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Encyclopedia > Transylvania
Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow
Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow

Transylvania (Romanian: Ardeal or Transilvania; Hungarian: Erdély; German: ; Bulgarian: Трансилвания; Serbian: Трансилванија / Transilvanija or Ердељ / Erdelj; Latin: Transsilvania) is a historical region in central and western Romania. In its early history, the territory of present-day Transylvania belonged to Dacia, the Roman Empire, the Hun Empire, the Gepid Kingdom[1] and the Bulgarian Empire[2]. As a political entity, Transylvania is mentioned from the 11th century (after the Hungarian conquest) as a voivodeship, part of the Kingdom of Hungary. It then successively became an autonomous principality under Ottoman suzerainty in 1571, a part of the Habsburg Monarchy in 1711 (Austria-Hungary after 1867), and a part of the Kingdom of Romania after World War I. The word Transylvania may refer to: Transylvania, a historical region in Romania and related to Count Dracula legends. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania highlighted File links The following pages link to this file: Transylvania Categories: GFDL images | Romania maps ... Image File history File links De-Siebenbürgen. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Historically, Romania was divided into the following regions: Dobrogea Cadrilater Moldavia Bessarabia Budjak Bukovina Transylvania Banat CriÅŸana MaramureÅŸ Wallachia Muntenia Oltenia See also Development regions of Romania — divisions used currently and which are loosely based on the borders of historical regions Counties of Romania Categories: | ... For other uses, see Dacia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Hunnic Empire stretched from the steppes of Central Asia into modern Germany, and from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea Hunnic Empire, the empire of the Huns. ... The Gepids (Latin Gepidae, A-S Gifðas (Beowulf, Widsith) possibly from *Gibiðos, givers [1] or gepanta, see below) were an East Germanic Gothic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ... Imperial Emblem Bulgarian Empire at its greatest extent c. ... A Voivodship (also voivodeship, Romanian: Voievodat, Polish: Województwo, Serbian: Vojvodstvo or Vojvodina) was a feudal state in medieval Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Serbia (see Vojvodina), ruled by a Voivod (voivode). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Suzerainty (pronounced or ) is a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy to control its foreign affairs. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) under a single prince to a full-fledged independent kingdom with a Hohenzollern monarchy. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Transylvania's main city, Cluj-Napoca, is today considered to be the region's capital, although Transylvania was also ruled from Alba Iulia during its vassalage to the Ottoman Empire, and from Sibiu, where the Habsburg governor was located from 1711 until 1848. The seat of the Transylvanian Diet was itself moved to Sibiu for some time in the 19th century. Map of Romania showing Cluj_Napoca Cluj_Napoca (Hungarian: Kolozsvár, German: Klausenburg, Latin: Claudiopolis), the seat of Cluj county, is one of the most important academic, cultural and industrial centers in Romania. ... Alba Iulia (Hungarian: Gyulafeh r, German: Karlsburg) is a city in Alba county, Transylvania, Romania with a population of 66,369, located on the Mureş river. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... County Status County capital Mayor Klaus Johannis, from the Democratic Forum of Germans of Romania, since 2000 Area 121. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ...

Contents

Etymology

Transylvania was first referred to in a Medieval Latin document in 1075 as Ultra silvam, meaning "beyond the forest" (ultra meaning "beyond, on the other side" and the accusative case of sylva (sylvam) meaning "wood or forest"). That name was later changed to "Transylvania" (trans also meaning "across, over, beyond"). Several names have been historically given to the area that corresponds to Transylvania. ... Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. ... The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. ...


The German name Siebenbürgen means "seven fortresses", after the seven (ethnic German) Transylvanian Saxons' cities in the region (Kronstadt, Schäßburg, Mediasch, Hermannstadt, Mühlbach, Bistritz and Klausenburg). The Hungarian name Erdély is derived from Erdő-elve meaning "beyond the forest" in Hungarian (a meaning first referred to in its Medieval Latin version in a 12th century document - Gesta Hungarorum). Ethnic Germans – often simply called Germans – are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German but do not live within the present-day Federal Republic of Germany, nor necessarily hold its citizenship. ... The Transylvanian Saxons (German: ; Hungarian: ; Romanian: ) are a people of German origin who settled in Transylvania (German: ) from the 12th century onwards. ... Location of BraÅŸov Coordinates: , Country County Status County capital Government  - Mayor George Scripcaru (Democratic Party) Area  - County capital 267. ... Sighişoara (Hungarian: Segesvár, German: Schäßburg) is a town in Mureş, Transylvania, Romania. ... Location of MediaÅŸ Coordinates: , Country County Status Municipality Government  - Mayor Daniel Thellmann (Democratic Forum of Germans of Romania) Area  - Municipality 62. ... County Status County capital Mayor Klaus Johannis, from the Democratic Forum of Germans of Romania, since 2000 Area 121. ... SebeÅŸ (Hungarian: Szászsebes, German: Mühlbach) is a town in Alba county, Romania, located on the SebeÅŸ river. ... County BistriÅ£a-Năsăud County Status County capital Mayor Moldovan Vasile, Democratic Party, since 2000 Population (2002) 81,467 Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... Map of Romania showing Cluj_Napoca Cluj_Napoca (Hungarian: Kolozsvár, German: Klausenburg, Latin: Claudiopolis), the seat of Cluj county, is one of the most important academic, cultural and industrial centers in Romania. ... There are two works with the name Gesta Hungarorum. ...


The origin of the Romanian name Ardeal is controversial. Ardeal - as Ardeliu - was first referred to in a document in 1432. It may be a borrowing from the Khazar “Ardil-land” (Hebrew „Eretz Ardil”, „ארדיל”), first mentioned in 960. It could be likewise borrowed from the Celtic "Arduenna" (forest), reflected in other names such as Arda, Ardal, Ardistan, Ardiche, Ardennes, Ardelt, Ardilla or from the Sanskrit Har-Deal. Lastly, it may be a borrowing of the Hungarian name Erdély, as is the Romani name Ardyalo - in old Hungarian, Erdély was pronounced as Erdél. The initial Hungarian e- occasionally changes to a in Romanian (cf. Hung. egres "gooseberry" and Egyed, which became agriş and Adjud in Romanian). See also other languages. Events June 1 - Battle of San Romano - Florence defeats Siena foundation of Université de Caen In the end of the Hook and Cod wars, Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut and Holland is forced by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, to abdicate all her estates in his favour; end of Hainaut... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... Events Edgar the Peaceable crowned King of England. ... In the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, Arda is the name given to the Earth in a period of fictional prehistory, wherein the places mentioned in The Lord of the Rings and related material once existed. ... The municipality Årdal in the county of Norway, has 5,709 inhabitants as of January 1, 2002. ... The Ardennes (IPA pronunciation: ) (Dutch: Ardennen) is a volcanic region of extensive forests and rolling hill country, primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France (lending its name to the Ardennes département and the Champagne-Ardenne région). ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... This article is about the language spoken by Roma people. ... County Status Municipality Mayor Constantin Armencea, Social Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 59. ... Most regions and provinces of Europe have alternative names in different languages. ...


History

This is an article about the history of Transylvania // Ancient History: Transylvania as the heartland of the Dacian state Dacian Kingdom, during the rule of Burebista, 82 BC Herodotus gives an account of the Agathyrsi, who lived in Transylvania during the 5th century BC. A kingdom of Dacia was in...

Ancient History: Dacia and the Roman Empire

The kingdom of Dacia was in existence at least as early as the beginning of the 2nd century BC and it reached its maximum extent under Burebista. The area now constituting Transylvania was the political center of Dacia where several important fortified cities, among them Sarmizegetusa, near today's Hunedoara were built. For other uses, see Dacia (disambiguation). ... Dacian Kingdom, during the rule of Burebista, 82 BC Burebista,[1] the greatest king of Dacia, ruled between 70 BC and 44 BC. He unified the Thracian population from Hercynia (todays Moravia) in the west, to the Bug River in the east, and from the northern Carpathians to Dionysopolis... For other uses, see Dacia (disambiguation). ... Sarmisegetuza was the most important Dacian military, religious and political center. ... County Hunedoara County Status Municipality Mayor Nicolae Schiau, Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 97 km² Population (2002) 79,235 Density 816 inh/km² Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ...


In 101-102 and 105-106, Trajan, the Roman emperor, fought a military campaign against the Dacians, known as the Dacian Wars. He managed to vanquish them and after the suicide of Decebalus parts of Dacia were incorporated into the Roman province Dacia Trajana. The Romans built mines, access roads and forts to protect them. Colonists from other Roman provinces were brought in to settle the land and cities like Apulum (now Alba Iulia) and Napoca (now Cluj-Napoca) appeared. The Dacians rebelled frequently and due to increasing pressure from them and the Visigoths in 271, the Emperor Aurelian abandoned Dacia Trajana. This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Combatants Dacians Roman Empire Commanders Decebal Trajan Strength around 100,000 (based on population estimate) 70,000-80,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown The Dacian Wars (101-102, 105-106) were two short wars between the Roman Empire and Dacia during Emperor Trajans rule. ... Decebalus, from Trajans Column Decebalus (ruled 87 – 106) (Decebal in Romanian) was a Dacian king. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Alba Iulia (Hungarian: Gyulafeh r, German: Karlsburg) is a city in Alba county, Transylvania, Romania with a population of 66,369, located on the Mureş river. ... Map of Romania showing Cluj_Napoca Cluj_Napoca (Hungarian: Kolozsvár, German: Klausenburg, Latin: Claudiopolis), the seat of Cluj county, is one of the most important academic, cultural and industrial centers in Romania. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... Lucius Domitius Aurelianus[1] (September 9, 214–September 275), known in English as Aurelian, Roman Emperor (270–275), was the second of several highly successful soldier-emperors who helped the Roman Empire regain its power during the latter part of the third century and the beginning of the fourth. ...


The Middle Ages

The former Dacia Trajana province was controlled by the Visigoths and Carpians until they were in turn displaced and subdued by the Huns in 376, under the leadership of Attila. After the disintegration of Attila's empire, the rules of Gepids of Avars succeeded. The region was also influenced during this period by massive Slavic migration. At the beginning of the 9th century, Transylvania, along with eastern Pannonia, was incorporated into the First Bulgarian Empire followed by Magyar tribes linking it to the Principality of Hungary. The Carpi or Carpians were a Dacian tribe that were originally located on the Eastern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains, in what is now Bacău county, Romania. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... For other uses, see Pannonia (disambiguation). ... Imperial Emblem Bulgarian Empire at its greatest extent c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Kingdom of Hungary

The early 11th century was marked by the conflict between King Stephen I of Hungary and his maternal uncle Gyula, the ruler of Transylvania. After the defeat of the latter, Transylvania became part of the Kingdom of Hungary. The Transylvanian Roman Catholic bishopric and the comitatus system were organised. By the 12th century the Szeklers were established in eastern and southeastern Transylvania as border guards and in the 12th and 13th centuries, the areas in the south and northeast were settled by German colonists called Transylvanian Saxons. In 1241-1242, during the Mongol invasion, Transylvania was devastated and a large portion of the population perished. In 1285, there was another Mongol invasion in Transylvania, led by Nogai Khan. This is a list of all rulers of the Kingdom of Hungary since Árpád. ... Saint Stephen I (Hungarian: , Latin: , Slovak: , German: ; Esztergom, c. ... Disambiguation: for the town in Hungary see Gyula (town) Gyula was originally a Turkic word which entered the Hungarian language at some point before 950 CE. Under the system of dual kingship which the Magyars used in the 9th century, the two kings of the tribal confederation were the kende... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ... Map of the counties in the Kingdom of Hungary around 1880 A comitatus (less frequently, a comitat, or, inaccurately, a county; for the various names, their origin and use see here) is the name of an administrative unit in the Kingdom of Hungary from the 10th century to 1918. ... The Székely or Szeklers (Hungarian: , Romanian: , German: ) ( sék-ei in pronunciation ) are a Hungarian ethnic group mostly living in Transylvania in Romania, with a significant population also living in Vojvodina, Serbia. ... The Transylvanian Saxons (German: ; Hungarian: ; Romanian: ) are a people of German origin who settled in Transylvania (German: ) from the 12th century onwards. ... The Mongol invasions of Europe were centered in their destruction of the Ruthenian states, especially Kiev, under the leadership of Subutai. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Nogai Khan (died 1299), also called Kara Nogai (Black Nogai), was a Khan of the Golden Horde and a great-grandson of Genghis Khan. ...


Transylvania was organized according to the system of Estates, which were privileged groups (universitates) with power and influence in socio-economic and political life, being nonetheless organized according to certain ethnic criteria as well. The first Estate was the lay and ecclesiastic aristocracy, ethnically heterogeneous, but undergoing a process of homogenization around its Hungarian nucleus. The other Estates were Saxons, Szeklers and Romanians (or Vlachs - Universitas Valachorum), all with an ethnic and ethno-linguistic basis (Universis nobilibus, Saxonibus, Syculis et Olachis). The general assembly (congregatio generalis) of the four Estates had mainly supra-legislative powers in Transylvania, but it sometimes took measures regarding order in the country, relationships between the privileged, military issues, etc. In several different regions of medieval Europe, and continuing in some countries down to the present day, the Estates of the realm were broad divisions of society, usually distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners; this last group was, in some regions, further divided into burghers (also known as bourgeoisie) and peasants. ... Vlachs (also called Vallachians, Wallachians, Wlachs, Wallachs, Olahs or Ulahs, Macedonian: Власи Vlasi, Greek: , Albanian: Vllehë, Turkish: , Ukrainian: , Polish: ) is a blanket term covering several modern Latin peoples (linguistic) descending from the Latinised population in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. ... Universitas Valachorum (Estate of the Romanians) is the Latin denomination for an Estate, an institution of self-government in medieval Transylvania. ...

After the Decree of Turda (1366), which openly called for "to expel or to exterminate in this country malefactors belonging to any nation, especially Romanians" in Transylvania, the only possibility for Romanians to retain or access nobility was through conversion to Roman Catholicism. Some Orthodox Romanian nobles converted, being integrated in the Hungarian nobility, but the most of them declined, thus losing their status and privileges. Download high resolution version (591x1001, 166 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (591x1001, 166 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... John Hunyadi, as imagined by a 17th century artist John Hunyadi (Medieval Latin: Ioannes Corvinus, German: Johann Hunyadi; Hungarian: Hunyadi János, Romanian: Iancu or Ioan de Hunedoara) (c. ... The Decree of Turda was a decree by Louis I Anjou of Hungary. ... Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity, or a change from one religious identity to another. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The...


In some border regions (Maramureş, Ţara Haţegului) the Orthodox Romanian ruling class of nobilis kenezius (classed as lower nobility in the Kingdom as a whole) had the same rights as the Hungarian nobilis conditionarius. Nevertheless, because of the gradual loss of a nobility of its own, Romanians were no longer able to keep their Universitas Valachorum. Map of Romania with MaramureÅŸ region highlighted The MaramureÅŸ region (Hungarian: Máramaros; Latin: Marmatia; Ukrainian: Мармарощина, Marmaroščyna) is in the north of Romania, north of Transylvania along the Tisza River. ... HaÅ£eg (German: Wallenthal; Hungarian: Hatszeg) is a town in Hunedoara County, Romania with a population of 12,507. ... Kniaz’ or knyaz is a word found in some Slavic languages, denoting a nobility rank. ...


After the suppression of the Budai Nagy Antal-revolt in 1437, the political system was based on Unio Trium Nationum (The Union of the Three Nations). According to the Union, which was explicitly directed against serfs and other peasants, society was ruled by three privileged Estates or nations (Nationes), the nobility (mostly Magyars), the Szekelys, and the Saxon burghers. The Bobâlna revolt of 1437 was the only significant popular revolt in the Kingdom of Hungary prior to the great peasant war of 1514. ... Unio Trium Nationum (Latin for Union of the Three Nations; also known as Fraterna Unio - Brotherly Union) was a pact of mutual aid formed in 1438 by three Estates of Transylvania: the (largely Hungarian) nobility, the Saxon (ie German) burghers, and the Szeklers (who had a special status within the... Serf redirects here. ... This article is about permission granted by law or other rules. ... In several different regions of medieval Europe, and continuing in some countries down to the present day, the Estates of the realm were broad divisions of society, usually distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners; this last group was, in some regions, further divided into burghers (also known as bourgeoisie) and peasants. ... This article deals with titles of the nobility and royalty in the Kingdom of Hungary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Burgher can refer to: a title; in the European Middle Ages, a burgher was any freeman of a burgh or borough; or any inhabitant of a borough, a person who lives in town (in Dutch the word for citizen is burger and the German cognate is Bürger). ...


A key figure to emerge in Transylvania in the first half of the 15th century was John Hunyadi. His subsequent military exploits against the Ottoman Empire brought him further status as the governor of Hungary in 1446 and papal recognition as the Prince of Transylvania in 1448. John Hunyadi was also the father of Matthias Corvinus of Hungary. John Hunyadi, as imagined by a 17th century artist John Hunyadi (Medieval Latin: Ioannes Corvinus, German: Johann Hunyadi; Hungarian: Hunyadi János, Romanian: Iancu or Ioan de Hunedoara) (c. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... What about Gelu, Glad, Menumorut, you hungarian maggot? Read more before writing here! This is a list of Transylvanian rulers The Great Principality of Transylvania was disolved 1867 and his territory incorporated in the Hungarian Part (Transleithania) of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867–1918). ... Matthias Corvinus as depicted in Chronica Hungarorum by Carl van Vechten Matthias Corvinus (Matthias the Just) (February 23, 1443 (?) – April 6, 1490) was King of Hungary, ruling between 1458 and 1490. ...


Independent principality

Stefan Batory, prince of Transylvania and later king of Poland
Stefan Batory, prince of Transylvania and later king of Poland

The 16th century was marked by the struggle between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Empire. After Sultan Suleiman I overran central Hungary and established there the Turkish rule (see Ottoman Hungary), Transylvania became a semi-independent region where Austrian and Turkish influences vied for supremacy for nearly two centuries. Image File history File linksMetadata Stefan_Batory_King_of_Poland. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Stefan_Batory_King_of_Poland. ... For other persons of the same name, see Báthory. ... Image File history File links Michael-of-walachia. ... Image File history File links Michael-of-walachia. ... Engraving of Michael the Brave Mihai Viteazu redirects here. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; formally Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest‐serving Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... Ottoman Hungary or Muslim Hungary refers to the Turkish-Ottoman age of todays Hungary (1526 - 1699). ...


Due to the fact that Transylvania was now beyond the reach of Catholic religious authority, Protestant preaching such as Lutheranism and Calvinism were able to flourish. In 1568 the Edict of Turda proclaimed four religious expressions -Catholic, Lutheranism, Calvinism and Unitarianism - as "accepted" (receptae), while Orthodoxy, which was the confession of the Romanian population, was proclaimed as "tolerated" (tolerata). The Edict of Turda is considered by mostly Hungarian historians as the first legal guarantee of religious freedom in Christian Europe. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Turda (Hungarian: Torda, German: Thorenburg) (population: 55,770) is a city and Municipality in Cluj County, Romania, situated on the ArieÅŸ river. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Unitarianism is the belief... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The...


The Báthory family came to power in 1571 and ruled Transylvania as princes under the Ottomans, and briefly under Habsburg suzerainty, until 1600. The latter period of their rule saw a four-sided conflict in Transylvania involving the Transylvanians, the Austrians, the Ottomans, and the Wallachian voivod Michael the Brave. The latter gained control of Transylvania in 1599 after the Battle of Şelimbăr and succeeded in uniting the three principalities of Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania (the three main parts of present-day Romania). The union did not last long, however, as Michael was assassinated by mercenaries under the command of the Habsburg general Giorgio Basta in August 1601. Basta swore allegiance to the Habsburg Emperor, Rudolph II and by 1604 reclaimed the principality for Catholicism through the Counter Reformation. The Báthory (Polish Batory) were a Hungarian noble family of the Gutkeled clan. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Voivode (as it is spelled in the Oxford English Dictionary), or less commonly voivod, is a Slavic word that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force. ... Engraving of Michael the Brave Mihai Viteazu redirects here. ... The Battle of Åželimbăr (Hungarian: Sellenberk; German: Schellenberg) was one of the great events in medieval Romanian history. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Giorgio Basta Giorgio Basta (1544-1607), was a general of Albanian descent, employed by the Holy Roman Emperor to command Habsburg forces in the Long War of (1591-1606) and later to administer Transylvania as an Imperial vassal. ... Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II Rudolph IIs personal imperial crown, later crown of the Austrian Empire Rudolf II Habsburg was an emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, king of Bohemia, and king of Hungary. ... The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation[1][2] or Catholic Revival[2]) denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the Thirty Years War, 1648. ...

The Calvinist magnate of Bihar county Stephen Bocskai managed to obtain, through the Peace of Vienna (June 23, 1606), religious liberty and political autonomy, the restoration of all confiscated estates, the repeal of all "unrighteous" judgments, and a complete retroactive amnesty for all Hungarians in Royal Hungary, as well as his own recognition as independent sovereign prince of an enlarged Transylvania. Under Bocskai's successors Transylvania passed through a period of flourishment both for the religious movements and for the arts and culture. It was one of the few European countries where Roman Catholics, Calvinists, Lutherans, and Unitarians lived in mutual tolerance, but Orthodox Romanians were denied equal rights. Download high resolution version (631x862, 141 KB) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or more. ... Download high resolution version (631x862, 141 KB) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or more. ... Stephen Bocskay was a prince of Transylvania, the most eminent member of the ancient Bocskay family, son of Gyorgy Bocskay and Krisztina Sulyok, was born at Kolozsvar, Transylvania (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania). ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Bihar is the name of a historic administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Stephen Bocskay was a prince of Transylvania, the most eminent member of the ancient Bocskay family, son of Gyorgy Bocskay and Krisztina Sulyok, was born at Kolozsvar, Transylvania (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... Consequences of the Battle of Mohács, and the conquest of Buda in 1541 by the Ottomans: the Kingdom is partitioned. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Historic Unitarianism believed in the oneness of God as opposed to traditional Christian belief in the Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit). ... The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română in Romanian) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ...


Habsburg Empire

After the defeat of the Ottomans at the Battle of Vienna in 1683, the Habsburgs gradually began to impose their rule on the formerly autonomous Transylvania. Apart from strengthening the central government and administration, the Habsburgs also promoted the Roman Catholic Church, both as a uniting force and also as an instrument to reduce the influence of the Protestant nobility. In addition, they tried to persuade Romanian Orthodox clergymen to join the Greek (Byzantine Rite) Catholic Church in union with Rome. As a response to this policy, several peaceful movements of the Romanian Orthodox population advocated for freedom of worship for all the Transylvanian population, most notably being the movements led by Visarion Sarai, Nicolae Oprea Miclăuş and Sofronie of Cioara. Image File history File links Brukenthal. ... Image File history File links Brukenthal. ... Samuel von Brukenthal Samuel von Brukenthal (1721, Nocrich-1803, Sibiu) was the governor of The Great Principality of Transylvania between July 6, 1774 and January 9, 1787. ... // For siege of Vienna in 1529 see Siege of Vienna Combatants Holy League: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Austria, Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, Bavaria Ottoman Empire, Khanate of Crimea, Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia Commanders John III Sobieski, Charles V of Lorraine Kara Mustafa Pasha Strength 70,000, (10,000 during siege) 138,000, (200... The Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic (in Romanian: Biserica Română Unită cu Roma, Greco-Catolică) is an Eastern Rite or Greek-Catholic Church ranked as a Major Archiepiscopal Church, which uses the Byzantine liturgical rite in the Romanian language. ... Sofronie of Cioara (in Romanian: Sofronie de la Cioara) is a Romanian Orthodox Saint. ...


From 1711 onward, the princes of Transylvania were replaced with Austrian governors and in 1765 Transylvania was declared a grand principality.


The revolutionary year 1848 was marked by a great struggle between the Hungarians, the Romanians and the Habsburg Empire. Warfare erupted in November with both Romanian and Saxon troops, under Austrian command, battling the Hungarians led by the Polish general Józef Bem. He carried out a sweeping offensive through Transylvania, and Avram Iancu managed to retreat to the harsh terrain of the Apuseni Mountains, mounting a guerrilla campaign on Bem's forces. After the intervention by the armies of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, Bem's army was defeated decisively at the Battle of Temesvár (Timişoara) on 9 August 1849. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Józef Bem Józef Zachariasz Bem (1794-1850) was a Polish general and a national hero of Poland and Hungary. ... Avram Iancu Avram Iancu (Janko Avram in Hungarian; 1824, in Vidra [de Sus], today Avram Iancu in Alba county, Romania—September 10, 1872, in the same area) was a Transylvanian Romanian lawyer who played an important role in the local chapter of the Austrian Empire Revolutions of 1848-1849. ... The Apuseni Mountains is a mountain range in Transylvania, Romania, which belongs to the Western Carpathians. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... County Status County Capital Mayor Gheorghe Ciuhandu, Christian-Democratic Peoples Party, since 1996 Area 129. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Having quashed the revolution, Austria imposed a repressive regime on Hungary, ruled Transylvania directly through a military governor and granted citizenship to the Romanians. However, in the Ausgleich of 1867, which established the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the special status of Transylvania ended and it was reincorporated into the Kingdom of Hungary. The new unity of Austria-Hungary created a process of Magyarization affecting Transylvania's Romanians and German Saxons. Look up Compromise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Austria-Hungary

The 300-year long separate status of Transylvania came to an end after the Compromise from 1867. On 20 June 1867, the Diet was dissolved by royal decree, and an ordinance abrogated the legislative acts of the Sibiu provincial assembly. The department of the interior inherited the responsibilities of the Transylvanian Gubernium, and the government reserved the right to name Transylvania's royal magistrates as well the Saxon bailiff of the Universitas Saxorum. Hungarian legislation also came to supersede the Austrian code of civil procedure, penal law, commercial law, and regulations for bills of exchange. The German term Ausgleich (Hungarian kiegyezés) refers to the compromise or composition of February 1867 that established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary, which was signed by Franz Joseph of Austria and a Hungarian delegation led by Ferenc Deák. ... In politics, a diet is a formal deliberative assembly. ... County Status County capital Mayor Klaus Johannis, from the Democratic Forum of Germans of Romania, since 2000 Area 121. ...


Romania

Since the Austro-Hungarian empire had begun to disintegrate after the end of the First World War, the nationalities living inside proclaimed their independence from the empire. The 1228-member National Assembly of Romanians of Transylvania and Hungary, headed by leaders of Transylvania's Romanian National Party and Social Democratic Party, passed a resolution calling for unification of all Romanians in a single state on 1 December in Alba Iulia. This was approved by the National Council of the Germans from Transylvania and the Council of the Danube Swabians from the Banat, on 15 December in Mediaş. In response, the Hungarian General Assembly of Cluj reaffirmed the loyalty of Hungarians from Transylvania to Hungary on December 22, 1918. (See also: Union of Transylvania with Romania) Iuliu Maniu, Romanian PM in the 1930s This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Iuliu Maniu, Romanian PM in the 1930s This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... // Iuliu Maniu (January 8, 1873—February 5, 1953) was an Austro-Hungarian-born Romanian politician. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Romanian National Party (Romanian: Partidul NaÅ£ional Român, PNR), initially known as the Romanian National Party in Transylvania and Banat (Partidul NaÅ£ional Român din Transilvania ÅŸi Banat) was a political party which was initially designed to offer ethnic representation to Romanians in the Kingdom of Hungary... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alba Iulia (Hungarian: Gyulafeh r, German: Karlsburg) is a city in Alba county, Transylvania, Romania with a population of 66,369, located on the Mureş river. ... The Danube Swabians (German: Donauschwaben, Hungarian: Dunai-Svábok or Dunamenti németek, Romanian: Åžvabi or Åžvabi Dunăreni, Serbian: Dunavske Å vabe or Дунавске Швабе, Croatian: Podunavski Å vabe) is a collective term for Germans who lived in the former Kingdom of Hungary, especially in the Danube (Donau) River valley. ... Location of Banat in Europe Map of the Banat region with largest cities shown The Banat (Romanian: Banat, Serbian: Банат or Banat, Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság, German: Banat, Slovak: Banát, Bulgarian: Банат) is a geographical and historical region of Central Europe currently divided between three countries: the... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Romania showing Cluj_Napoca Cluj_Napoca (Hungarian: Kolozsvár, German: Klausenburg, Latin: Claudiopolis), the seat of Cluj county, is one of the most important academic, cultural and industrial centers in Romania. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Assembly in Alba Iulia (December 1, 1918) Union of Transylvania with Romania was declared on December 1 [O.S. November 18] 1918. ...


The Treaty of Versailles placed Transylvania under the sovereignty of Romania, an ally of the Triple Entente, and after the defeat in 1919 of Béla Kun's Hungarian Soviet Republic by the Romanian army, the Treaties of St. Germain (1919) and Trianon (signed in June 1920) further elaborated the status of Transylvania and defined the new border between the states of Hungary and Romania. King Ferdinand I of Romania and Queen Maria of Romania were crowned at Alba Iulia in 1922 as King of all Romania. This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Béla Kun Béla Kun (born Béla Kohn) (February 20, 1886, in Szilágycseh, today Cehu Silvaniei, Transylvania, Romania, died August 29, 1938 in the Soviet Union) was a Hungarian Communist politician, who ruled Hungary for a brief period in 1919. ... Flag Capital Budapest Language(s) Hungarian Government Socialist republic History  - Established March 21, 1919  - Downfall August 6, 1919 The Hungarian Soviet Republic (Hungarian: Magyarországi Tanácsköztársaság) was a Communist regime established in Hungary from March 21 until August 6, 1919, under the leadership of Béla... The Treaty of Saint-Germain, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new republic of Austria on the other. ... The negotiations on June 4, 1920. ... Ferdinand of Romania Ferdinand or Ferdinand I (August 24, 1865-July 20, 1927) was the king of Romania from October 10, 1914 until his death Born in Sigmaringen in southwestern Germany, Prince Ferdinand of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen became heir to the throne of his childless uncle, King Carol I of Romania... Princess Marie of Edinburgh (Marie Alexandra Victoria; later Queen of Romania; 29 October 1875 – 18 July 1938) was a member of the British Royal Family who became the queen consort of Ferdinand I of Romania. ...


In August 1940, the second Vienna Award gave the northern half of Transylvania to Hungary but after the Treaty of Paris (1947) at the end of the Second World War the territory was returned to Romania. The post-WWII borders with Hungary, agreed on at the Treaty of Paris were identical with those set out in 1920. Vienna Awards or Vienna Arbitration Awards or Vienna Arbitral Awards or Vienna Diktats or Viennese Arbitrals are various names for two arbitral awards (1938 and 1940) by which arbiters of National Socialist Germany and Fascist Italy sought to enforce peacefully the territorial claims of Revisionist Hungary, ruled by Regent Admiral... The Paris Peace Conference (July 29 to October 15, 1946) resulted in the Paris peace treaties signed on February 10, 1947. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Historical coat of arms of Transylvania

The Diet of 1659 codified the representation of the privileged nations in Transylvania's coat of arms. It depicts: Coat of Arms Transylvanias coat of arms, representing the privileged nations in the region, was codified by the Diet of 1659. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ...

  • A black turul on a blue background, representing the medieval nobility, which was primarily Magyar.
  • The Sun and the Moon representing the Székelys.
  • Seven red towers on a yellow background representing the seven fortified cities of the Transylvanian Saxons

(The red dividing band was originally not part of the coat of arms.) A Turul monument at Tatabánya Turul is the mythological bird of the origin myth of the Magyars (Hungarian people). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sol redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Székely or Szeklers (Hungarian: , Romanian: , German: ) ( sék-ei in pronunciation ) are a Hungarian ethnic group mostly living in Transylvania in Romania, with a significant population also living in Vojvodina, Serbia. ... The Transylvanian Saxons (German: ; Hungarian: ; Romanian: ) are a people of German origin who settled in Transylvania (German: ) from the 12th century onwards. ...

Geography and ethnography

Romanian ethnographic regions (Transylvania-red; Maramureş-blue; Sǎtmar-green; Crişana-yellow; Banat-purple)
Romanian ethnographic regions (Transylvania-red; Maramureş-blue; Sǎtmar-green; Crişana-yellow; Banat-purple)
Hungarian ethnographic regions (King's Pass - yellow; Western Transylvania - green; Eastern Transylvania - blue)
Hungarian ethnographic regions (King's Pass - yellow; Western Transylvania - green; Eastern Transylvania - blue)

The Transylvanian plateau, 300 to 500 metres (1,000-1,600 feet) high, is drained by the Mureş, Someş, Criş, and Olt rivers, as well as other tributaries of the Danube. This core of historical Transylvania roughly corresponds with nine counties of modern Romania. Other areas to the west and north, which also united with Romania in 1918 (inside the border established by peace treaties in 1919-20), are since that time widely considered part of Transylvania. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 743 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1281 × 1034 pixel, file size: 221 KB, MIME type: image/png) Romanian ethnographic regions in Transylvania, MaramureÅŸ, SÇŽtmar, CriÅŸana and Banat File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 743 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1281 × 1034 pixel, file size: 221 KB, MIME type: image/png) Romanian ethnographic regions in Transylvania, MaramureÅŸ, SÇŽtmar, CriÅŸana and Banat File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 743 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1281 × 1034 pixel, file size: 235 KB, MIME type: image/png) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 743 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1281 × 1034 pixel, file size: 235 KB, MIME type: image/png) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the... The MureÅŸ (in Romanian, in Hungarian: Maros, in German: Mieresch / Marosch) is an approx. ... The SomeÅŸ (Hungarian: Szamos) river flows through Romania and Hungary. ... Körös (Romanian: CriÅŸ) is the name of a river in eastern Hungary and western Romania. ... The Olt (Romanian and Hungarian; in German: Alt; in Latin: Aluta) is a river in Romania. ... This article is about the Danube River. ...

  • Transylvania proper:
    • Amlaş
    • Ţara Bârsei
    • Chioar
    • Ciceu
    • Făgăraş
    • Haţeg
    • Mărginimea Sibiului
    • Câmpia Transilvaniei
    • Ţara Moţilor
    • Nösnerland
    • Székely Land
  • Banat
  • Crişana
    • Ţara Zarandului
  • Maramureş
    • Ţara Lǎpuşului
    • Ţara Oaşului

See also Administrative divisions of the Kingdom of Hungary. In common reference, the Western border of Transylvania has come to be identified with the present Romanian-Hungarian border, settled in the Treaty of Trianon, although geographically the two are not identical. Burzenland (Romanian: Ţara Bârsei, German: Burzenland, Hungarian: Barcaság) is a historic area in southeastern Transylvania, Romania, with Braşov (German Kronstadt) as its most important city. ... County Harghita County Status Commune Mayor József Balló, Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania, since 2004 Population (2002) 2,628 Geographical coordinates Ciceu or Csíkcsicsó (Romanian: ; Hungarian: ) is a commune in Romania, located in Harghita County. ... County Braşov County Status Municipality Mayor Ioan Barbuti, Social Democratic Party, since 2004 Population (2002) 40,126 Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ... Haţeg (German: Wallenthal; Hungarian: Hatszeg) is a town in Hunedoara County, Romania with a population of 12,507. ... Mărginimea Sibiului is an area which comprises 18 Romanian localities in the south-western part of the Sibiu County, in southern Transylvania, all of them having a unique ethnological, cultural, architectural and historical heritage. ... Small castle in Trascau Mountains, Ţara Moţilor Ţara Moţilor, also known as Ţara de Piatră (The Stone Land) is an etnogeographical area in the Apuseni Mountains, on the superior basin of the Arieş and Crişul Alb rivers. ... The Nösnerland (-German, Romanian: Ţara Năsăudului, Hungarian: Naszód) is a historic region of northeastern Transylvania in present-day Romania centered between the Bistriţa and Mureş rivers. ... Harghita, Covasna, and Mureş counties within Romania Ethnic map of Harghita, Covasna, and Mureş (1992 data) Székely Land (Hungarian: Székelyföld; Romanian: Ţinutul Secuiesc, Latin: Terra Siculorum) is used today in a cultural-ethnographical sense to refer to the territories inhabited by the Székelys, a Hungarian minority... Location of Banat in Europe Map of the Banat region with largest cities shown The Banat (Romanian: Banat, Serbian: Банат or Banat, Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság, German: Banat, Slovak: Banát, Bulgarian: Банат) is a geographical and historical region of Central Europe currently divided between three countries: the... Crişana is a region of west Romania, near the border with Hungary, named after the three Criş rivers that flow through it. ... Map of Romania with Maramureş region highlighted Image:Old Romanian village, with old traditions in Maramures, a region of Romania. ... Oaş Country or Ţara Oaşului (in Romanian) is an etnographic region of Romania located in the North-East part of Satu Mare County, 50 km from the city of Satu Mare. ... The following lists show the administrative divisions of the lands belonging to the Hungarian crown (1000 _1918) at selected points of time. ...


Administrative divisions

Map of Romania with Transylvania. The light yellow areas correspond to the core territory of the historic Principality. The historical regions of Crişana and Maramureş (see also Partium), and the Romanian section of the Banat, marked in dark yellow, are also considered part of Transylvania today.[citation needed]
Map of Romania with Transylvania. The light yellow areas correspond to the core territory of the historic Principality. The historical regions of Crişana and Maramureş (see also Partium), and the Romanian section of the Banat, marked in dark yellow, are also considered part of Transylvania today.[citation needed]

The historical region covers 16 present-day counties (Romanian: judeţ) which include nearly 103 600 km² of central and northwest Romania. The 16 counties are: Image File history File links TransylvaniaProper. ... CriÅŸana is a region of west Romania, near the border with Hungary, named after the three CriÅŸ rivers that flow through it. ... MaramureÅŸ (Hungarian: Máramaros) is a county (judeÅ£) in the MaramureÅŸ region, northern Romania, in the North of Transylvania with the capital city at Baia Mare (population: 149,735). ... Principality of Transylvania Partium (Hungarian: Partium or Részek) is a historical region in the present-day territory of Romania that roughly corresponds to the contemporary CriÅŸana region. ... Location of Banat in Europe Map of the Banat region with largest cities shown The Banat (Romanian: Banat, Serbian: Банат or Banat, Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság, German: Banat, Slovak: Banát, Bulgarian: Банат) is a geographical and historical region of Central Europe currently divided between three countries: the... Administrative map of Romania. ... A judeÅ£ is an administrative division in Romania and was also used for some time in Moldova. ...

The most populous cities are: ... Facts Development region: Vest Historic region: Transylvania Population:  â€¢ As of 2002:  â€¢ Population density: 461,791 60/km² Area: 7,754 km² Codes:  â€¢ Car numbers  â€¢ ISO 3166-2:RO AR RO-AR Telephone code: (+40) x57 (1) Web:   County Council Prefecture 1. ... Bihor (IPA: ), in Hungarian: Bihar (IPA: ), is a county (judeÅ£) of Romania, in CriÅŸana, with capital city at Oradea. ... BistriÅ£a-Năsăud (Hungarian: Beszterce-Naszód) is a county (judeÅ£) in the North of Romania, in the Transylvania region, with the capital city at BistriÅ£a (population: 87,169). ... Facts Development region: Centru Historic region: Transylvania Capital city: BraÅŸov Population:  â€¢ As of 2002:  â€¢ Population density: 589,028 110/km² Area: 5,363 km² Codes:  â€¢ Car numbers  â€¢ ISO 3166-2:RO BV RO-BV Telephone code: (+40) x68 (1) Web:   County Council Prefecture 1. ... CaraÅŸ-Severin (IPA: ; Serbian and Croatian: KaraÅ¡-Severin/Караш Северин, Hungarian: Krassó-Szörény) is a county (judet) of Romania, in historical region Banat, with the capital city at ReÅŸiÅ£a. ... Facts Development region: Nord-Vest Historic region: Transylvania Capital city: Cluj-Napoca Population:  â€¢ As of 2002:  â€¢ Population density: 702,755 105/km² Area: 6,674 km² Codes:  â€¢ Car numbers  â€¢ ISO 3166-2:RO CJ RO-CJ Telephone code: (+40) x64 (1) Web:   County Council Prefecture 1. ... Administrative map of Romania with Covasna county highlighted Covasna (Hungarian: Kovászna) is a county (Judeţ) in Romania, in Transylvania, with the capital city at Sfântu Gheorghe/Sepsiszentgörgy (population: 67,108), known in Hungarian as Sepsiszentgyörgy. ... Facts Development region: Centru Historic region: Transylvania Capital city: Miercurea-Ciuc Population:  â€¢ As of 2002:  â€¢ Population density: 326,222 52/km² Area: 6,639 km² Codes:  â€¢ Car numbers  â€¢ ISO 3166-2:RO HR RO-HR Telephone code: (+40) x66 (1) Web:   County Council Prefecture 1. ... Hunedoara (Hungarian: Hunyad) is a county (JudeÅ£) in Western Romania, in South-Western Transylvania, with the capital city at Deva (population: 77,259). ... Facts Development region: Nord-Vest Historic region: Transylvania Capital city: Baia Mare Population:  â€¢ As of 2002:  â€¢ Population density: 510,110 81/km² Area: 6,304 km² Codes:  â€¢ Car numbers  â€¢ ISO 3166-2:RO MM RO-MM Telephone code: (+40) x62 (1) Web:   County Council Prefecture 1. ... MureÅŸ (Hungarian: Maros) is a Romanian county (JudeÅ£) in Transylvania, with the capital city at Târgu MureÅŸ, (population: 165,835). ... Sălaj (Hungarian: Szilágy) is a county (judeÅ£) in North-Western Romania, in the Transylvania region, with the capital city at Zalău (population: 71,580). ... Satu Mare (Hungarian: Szatmár) is a county (judeÅ£) in North-Western Romania, in the North of Transylvania region - between MaramureÅŸ region and CriÅŸana region, with its capital city at Satu Mare (population: 130,573). ... Sibiu (IPA: ; Hungarian: Szeben) is a county (judeÅ£) in the center of Romania, in Transylvania region, with the capital city Sibiu (population: 170,038). ... For other uses of TimiÅŸ, see TimiÅŸ (disambiguation). ...

Map of Romania showing Cluj_Napoca Cluj_Napoca (Hungarian: Kolozsvár, German: Klausenburg, Latin: Claudiopolis), the seat of Cluj county, is one of the most important academic, cultural and industrial centers in Romania. ... County Status County Capital Mayor Gheorghe Ciuhandu, Christian-Democratic Peoples Party, since 1996 Area 129. ... Location of BraÅŸov Coordinates: , Country County Status County capital Government  - Mayor George Scripcaru (Democratic Party) Area  - County capital 267. ... Location of Oradea Coordinates: , Country County Status County capital Government  - Mayor Petru Filip (Democratic Party) Area  - County capital 111. ... County Arad County Status County capital Mayor Gheorghe Falcă, Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 46. ... County Status County capital Mayor Klaus Johannis, from the Democratic Forum of Germans of Romania, since 2000 Area 121. ... County MureÅŸ County Status County capital Mayor Dorin Florea, Democratic Party, since 2000 Population (2002) 149,577 Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... County MaramureÅŸ County Status County capital Mayor Cristian Anghel, National Liberal Party, since 2000 Area 233. ... Satu Mare redirects here. ...

Population

According to the 2002 census, Transylvania has a population of 7,221,733, with a large Romanian majority (74.69%). In addition, there are also sizeable Hungarian (19.60%), Roma (3.39%), German (0.73%) and Serb (0.1%) communities. [3] [4] Fourteen of the 16 counties have Romanian majorities, and two (Covasna and Harghita) are mostly Hungarian. The Roma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rom, sometimes Rroma, and Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies in English, and as Tsigany in most of Europe. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Administrative map of Romania with Covasna county highlighted Covasna (Hungarian: Kovászna) is a county (Judeţ) in Romania, in Transylvania, with the capital city at Sfântu Gheorghe/Sepsiszentgörgy (population: 67,108), known in Hungarian as Sepsiszentgyörgy. ... Harghita (Hungarian: Hargita) is a county (judeÅ£) in the center of Romania, Eastern Transylvania, with the capital city at Miercurea-Ciuc. ...


The percentage of Romanians has increased since the union of Transylvania with Romania (1918). This is due to three processes: emigration of minority populations (1,000,000 Germans, Hungarians and Jews have left the country during and since WWII[citation needed]), assimilation, and internal migration within Romania (estimates show that between 1945 and 1977, some 630,000 people have moved from the Regat to Transylvania, and 250,000 from Transylvania to the Regat, most notably to Bucharest).[5] The assimilation process slowed down during the first stages of the communist era (see Hungarian Autonomous Province) and then accelerated under the Ceauşescu regime. 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km² (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... map of Hungarian Autonomous Province map of Hungarian Autonomous Province Hungarian Autonomous Province was autonomous region in the Romanian Peoples Republic between 1952 and 1968. ... Anthem Zdrobite cătuÅŸe (1947 - 1953) Te slăvim Românie (1953 - 1968) Trei Culori (1968-1989) Capital Bucharest Language(s) Romanian Government Socialist republic Head of State  - 1947–1965 Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej  - 1965-1989 Nicolae CeauÅŸescu Legislature Marea Adunare NaÅ£ionalÇŽ Historical era Cold War  - Monarchy abolished...


Culture

For people connected to Transylvania's cultural life, see: List of Transylvanians. The following is a list of Transylvanian personalities. ...


Economy

Transylvania is rich in mineral resources, notably lignite, iron, lead, manganese, gold, copper, natural gas, salt, and sulfur. Strip mining lignite at Garzweiler, Germany Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal and used almost exclusively as fuel for steam-electric power generation. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metal. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... This article is about common table salt. ... This article is about the chemical element. ...


There are large iron and steel, chemical, and textile industries. Stock raising, agriculture, wine production, and fruit growing are important occupations. Timber is another valuable resource. For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood...


Transylvania accounts for around 35% of Romania's GDP, and has a GDP per capita (PPP) of around $11,500, around 10% higher than the Romanian average.


Tourist attractions

Transylvania in fiction

In much of the Western world, Transylvania is famously the home of Count Dracula from Bram Stoker's Dracula. Largely as a result of the success of Dracula, Transylvania has become a popular setting for horror fiction (particularly that involving vampires). ... Count Dracula is a fictional character, the titular antagonist of Bram Stokers 1897 Gothic horror novel Dracula. ... Abraham Bram Stoker (November 8, 1847 – April 20, 1912) was an Irish writer, best remembered as the author of the influential horror novel Dracula. ... This article is about the novel. ...


References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  1. ^ Béla Köpeczi (editor). History of Transylvania. Atlantic Research and Publications, Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-01-29.
  2. ^ http://mek.oszk.hu/03400/03407/html/49.html
  3. ^ 2002 Census official results:[1]
  4. ^ Ethnocultural Diversity Resource Centre database:[2]
  5. ^ Varga, E. Árpád, Hungarians in Transylvania between 1870 and 1995, Translation by Tamás Sályi, Budapest, March 1999 , p. 27.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Patrick Leigh Fermor, Between The Woods And The Water (New York Review of Books Classics, 2005; ISBN 1-59017-166-7). Fermor travelled across Transylvania in the summer of 1934, and wrote about it in this account first published more than 50 years later, in 1986.
  • Zoltán Farkas and Judit Sós, Transylvania Guidebook

Sir Patrick Paddy Michael Leigh Fermor DSO (born 11 February 1915, London) is a British author, scholar and soldier, who played a prominent role behind the lines in the Battle of Crete during World War II. He is famous for his travel writing and is widely regarded as Britains...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Transylvania - LoveToKnow 1911 (1590 words)
Transylvania has the form of an irregular circle, and is a high plateau of a mean altitude of1000-1600ft.
Transylvania possesses the richest gold mines in Europe, and this metal is also " washed " in some of the streams, chiefly by gipsies.
The industry of Transylvania, although not very developed, made some progress during the last quarter of the 19th century, and is mostly in the hands of the " Saxons." The principal branches are brewing, distilling, flour-milling, sugar, leather, paper, petroleumrefineries, cloth and earthenwares.
Adventure Transylvania - Romania tours, Hiking, Mountain biking, Dracula tour, The painted monasteries, Maramures (264 words)
Transylvania is a real province in Romania, one of the last undiscovered lands in Europe covered in legend and folklore.
For centuries Transylvania has lured travelers through her unique combination of history, myth and scenery.
These attractions are preserved, in almost unchanged medieval towns, in lively folk and culture, and in landscapes that seem to spring from the past.
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