deported to Germany for forced labour in industry and agriculture, where many thousands died. Poles were also conscripted for labour in Poland, and were held in labour camps all over the country, again with a high death rate. There was a general shortage of food, fuel for heating and medical supplies, and there was a high death rate among the Polish population as a result. Finally thousands of Poles were killed as reprisals for resistance attacks on German forces or for other reasons. In all, about 3 million (non-Jewish) Poles died as a result of the German occupation, more than 10 percent of the pre-war population. When this is added to the 3 million Polish Jews who were killed as a matter of policy by the Germans, Poland lost about 22 percent of its population, the highest proportion of any European country in World War II[5].


Rather than through being sent to concentration camps, most non-Jewish Poles died through in mass executions starvation, singled out murder cases, ill health or forced labour. Apart from Auschwitz, the main six "extermination camps" in Poland were used almost exclusively to kill Jews. There was also camp Stutthof concentration camp used for mass extermination of Poles. There was a number of civilian labour camps (Gemeinschaftslager) for Poles (Polenlager) on the territory of Poland. Many Poles did die in German camps. The first non-German prisoners at Auschwitz were Poles, who were the majority of inmates there until 1942, when the systematic killing of the Jews began. The first killing by poison gas at Auschwitz involved 300 Poles and 700 Soviet prisoners of war, among them ethnic Ukrainians, Russians and others. Many Poles and other Eastern Europeans were also sent to concentration camps in Germany: over 35,000 to Dachau, 33,000 to the camp for women at Ravensbruck, 30,000 to Mauthausen and 20,000 to Sachsenhausen, for example. Stutthof (Sztutowo) was the first concentration camp built by the German Nazi regime outside of Germany, on September 2, 1939. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ... poo ... View of the barracks at Ravensbrück Ravensbrück was a German concentration camp located 90 km north of Berlin. ... Mauthausen is a small town in Upper Austria about 20 kilometers east of the city of Linz. ... Sachsenhausen may refer to a quarter of Oranienburg in Germany, see Sachsenhausen (Oranienburg), and a detention facility here a quarter of Frankfurt am Main in Germany, see Sachsenhausen (Frankfurt am Main) a municipality of Weimarer Land, see Sachsenhausen (Thüringen) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which...


Treatment of Polish citizens under Soviet occupation

Monument To those who fell or were murdered in the East, Warsaw
Monument To those who fell or were murdered in the East, Warsaw

By the end of Polish Defensive War the Soviet Union took over 52,1% of territory of Poland (circa 200,000 km²), with over 13,700,000 people. The estimates vary; Elżbieta Trela-Mazur gives the following numbers in regards to ethnic composition of these areas: 38% Poles (ca. 5,1 million people), 37% Ukrainians, 14,5% Belarussians, 8,4% Jews, 0,9% Russians and 0,6% Germans. There were also 336,000 refugees from areas occupied by Germany, most of them Jews (198,000)[1]. Areas occupied by USSR were annexed to Soviet territory, with the exception of area of Wilno, which was transferred to Lithuania, although soon attached to USSR, when Lithuania became a Soviet republic. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1517, 3280 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Treatment of Polish citizens by occupiers Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1517, 3280 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Treatment of Polish citizens by occupiers Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Under the terms of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, adjusted by agreement on 28 September 1939, the Soviet Union annexed all Polish territory east of the line of the rivers Pisa, Narew, Western Bug, and San, except for Wilno Voivodship with its capital Wilno (Vilnius), which was given to Lithuania, and... Vilnius Old Town Vilnius (sometimes Vilna; Polish Wilno, Belarusian Вільня, Russian Вильнюс, see also Cities alternative names) is the capital city of Lithuania. ... This article discusses the history of Lithuania and of the Lithuanians. ... This article discusses the history of Lithuania and of the Lithuanians. ... Soviet Republic may refer to one of the following states. ...


While Germans enforced their policies based on racism, the Soviet administration justified their Stalinist policies by appealing to the Soviet ideology,[2] which in reality meant the thorough Sovietization of the area. Immediately after their conquest of eastern Poland, the Soviet authorities started a campaign of sovietization[3][4] of the newly-acquired areas. No later than several weeks after the last Polish units surrendered, on October 22, 1939, the Soviets organized staged elections to the Moscow-controlled Supreme Soviets (legislative body) of Western Byelorussia and Western Ukraine[5]. The result of the staged voting was to become a legitimization of Soviet partition of Poland[6]. An African-American man drinks out of the colored only water cooler at a racially segregated street car terminal in the United States in 1939. ... Joseph Stalin. ... This article is about the political term. ... This article is about the political term. ... October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ...


Subsequently, all institutions of the dismantled Polish state were being closed down and reopened with new mostly Russian directors and more rarely[1] Ukrainian ones[1]. Lviv University and many other schools were reopened soon but they were restarted anew as Soviet institutions rather than continued their old legacy. Lviv University was reorganized in accordance with the Statute Books for Soviet Higher Schools. The tuition, that along with the institution's Polonophile traditions, kept the university inaccessible to most of the rural Ukrainophone population, was abolished and several new chairs were opened, particularly the chairs of Russian language and literature. The chairs of Marxism-Leninism, Dialectical and Historical Materialism aimed at strengthening of the Soviet ideology were opened as well.[1] Polish literature and language studies ware dissolved by Soviet authorities. Forty-five new faculty members were assigned to it from Kharkiv, Kiev universities. On January 15, 1940 the university was reopened and started to teach in accordance with Soviet curricula.[7]. The building of the University. ... Russian (Russian: ,  ) is the most widely spoken language of Eurasia and the most widespread of the Slavonic languages. ... Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia or its émigrés, and to the Russian-language literature of several independent nations once a part of what was historically Russia or the Soviet Union. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Kharkiv National University (also known as Kharkov State University or Karazin Kharkiv National University), in the city of Kharkiv, is one of the major universities in Ukraine, in the former Soviet Union, and the Russian Empire. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Simultaneously Soviet authorities attempted to remove the traces of recent Polish control of the area by eliminating much of what had any connection to the Polish state or even Polish culture in general.[1] On December 21, 1939, the Polish currency was withdrawn from circulation without any exchange to the newly-introduced rouble, which meant that the entire population of the area lost all of their life savings overnight[8]. December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Złoty (literally meaning golden, plural: złote or złotych, depending on the number) is the Polish currency unit. ...


All the media became controlled by Moscow. Soviet occupation implemented a political regime similar to police state[9][10][11][12], based on terror. All Polish parties and organizations were disbanded. Only the Communist Party was allowed to exist with organizations subordinated to it. A police state is a political condition where the government maintains strict control over society, particularly through suspension of civil rights and often with the use of a force of secret police. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Communist parties | Ukrainian politics | Ukrainian political parties ...


All organized religions were persecuted. All enterprises were taken over by the state, while agriculture was made collective[13]. Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ...


According to the Soviet law, all residents of the annexed area, dubbed by the Soviets as citizens of former Poland[14], automatically acquired the Soviet citizenship. However, since actual conferral of citizenship still required the individual consent, residents were strongly pressured for such consent[15] and the refugees who opted out were threatened with repatriation to Nazi controlled territories of Poland [16][17][18].


In addition, the Soviets exploited past ethnic tension between Poles and other ethnic groups, inciting and encouraging violence against Poles calling the minorities to "rectify the wrongs they had suffered during twenty years of Polish rule"[19]. Pre-war Poland was portrayed as a capitalist state based on exploitation of the working people and ethnic minorities. Soviet propaganda claimed that unfair treatment of non-Poles by the Second Polish Republic was a justification of its dismemberment. Soviet officials openly incited mobs to perform killings and robberies[20]. The death toll of the initial Soviet-inspired terror campaign remains unknown. Second Polish Republic 1921-1939 The Second Polish Republic is an unofficial name applied to the Republic of Poland between World War I and World War II. When the borders of the state were fixed in 1921, it had an area of 388. ...


Initially the Soviet rule gained much support, especially among the non-Polish population of the territories whose being subject to the nationalist policies of interwar Poland caused a substantial resentment against the Polish institutions and, sometimes, against the Poles in general. Much of the Jewish and, especially, the Ukrainian population initially welcomed the unification with the rest of Ukraine which Ukrainians failed to achieve in 1919 when their attempt for self-determination was crushed by Poland. [21] This was even strengthened by a land reform in which most of the owners of large lots of land were labeled "kulaks" and dispossessed of their land which was then divided among poorer peasants. The West Ukrainian National Republic (Ukrainian: ) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyya, and Stanislav. ... Orlęta, a 1926 painting by Wojciech Kossak The Polish-Ukrainian War of 1918 and 1919 was a conflict between the forces of Poland and Western-Ukrainian Peoples Republic for the control over the Eastern Galicia after the dissolution of Austria-Hungary. ... Land reform (also agrarian reform although that can have a broader meaning) is the government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of — i. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


However, soon afterwards the Soviet authorities started a campaign of forced collectivisation, which largely nullified the earlier gains from the land reform as the peasants generally did not want to join the Kolkhoz farms, nor to give away their crops for free to fulfill the state-imposed quotas. At the same time, there were large groups of pre-war Polish citizens, notably Jewish youth and, to a lesser extent, the Ukrainian peasants, who saw the Soviet power as an opportunity to start political or social activity outside of their traditional ethnic or cultural groups. Their enthusiasm however faded with time as it became clear that the Soviet repressions were aimed at all groups equally, regardless of their political stance[22]. Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... A kolkhoz (Russian: ), plural kolkhozy, was a form of collective farming in the Soviet Union that existed along with state farms (sovkhoz). ...


An inherent part of the Sovietization was a rule of terror started by the NKVD and other Soviet agencies. The first victims of the new order were approximately 250,000 Polish prisoners of war captured by the USSR during and after the Polish Defensive War[23]. As the Soviet Union did not sign any international convention on rules of war, they were denied the status of prisoners of war and instead almost all of the captured officers and a large number of ordinary soldiers[24] were then murdered (see Katyn massacre) or sent to Gulag[25]. Thousands of others would fall victim to NKVD massacres of prisoners in mid-1941, after Germany invaded the Soviet Union. The NKVD (Narodnyi Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del )(Russian: НКВД, Народный комиссариат внутренних дел) or Peoples Commisariat for Internal Affairs was a government department which handled a number of the Soviet Unions affairs of state. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Combatants Poland Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-Śmigły Fedor von Bock (Army Group North) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South) Ferdinand Čatloš (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions 16 brigades 4,300 guns 880 tanks 400 aircraft Total: 1,000,000[1] 56 German divisions, 33+ Soviet... The laws of war (Jus in bello) define the conduct and responsibilities of belligerent nations, neutral nations and individuals engaged in warfare, in relation to each other and to protected persons, usually meaning civilians. ... Mass graves at Katyn war cemetery. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies of the NKVD. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or Main Camp... Massacre of prisoners was a series of massacres committed by Soviet NKVD on prisoners in cities in the annexed territory of Poland close to the border with the part of Poland occupied by Germany and from which the Red Army was withdrawing after the German invasion in 1941. ... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Supreme commander: Adolf Hitler Supreme commander: Josef Stalin Strength ~ 3. ...


Similar policies were applied to the civilian population as well. The Soviet authorities regarded service for the pre-war Polish state as a "crime against revolution"[26] and "counter-revolutionary activity"[27], and subsequently started arresting large numbers of Polish intelligentsia, politicians, civil servants and scientists, but also ordinary people suspected of posing a threat to the Soviet rule. Among the arrested members of the Polish intelligentsia were former prime ministers Leon Kozłowski and Aleksander Prystor, as well as Stanisław Grabski, Stanisław Głąbiński and the Baczewski family. Initially aimed primarily at possible political opponents, by January of 1940 the NKVD aimed its campaign also at its potential allies, including the Polish communists and socialists. Among the arrested were Władysław Broniewski, Aleksander Wat, Tadeusz Peiper, Leopold Lewin, Anatol Stern, Teodor Parnicki, Marian Czuchnowski and many others[28]. The intelligentsia (from Latin: intelligentia) is a social class of people engaged in complex mental and creative labor directed to the development and dissemination of culture, encompassing intellectuals and social groups close to them (e. ... Leon KozÅ‚owski (1892-1944) was a Polish archaeologist and politician who served as Prime Minister of Poland from 1934 to 1935. ... Aleksander Prystor (1874-1941) was a Polish politician who served as Prime Minister of Poland from 1931 to 1933. ... StanisÅ‚aw Grabski (5 April 1871 - 6 May 1949) was a Polish politician and economist, an ideologue of endecja known for his support of the polonization policies during the time of the Second Polish Republic. ... Modern Monopolowa bottle produced in Austria Baczewski is a name of a Polish szlachta family and a brand of one of the most popular European fine spirits producer. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Broniewski (December 17, 1897 - February 10, 1962) was a Polish poet and soldier. ... Aleksander Wat, (born Aleksander Chwat; 1900-1967) was a Polish poet, writer and art theoretician, one of the precursors of Polish futurism movement in early 1920s. ... Tadeusz Peiper (1891-1969) was a Polish poet, art critic and theoretician of literature. ... Anatol Stern (1899-1968) was a Polish poet, writer and art critic. ... Teodor Parnicki (1908-1988) was a Polish writer, notable for his historical novels. ...


The prisons soon got severely overcrowded[22] with detainees suspected of anti-Soviet activities and the NKVD had to open dozens of ad-hoc prison sites in almost all towns of the region[6]. The wave of arrests led to forced resettlement of large categories of people (kulaks, Polish civil servants, forest workers, university professors or osadniks, for instance) to the Gulag labour camps and exile settlements in remote areas of the Soviet Union [4]. Altogether roughly a million people were sent to the east in four major waves of deportations[29]. According to Norman Davies[30], almost half of them were dead by the time the Sikorski-Mayski Agreement had been signed in 1941. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Osadniks (Polish: osadnik/osadnicy, settler/settlers) was the Polish loanword used in Soviet Union for veterans of Polish army that were given land in the Kresy (Western Belarus and Western Ukraine) territory ceded to Poland by Polish-Soviet Riga Peace Treaty of 1921 (and regained by Soviet Union in 1939). ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies of the NKVD. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or Main Camp... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ... Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms. ... Prof. ... The Sikorski-Mayski Agreement was a treaty between Soviet Union and Poland signed in London on August 17, 1941. ... This article is about the year. ...


While formal Polish sovereignty was almost immediately restored, in reality the country remained under the firm Soviet control as it remained occupied by the Soviet Army until 1952, when they received formal permission to remain in Poland from the pro-Soviet government of People's Republic of Poland. Soviet troops finally left Poland only in the 1990s. To this day the events of those and the following years are one of the stumbling blocks in Polish-Russian foreign relations. Polish requests for the return of property looted during the war or any demand for an apology for Soviet-era crimes are either ignored or prompt a brusque restatement of history as seen by the Kremlin, along the lines of "we freed you from Nazism: be grateful."[6] The Peoples Republic of Poland or Polish Peoples Republic (Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) was the official name of Poland from 1952 to 1989, during its period of rule by the Communist party, officially called the Polish United Workers Party (Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, or PZPR). ... The history of Poland from 1945 to 1989 spans the period of Soviet Communist dominance over the Peoples Republic of Poland in the decades following World War II. These years, while featuring many improvements in the standards of living in Poland, were marred by political instability, social unrest, and... Kremlin (Кремль) is the Russian word for citadel or castle and refers to any major fortified central complex found in historical Russian cities. ...


Consequences

Over 6 million Polish citizens - nearly 21.4% of pre-war population of the Second Polish Republic - died between 1939 and 1945. [7] Over 90% od death toll came through non-military loses, as most of the civilians targeted by various deliberate actions by Germans and Soviets. [8] Second Polish Republic 1921-1939 The Second Polish Republic is an unofficial name applied to the Republic of Poland between World War I and World War II. When the borders of the state were fixed in 1921, it had an area of 388. ...


Both occupants wanted not only to gain Polish territory, but also to destroy Polish culture and nation. [31] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Tadeusz Piotrowski, Professor of Sociology at the University of New Hampshire has provided a reassessment of Poland’s losses in World War Two. Polish war dead include 5,150,000 victims of Nazi crimes against ethnic Poles and the Holocaust, the treatment of Polish citizens by occupiers included 350,000 deaths during the Soviet occupation in 1940-41 and about 100,000 Poles killed in 1943-44 during the massacres of Poles in Volhynia by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. Losses by ethnic group were 3,100,000 Jews; 2,000,000 ethnic Poles; 500,000 Ukrainians and Belarusians.[9]. Tadeusz Piotrowski can refer to: Tadeusz Piotrowski (mountaineer). ... This article details the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed against ethnic Poles during World War II. 3 million non-Jewish Polish citizens perished during the course of the war, most of them civilians, killed by the actions of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. ... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ... The Massacre of Poles in Volhyn was an ethnic cleansing conducted in Volhyn (Polish: ) during World War II. In the course of it, up to 80,000 Poles are thought to have been massacred by the nationalist Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Ukrainska Povstanska Armiya, or UPA). ... UPA propaganda poster The Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Ukrainian: ) was a Ukrainian guerrilla army formed on October 14, 1942, in Volhynia. ...


The official Polish government report prepared in 1947 listed 6,028,000 war deaths out of a population of 27,007,000 ethnic Poles and Jews; this report excluded ethnic Ukrainian and Belarusian losses. However historians in Poland now believe that Polish war losses were at least 2 million ethnic Poles and 3 million Jews as a result of the war. This revision of estimated war losses was the topic of articles in the Polish academic journal Dzieje Najnowsze # 2-1994 by Czesław Łuczak and Krystyna Kersten.


Another assessment, Poles as Victims of the Nazi Era, prepared by USHMM, lists 1.8 to 1.9 million ethnic Polish dead in addition to 3 million Polish Jews [10] Exterior of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is a national institution located adjacent to The National Mall in Washington, DC, dedicated to documenting, studying, and interpreting the history of the Holocaust. ... The Poles (Polish: Polacy) are a people inhabiting the country of Poland (in Central Europe) and a number of other states in the world, where they form a significant Polish diaspora. ...


Losses by geographic area were 3.3 million in present day Poland and about 2.3 million in the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union. Under the terms of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, adjusted by agreement on 28 September 1939, the Soviet Union annexed all Polish territory east of the line of the rivers Pisa, Narew, Western Bug, and San, except for Wilno Voivodship with its capital Wilno (Vilnius), which was given to Lithuania, and...


POW deaths totaled 250,000; in Germany (120,000) and in the USSR (130,000).[32] Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


The genocide of Roma people (porajmos) was 35,000 persons.[33]. Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 3,000,000[34] This article is becoming very long. ... Gypsy arrivals in the Belzec death camp await instructions The Porajmos (also Porrajmos) literally Devouring, is a term coined by the Roma (Gypsy) people to describe attempts by the Nazi regime to exterminate most of the Roma peoples of Europe during the Holocaust. ... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ...


See also World War II casualties for comparisons. Piechart showing percentage of military and civilian deaths by alliance during World War II. World War II was the single deadliest conflict the world has ever seen, causing many tens of millions of deaths. ...


See also

Reichsgau and General Governement in 1941 At the beginning of World War II, significant Polish areas were annexed by Nazi Germany. ... Under the terms of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, adjusted by agreement on 28 September 1939, the Soviet Union annexed all Polish territory east of the line of the rivers Pisa, Narew, Western Bug, and San, except for Wilno Voivodship with its capital Wilno (Vilnius), which was given to Lithuania, and... The Polish minority in the Soviet Union refers to former Polish citizens or Polish-speaking people who resided in the Soviet Union. ... Poland was annexed and partitioned by Germany and the Soviet Union in the aftermath of the Polish September Campaign of 1939. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e (Polish) Elżbieta Trela-Mazur (1997). Włodzimierz Bonusiak, Stanisław Jan Ciesielski, Zygmunt Mańkowski, Mikołaj Iwanow Sowietyzacja oświaty w Małopolsce Wschodniej pod radziecką okupacją 1939-1941 (Sovietization of education in eastern Lesser Poland during the Soviet occupation 1939-1941). Kielce: Wyższa Szkoła Pedagogiczna im. Jana Kochanowskiego, 294. ISBN 83-7133-100-2., also in Wrocławskie Studia Wschodnie, Wrocław, 1997
  2. ^ (Polish) Wojciech Roszkowski (1998). Historia Polski 1914-1997. Warsaw: Wydawnictwa Naukowe PWN, 476. ISBN 83-01-12693-0.
  3. ^ (Polish) various authors (1998). Adam Sudoł Sowietyzacja Kresów Wschodnich II Rzeczypospolitej po 17 września 1939. Bydgoszcz: Wyższa Szkoła Pedagogiczna, 441. ISBN 83-7096-281-5.
  4. ^ a b (English) various authors (2001). “Stalinist Forced Relocation Policies”, Myron Weiner, Sharon Stanton Russell Demography and National Security. Berghahn Books, 308-315. ISBN 1-57181-339-X.
  5. ^ (Polish) Bartłomiej Kozłowski (2005). „Wybory” do Zgromadzeń Ludowych Zachodniej Ukrainy i Zachodniej Białorusi. Polska.pl. NASK. Retrieved on March 13, 2006.
  6. ^ a b (English) Jan Tomasz Gross (2003). Revolution from Abroad. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 396. ISBN 0-691-09603-1. [1]
  7. ^ Ivan Franko National University of L'viv. Retrieved on March 14, 2006.
  8. ^ (Polish)Karolina Lanckorońska (2001). “I - Lwów”, Wspomnienia wojenne; 22 IX 1939 - 5 IV 1945. Kraków: ZNAK, 364. ISBN 83-240-0077-1.
  9. ^ (English) Craig Thompson-Dutton (1950). “The Police State & The Police and the Judiciary”, The Police State: What You Want to Know about the Soviet Union. Dutton, 88-95.
  10. ^ (English) Michael Parrish (1996). The Lesser Terror: Soviet State Security, 1939-1953. Praeger Publishers, 99-101. ISBN 0-275-95113-8.
  11. ^ (English) Peter Rutland (1992). “Introduction”, The Politics of Economic Stagnation in the Soviet Union. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 9. ISBN 0-521-39241-1.
  12. ^ (English) Victor A. Kravchenko (1988). I Chose Justice. Transaction Publishers, 310. ISBN 0-88738-756-X.
  13. ^ (Polish) Encyklopedia PWN, "OKUPACJA SOWIECKA W POLSCE 1939–41", last accessed on 1 March 2006, online, Polish language
  14. ^ (Polish) various authors, Stanisław Ciesielski, Wojciech Materski, Andrzej Paczkowski (2002). “Represje 1939-1941”, Indeks represjonowanych, 2nd, Warsaw: Ośrodek KARTA. ISBN 83-88288-31-8. Retrieved on 24.
  15. ^ Jan Tomasz Gross (2003). Revolution from Abroad. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 396. ISBN 0-691-09603-1. [2]
  16. ^ (English) Tadeusz Piotrowski (1997). Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide.... McFarland & Company, 295. ISBN 0-7864-0371-3.
  17. ^ Jan T. Gross, op.cit., p.188
  18. ^ (English) Zvi Gitelman (2001). A Century of Ambivalence: The Jews of Russia and the Soviet Union, 1881 to the Present. Indiana University Press, 116. ISBN 0-253-21418-1.
  19. ^ Jan Tomasz Gross, Revolution from Abroad: The Soviet Conquest of Poland's Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia, Princeton University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-691-09603-1, p. 35
  20. ^ Gross, op.cit., page 36
  21. ^ Piotrowski, Tadeusz (1988). “Ukrainian Collaborators”, Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918-1947. McFarland, 177-259. ISBN 0-784-0371-3. “How are we ... to explain the phenomenon of Ukrainians rejoicing and collaborating with the Soviets? Who were these Ukrainians? That they were Ukrainians is certain, but were they communists, Nationalists, unattached peasants? The Answer is "yes" - they were all three”
  22. ^ a b (English) Militargeschichtliches Forschungsamt (corporate author), Gottfried Schramm, Jan T. Gross, Manfred Zeidler et al. (1997). Bernd Wegner From Peace to War: Germany, Soviet Russia and the World, 1939-1941. Berghahn Books, 47-79. ISBN 1-57181-882-0.
  23. ^ Encyklopedia PWN 'KAMPANIA WRZEŚNIOWA 1939', last retrieved on 10 December 2005, Polish language
  24. ^ Out of the original group of Polish prisoners of war sent in large number to the labour camps were some 25,000 ordinary soldiers separated from the rest of their colleagues and imprisoned in a work camp in Równe, where they were forced to build a road. See: (English) Decision to commence investigation into Katyn Massacre. Institute of National Remembrance website. Institute of National Remembrance (2004). Retrieved on March 15, 2006.
  25. ^ (English) Marek Jan Chodakiewicz (2004). Between Nazis and Soviets: Occupation Politics in Poland, 1939-1947. Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-0484-5.
  26. ^ (English) Gustaw Herling-Grudziński (1996). A World Apart: Imprisonment in a Soviet Labor Camp During World War II. Penguin Books, 284. ISBN 0-14-025184-7.
  27. ^ (Polish) Władysław Anders (1995). Bez ostatniego rozdziału. Lublin: Test, 540. ISBN 83-7038-168-5.
  28. ^ (Polish) Jerzy Gizella (November 10 2001). "Lwowskie okupacje". Przegląd polski (November 10).
  29. ^ The actual number of deported in the period of 1939-1941 remains unknown and various estimates vary from 350,000 ((Polish) Encyklopedia PWN 'OKUPACJA SOWIECKA W POLSCE 1939–41', last retrieved on March 14, 2006, Polish language) to over 2 millions (mostly WWII estimates by the underground. The earlier number is based on records made by the NKVD and does not include roughly 180,000 prisoners of war, also in Soviet captivity. Most modern historians estimate the number of all people deported from areas taken by Soviet Union during this period at between 800,000 and 1,500,000; for example R. J. Rummel gives the number of 1,200,000 million; Tony Kushner and Katharine Knox give 1,500,000 in their Refugees in an Age of Genocide, p.219; in his Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917, p.132. See also: Marek Wierzbicki, Tadeusz M. Płużański (March 2001). "Wybiórcze traktowanie źródeł". Tygodnik Solidarność (March 2, 2001). and (Polish) Albin Głowacki (September 2003). Piotr Chmielowiec "Formy, skala i konsekwencje sowieckich represji wobec Polaków w latach 1939-1941". Okupacja sowiecka ziem polskich 1939–1941, Rzeszów-Warsaw: Instytut Pamięci Narodowej. ISBN 83-89078-78-3.
  30. ^ (English) Norman Davies (1982). God's Playground. A History of Poland, Vol. 2: 1795 to the Present (in English). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 449-455. ISBN 0-19-925340-4.
  31. ^ Judith Olsak-Glass, Review of Piotrowski's Poland's Holocaust in Sarmatian Review, January 1999.
  32. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1
  33. ^ Donald Kendrick, The Destiny of Europe's Gypsies. Basic Books 1972 ISBN 465-01611-1
  34. ^ Martin Gilbert. Atlas of the Holocaust 1988 ISBN 0-688-12364-3

 
 

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