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Encyclopedia > Transylvanian Saxons

The Transylvanian Saxons (German: Siebenbürger Sachsen; Hungarian: erdélyi szászok; Romanian: Saşi) are a people of German origin who settled in Transylvania (German: Siebenbürgen) from the 12th century onwards. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Germans. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or Transilvania; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: / Transilvanija or Ердељ / Erdelj) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ...


The colonization of Transylvania by Germans was begun by King Géza II of Hungary (1141-1162). For decades, the main task of the German settlers was to defend the southeastern border of the Kingdom of Hungary. The colonization continued until the end of the 13th century. Although the colonists came mostly from the western Holy Roman Empire and generally spoke Franconian dialects, they were collectively known as Saxons because of Germans working for the Hungarian chancellery. For much of their history, the Saxons held a privileged status with the Hungarians and Szeklers of Transylvania. Géza II (Hungarian: , Slovak: Gejza, Serbian: Гејза) was king of Hungary from 1141 until his death in 1161. ... The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Legend:  Dutch. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... Chancellery is the office of the chancellor, sometimes also reffered to as the chancery. ... The Székely or Szeklers (Hungarian: , Romanian: , German: ) ( sék-ei in pronunciation ) are a Hungarian ethnic group mostly living in Transylvania in Romania, with a significant population also living in Vojvodina, Serbia. ...


The Transylvanian Saxon population has decreased since World War II. Despite mass emigrations, they still form notable minorities in Hungary and Romania, however. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Contents

Medieval settlements

The initial phase of German settlement began in the mid-12th century with colonists travelling to what would become the Altland or Hermannstadt Provinz (Sibiu County), based around the city of Hermannstadt (Sibiu). Although the primary reason for Géza II's invitation was border defense with the Szeklers against invaders, Germans were also sought for their mining expertise and ability to develop the region's economy. Most colonists from this era came from Luxembourg and the Moselle River region. Sibiu (IPA: ; Hungarian: Szeben) is a county (judeÅ£) in the center of Romania, in Transylvania region, with the capital city Sibiu (population: 170,038). ... County Sibiu County Status County capital Mayor Klaus Johannis, from the Democratic Forum of Germans of Romania, since 2000 Area 121 km² Population (2002) 171,535 Density 1,417 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... The Székely (Szeklers in English, Secui in Romanian) are a Hungarian-speaking ethnic group, historically centered in the Transylvanian town of Székelyudvarhely, (now Odorheiu Secuiesc, Harghita county, Romania). ... The Moselle (French Moselle, German Mosel, Luxembourgish Musel, Dutch Moezel, from Latin Mosella, little Meuse) is a river flowing through France, Luxembourg and Germany, joining the Rhine river at Koblenz. ...


A second phase of German settlement came during the early 13th century consisting of settlers primarily from the Rhineland, Flanders, and the Moselle region, with others from Thuringia, Bavaria, Wallonia, and even from France. A settlement in northeastern Transylvania was centered on the town Nösen, the later Bistritz (Bistriţa), located on the Bistriţa River. The surrounding area became known as the Nösnerland. Continued immigration from the Empire expanded the area of the Saxons further to the east. Daughter settlements from the Hermannstadt region spread into the Hârtibaciu River Valley (Harbachtal) and to the feet of the Cibin (Zibin) and Sebeş (Mühlbacher) mountains. The latter region, centered on the city of Mühlbach (Sebeş) was known as the Unterwald. To the north of Hermannstadt was settled the Weinland near Mediasch (Mediaş). The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; some prefer to call this the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; a... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... County BistriÅ£a-Năsăud County Status County capital Mayor Moldovan Vasile, Democratic Party, since 2000 Population (2002) 81,467 Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... The BistriÅ£a (Hungarian: Beszterce) is a river in the Romanian region of Transylvania, county BistriÅ£a-Năsăud. ... The Nösnerland (-German, Romanian: Å¢ara Năsăudului, Hungarian: Naszód) is a historic region of northeastern Transylvania in present-day Romania centered between the BistriÅ£a and MureÅŸ rivers. ... The Hârtibaciu (German: Harbach, Hungarian: Hortobágy) is a river in the Transylvania historical region of Romania. ... Cindrel Mountains (also known as Cibin Mountains) are a group of mountains in central Romania in the center of the Southern Carpathians, in the North-East of the Parâng Mountains group. ... SebeÅŸ (Hungarian: Szászsebes, German: Mühlbach) is a town in Alba county, Romania, located on the SebeÅŸ river. ... County Sibiu County Status Municipality Mayor Daniel Thellmann, since 2004 Area 62. ...


In 1211 King Andrew II of Hungary invited the Teutonic Knights to settle and defend the Burzenland in the southeastern corner of Transylvania. To guard the mountain passes of the Carpathians (Karpaten) against the Cumans, the knights constructed numerous castles and towns, including the major city of Kronstadt (Braşov). Colonization in the Burzenland region consisted mostly of settlers from the Altland. Alarmed by the knights' rapidly expanding power, in 1225 Andrew II expelled the Order which henceforth relocated to Prussia in 1226, although the colonists remained in the Burzenland. Andrew II (Hungarian: András or Endre, Slovak: Ondrej) (c. ... Hermann von Salza (c. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Cumans, also called as Polovtsy, (Russian Половцы, from old Slavic for pale yellowish) was the European name for the Western Kipchaks, a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ... County BraÅŸov County Status County capital Mayor George Scripcaru, since 2004 Area  km² Population (2002) 283,901 Density  inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... The Livonian Order joined the Teutonic Order in 1237; the Monastic State of the Teutonic Order around 1455 After the partition of the 2nd Peace of Thorn in 1466 The Prussian Homage, Jan Matejko. ...


The Kingdom of Hungary's medieval eastern borders were therefore defended in the northeast by the Nösnerland Saxons, in the east by the non-German Szeklers, in the southeast by the castles built by the Teutonic Knights and Burzenland Saxons, and in the south by the Altland Saxons.


Medieval organization

Legal organization

Although the knights had left Transylvania, the Saxon colonists remained, and the king allowed them to retain the rights and obligations included in the Andreanum Act (Goldener Freibrief der Siebenbürger Sachsen) of 1224. This document conferred upon the German population of the territory between Draas (Drăuşeni) and Broos (Orăştie) both administrative and religious autonomy and obligations towards the kings of Hungary. The territory that was colonized by Germans covered an area of about 30,000 km². During the reign of King Charles I of Hungary (probably 1325-1329), the Saxons were organized in the Saxon Chairs (or seats). Orăstie (Hungarian: Szászváros, German: Bros) is a city in Romania, Hunedoara county. ... Charles I of Hungary (Anjou France 1288 or 1291 - Hungary July 16, 1342), also called Charles Robert, Carobert and Charles I Robert, was the king of Hungary from August 27, 1310. ...


Religious organizations

Along with the Teutonic Order, other religious organizations important to the development of German communities were the Cistercian abbeys of Igrisch (Igriş) in the Banat region and Cârţa in Fogarasch (Făgăraş). The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin Cistercenses), otherwise Gimey or White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which is worn a black scapular or apron) are a Catholic order of monks. ... Location of Banat in Europe Map of the Banat region with largest cities shown The Banat (Romanian: Banat, Serbian: Банат or Banat, Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság, German: Banat, Slovak: Banát, Banat Bulgarian: Banát) is a geographical and historical region of Central Europe currently divided between... Mănăstirea CârÅ£a CârÅ£a Monastery is a former Cistercian monastery in the Å¢ara FăgăraÅŸului region in southern Transylvania in Romania, curently a Lutheran Evangelical church belonging to the local Saxon community. ... County BraÅŸov County Status Municipality Mayor Ioan Barbuti, Social Democratic Party, since 2004 Population (2002) 40,126 Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ...


The earliest religious organization of the Saxons was the Provostship of Hermannstadt, founded 20 December 1191. In its early years, it included the territories of Hermannstadt, Leschkirch (Nocrich), and Groß-Schenk (Cincu], the areas that were colonized the earliest. A provost is a senior official in a number of Christian churches. ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 12 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre. ... Nocrich (German: Leschkirch, Hungarian: Újegyház) is a commune in Sibiu County, Romania (in the informal region of Transylvania, situated between Agnita and Sibiu. ...


Fortification of the towns

The Mongol invasion of 1241-42 devastated much of the Kingdom of Hungary. Although the Saxons did their best to resist, many settlements were destroyed. In the aftermath of the invasion, many Transylvanian towns were fortified with stone castles and an emphasis was put on developing towns economically. Many towns were defended by Kirchenburgen, or fortified churches with massive walls. The rapid expansion of cities populated by the Saxons led to Transylvania being known in German as Siebenbürgen and Septem Castra in Latin, referring to seven of the fortified towns (see Historical names of Transylvania): The Mongol invasions of Europe were centered in their destruction of the Ruthenian states, especially Kiev, under the leadership of Subutai. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Several names have been historically given to the area that corresponds to Transylvania. ...

  • Bistritz (Bistriţa, Beszterce)
  • Hermannstadt (Sibiu, Nagyszeben)
  • Klausenburg (Cluj-Napoca, Kolozsvár)
  • Kronstadt (Braşov, Brassó)
  • Mediasch (Mediaş, Medgyes)
  • Mühlbach (Sebeş, Szászsebes)
  • Schässburg (Sighişoara, Segesvár)

County BistriÅ£a-Năsăud County Status County capital Mayor Moldovan Vasile, Democratic Party, since 2000 Population (2002) 81,467 Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... County Sibiu County Status County capital Mayor Klaus Johannis, from the Democratic Forum of Germans of Romania, since 2000 Area 121 km² Population (2002) 171,535 Density 1,417 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... Map of Romania showing Cluj_Napoca Cluj_Napoca (Hungarian: Kolozsvár, German: Klausenburg, Latin: Claudiopolis), the seat of Cluj county, is one of the most important academic, cultural and industrial centers in Romania. ... County BraÅŸov County Status County capital Mayor George Scripcaru, since 2004 Area  km² Population (2002) 283,901 Density  inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... SebeÅŸ (Hungarian: Szászsebes, German: Mühlbach) is a town in Alba county, Romania, located on the SebeÅŸ river. ... County MureÅŸ County Status Municipality Mayor Ioan Dorin DăneÅŸan, Social Democratic Party, since 2004 Population (2002) 32,287 Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ...

Privileged class

Along with the (largely Hungarian) Transylvanian nobility and the Szeklers, the Transylvanian Saxons were members of the Unio Trium Nationum, or "Union of the Three Nations", signed in 1438. This agreement preserved political rights for the three inclusive groups and excluded the largely Romanian peasantry from political life. Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... The Székely or Szeklers (Hungarian: , Romanian: , German: ) ( sék-ei in pronunciation ) are a Hungarian ethnic group mostly living in Transylvania in Romania, with a significant population also living in Vojvodina, Serbia. ... Unio Trium Nationum (Latin for Union of the Three Nations; also known as Fraterna Unio - Brotherly Union) was a pact of mutual aid formed in 1438 by the Transylvanian Hungarian, the Saxon and Szekler nobility in order to keep the social status quo. ... Categories: 1911 Britannica | Historical stubs | Feudalism ...


During the Protestant Reformation, most Transylvanian Saxons converted to Lutheranism. As the semi-independent Principality of Transylvania was one of the most religiously tolerant states in Europe, the Saxons were allowed to practice their religion. The Habsburgs promoted Roman Catholicism to the Saxons during the Counter Reformation, but the majority remained Lutheran. Reformation redirects here. ... Lutheranism is a movement within Christianity that began with the theological insights of Martin Luther in the 16th century. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... The Counter-Reformation or Catholic Reformation was a movement within the Catholic Church to reform itself and to protect itself from Protestant attacks, starting with the middle of the sixteenth century, in the wake of the Protestant Reformation. ...


Warfare between the Habsburg Monarchy and Hungary against the Ottoman Empire from the 16th-18th centuries decreased the population of Transylvania Saxons. When the Principality of Transylvania came under Austrian Habsburg rule, a smaller third phase of settlement commenced which helped to revitalize the Saxons. This included the settlement of exiled Protestants from Upper Austria (the Transylvanian Landler) near Hermannstadt. Germans served as administrators and military officers, especially during the Habsburg Monarchy's wars against the Ottoman Turks. The German-populated Hermannstadt (Now: Sibiu) was an important cultural center within Transylvania, while Kronstadt (now: Brasov) was a vital political center for the Saxons. The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe marked the better part of the history of southeastern Europe, notably, giving infamy to the Balkans. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Upper Austria (Ober sterreich) is one of the nine federal states or Bundesl nder of Austria. ... Detail of a church window in Hermannstadt dedicated to the memory of the Austrian Protestants. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ...


Loss of elite standing

Emperor Joseph II attempted to revoke the Unio Trium Nationum in the late 18th century. His actions were aimed at the political inequality within Transylvania, especially the political strength of the Saxons. Although his actions were ultimately rescinded, many Saxons began to see themselves as being a small minority opposed by nationalist Hungarians and Romanians. Although they remained a rich and influential group, the Saxons were no longer a dominant class. Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (Joseph Benedict August Johannes Anton Michel Adam) (March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ...


During the Revolutions of 1848, the Saxons ultimately supported the Romanian attempt to acquire equal political standing. The Hungarians, on the other hand, supported complete unification of Transylvania with the rest of Hungary. Stephan Ludwig Roth, a pastor who led the German support for Romanian political rights, was executed by Hungarian radicals during the revolution. The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as... Stephan Ludwig Roth (November 24, 1796, in Mediaş―May 11, 1849 in Cluj) was a Transylvanian Saxons intellectual, pedagogue and Lutheran pastor. ... A pastor is a minister or priest of a Christian church. ...


Although the Hungarian attempt to acquire greater control over Transylvania was defeated by Austrian and Imperial Russian forces in 1849, the Ausgleich compromise between Austria and Hungary in 1867 did not bode well for the political rights of the Saxons. During the years of Austria-Hungary, the Hungarians engaged in a policy of Magyarisation to combat the rising nationalism of other ethnicities within the Hungarian kingdom. Anthem: God Save the Tsar! Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq mi Population  - 1897... The German term Ausgleich (Hungarian kiegyezés) refers to the compromise or composition of February 1867 that established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary, which was signed by Franz Joseph of Austria and a Hungarian delegation led by Ferenc Deák. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Magyarisation was the official effort of the Hungarian government and institutions to linguistically and nationally unify the Kingdom of Hungary in 19th century. ...


After the end of World War I, many Saxons supported the unification of Transylvania with the Kingdom of Romania. They were promised full minority rights, but these guarantees were not followed and many Saxons lost their land. Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert Henry Asquith Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow... From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) under a single prince to a full-fledged independent kingdom with a Hohenzollern monarchy. ...


World War II and afterwards

During World War II, many disaffected Saxons sided with Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union, as did Romania and Hungary, into which country Northern Transylvania had been annexed. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


When Romania signed a peace treaty with the Soviets in 1944, the German military began withdrawing the Saxons from Transylvania; this operation was most thorough with the Saxons of the Nösnerland. Around 100,000 Germans fled before the Soviet Red Army, but Romania did not conduct the expulsion of Germans as in neighboring countries at war's end. However, more than 80,000 Saxons were arrested by the Soviet Army and sent to labour camps in Siberia for alleged cooperation with Germany. The remaining Saxons were persecuted by the Communist Romanian government and lost many political rights. The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that in 1922 became the army of the Soviet Union. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the escape and mass deportation of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms. ... Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) arctic northeast Siberia Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia and comprising a large part of the Euro-Asian Steppe. ... The Soviets pressed for inclusion of Romanias heretofore negligible Communist Party in the post-war government, while non-communist political leaders were steadily eliminated from political life. ...


Because they are considered Auslandsdeutsche ("foreign Germans") by the German government, the Saxons have the right to German citizenship. Numerous Saxons have immigrated to Germany, especially after the fall of the Eastern Bloc in 1989, and are represented by the Landsmannschaft der Siebenbürger Sachsen in Deutschland. Due to this emigration from Romania the population of Saxons is dwindling. The Saxons remaining in Romania are represented by the Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania. Auslandsdeutsche (Germans abroad; adj. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc. ... The Landsmannschaft der Siebenbürger Sachsen in Deutschland e. ... The Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania (German: Demokratisches Forum der Deutschen in Rumänien, DFDR; Romanian: Forumul Democrat al Germanilor din România) is a political party representing the German minority in Romania. ...


19th and 20th century population figures

  • 1880: 211,748
  • 1890: 217,640
  • 1900: 233,019
  • 1910: 234,085
  • 1956: 384,708
  • 1977: 359,109
  • 1992: 111,301
  • 2002: 60,008

See also

This is a list of localities in Transylvania that were, either in majority or in minority, historically inhabited by Transylvanian Saxons. ... This is a List of famous Transylvanian Saxons. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the escape and mass deportation of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Germans. ... Volksdeutsche (ethnic Germans) is a historical term which arose in the early 20th century to apply for Germans living outside of the German Empire. ... The Baltic Germans (German: , Deutschbalten; literally German Balts) were ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, which today forms the countries of Estonia and Latvia. ... The Volga Germans are ethnic Germans living near the Volga River and the Black Sea, maintaining German culture, German language, German traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutherans or Roman Catholic. ... Carpathian Germans (German: Karpatendeutsche, Slovak: karpatskí Nemci), sometimes simply called Slovak Germans (German: Slowakeideutsche), is the name for a group of German language speakers on the territory of present-day Slovakia. ... The Danube Swabians (German: Donauschwaben, Hungarian: Dunai-Svábok or Dunamenti németek, Romanian: Şvabi or Şvabi Dunăreni, Serbian: Dunavske Švabe or Дунавске Швабе, Croatian: Podunavski Švabe) is a collective term for Germans who lived in the former Kingdom of Hungary, especially in the Danube (Donau) River valley. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Transylvanian Saxons
  • Map and list of Transylvanian Saxon villages
  • The History of Transylvania and the Transylvania Saxons by Dr. Konrad Gündisch
  • Transylvanian Saxon surnames
  • Transylvanian placenames in different languages (German)
  • General site on the Transylvanian Saxons (German)
  • General forum for the Transylvanian Saxons (German)

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