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Encyclopedia > Transubstantiation
Part of the series on
Communion

also known as
"The Eucharist" or
"The Lord's Supper" For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...

Theology
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Transubstantiation
Consecration
Words of Institution
Real Presence
Impanation
Memorialism
Consubstantiation
Sacramental union
Transignification
To consecrate an inanimate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... The words of institution are the words of Jesus Christ as recorded in the New Testament used in some forms of Christian liturgy to consecrate the Eucharist. ... The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... Impanation is a name employed to denote the union of the body of Christ with the bread of the Eucharist. ... Memorialism is the belief held by many Christian denominations that the elements of bread and wine (or juice) in the Eucharist (more often referred to as The Lords Supper by memorialists) are symbolic of the body and blood of Jesus, the feast being primarily a memorial meal. ... Consubstantiation is a theory which (like the competing theory of transubstantiation, with which it is often contrasted) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in terms of philosophical metaphysics. ... Sacramental Union (Latin, unio sacramentalis; German, sacramentlich Einigkeit) is the Lutheran theological view of the Real Presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Christian Eucharist. ... Transignification[1] is a doctrine, largely in progressive Roman Catholic circles, which attempts a rational explanation of the Real Presence of Christ at Mass. ...

Theologies contrasted
Eucharist (Catholic Church)
Anglican Eucharistic theology
Ecclesial communities contrasted in relation to Eucharistic theology: // Orthodox Christianity the Eucharistic mystery bears an objective, Real Presence, par excellence. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Anglican Eucharistic theology is divergent in practice, reflecting the essential comprehensiveness of the tradition. ...

Important theologians
Paul ·Aquinas
Augustine · Calvin
Chrysostom · Cranmer
Luther · Zwingli Paul of Tarsus (b. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... John Chrysostom (349–407, Greek: , Ioannes Chrysostomos) was the archbishop of Constantinople. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books of Common Prayer which established the basic structure of Anglican liturgy for centuries and... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli or Ulricus Zuinglius (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ...

Related Articles
Christianity
Christianity and alcohol
Catholic Historic Roots
Closed and Open Table
Divine Liturgy
Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic discipline
First Communion
Infant Communion
Mass · Sacrament
Sanctification Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Jesus making wine in The Marriage at Cana, a 14th century fresco from the Visoki Dečani monastery. ... The historical roots of Catholic Eucharistic theology are the basis upon which a number of ecclesial communities, or churches, express their faith in the bread of life as given by Jesus, and are to be found in the Church Fathers, Scripture, the writings of Thomas Aquinas, and other early church... Closed communion is the practice of restricting the serving of the elements of communion (also called Eucharist, The Lords Supper) to those who are members of a particular church, denomination, sect, or congregation. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... Eucharistic adoration is a practice in the Roman Catholic and in Anglican Churches, in which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed to and adored by the faithful. ... Eucharistic discipline is the term applied to the regulations and practices associated with an individual preparing for the reception of the Eucharist. ... The First Communion (First Holy Communion) is a Roman Catholic ceremony. ... Infant Communion (also Paedocommunion) refers to the practice of giving the Eucharist, often in the form of consecrated wine, to infants and children. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means to set apart for special use or purpose, that is to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i. ...

Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. In Greek, it is called μετουσίωσις (see Metousiosis). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... Metousiosis is a Greek mystical term that literally means a great change of essence. ...

Contents

Theology of transubstantiation

"Substance" here means what something is in itself. (For more on the philosophical concept, see Substance theory.) A hat's shape is not the hat itself, nor is its colour the hat, nor is its size, nor its softness to the touch, nor anything else about it perceptible to the senses. The hat itself (the "substance") has the shape, the colour, the size, the softness and the other appearances, but is distinct from them. While the appearances, which are referred to by the philosophical term accidents, are perceptible to the senses, the substance is not. Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Accidental property. ...


When at his Last Supper Jesus said: "This is my body", what he held in his hands still had all the appearances of bread: these "accidents" remained unchanged. However, the Roman Catholic Church believes that, when Jesus made that declaration,[1] the underlying reality (the "substance") of the bread was converted to that of his body. In other words, it actually was his body, while all the appearances open to the senses or to scientific investigation were still those of bread, exactly as before. The Church holds that the same change of the substance of the bread and of the wine occurs at the consecration of the Eucharist.[2] The Last Supper in Milan (1498), by Leonardo da Vinci According to the Gospels, the Last Supper (also called Lords Supper) was the last meal Jesus shared with his Twelve Apostles before his death. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... To consecrate an inanimate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ...


Because Jesus, risen from the dead, is living, the Church holds that, when the bread is changed into his body, not only his body is present, but Jesus as a whole, body and blood, soul and divinity. The same holds for the wine changed into his blood.[3]


In accordance with this belief that Christ is really, truly and substantially present under the remaining appearances of bread and wine, and continues to be present as long as those appearances remain, the Catholic Church preserves the consecrated elements, generally in a church tabernacle, for administering Holy Communion to the sick and dying, and also for the secondary, but still highly prized, purpose of adoring Christ present in the Eucharist. The Tabernacle at St. ... Eucharistic adoration is a practice in the Roman Catholic and in Anglican Churches, in which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed to and adored by the faithful. ...


The Roman Catholic Church considers the doctrine of transubstantiation, which is about what is changed, not about how the change occurs, the best defence against what it sees as the mutually opposed interpretations, on the one hand, a merely figurative understanding of the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist (the change of the substance is real), and, on the other hand, an interpretation that would amount to cannibalistic eating of the flesh and corporal drinking of the blood of Christ (the accidents that remain are real, not an illusion).[4] The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... This article is about consuming ones own species. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Accidental property. ...


Accordingly, the Church declared subject to the ecclesiastical penalty of anathema anyone who "denieth, that, in the sacrament of the most holy Eucharist, are contained truly, really, and substantially, the body and blood together with the soul and divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, and consequently the whole Christ; but saith that He is only therein as in a sign, or in figure, or virtue" and anyone who "saith, that, in the sacred and holy sacrament of the Eucharist, the substance of the bread and wine remains conjointly with the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, and denieth that wonderful and singular conversion of the whole substance of the bread into the Body, and of the whole substance of the wine into the Blood - the species only of the bread and wine remaining - which conversion indeed the Catholic Church most aptly calls Transubstantiation"[5] Anathema (in Greek Ανάθεμα) meaning originally something lifted up as an offering to the gods; later, with evolving meanings, it came to mean: to be formally set apart, banished, exiled, excommunicated or denounced, sometimes accursed. ...


On the other hand, as already stated, the Catholic Church insists that the "accidents" that remain are real. In the sacrament these are the signs of the reality that they efficaciously signify.[6]And by definition sacraments are "efficacious signs of grace, instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church, by which divine life is dispensed to us."[7]


Scriptural foundations

Words such as "transubstantiation", "Real Presence", and "Eucharist" are not found in Scripture. Nor is the doctrine conveyed by those words stated explicitly. As is stated in such secular sources as the Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Neither the word Trinity nor the explicit doctrine appears in the New Testament, nor did Jesus and his followers intend to contradict the Shema in the Old Testament: "Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord" (Deuteronomy 6:4)"; yet most Christians believe the Trinity is an essential doctrine of their faith and implicitly taught in the Bible. Belief in the Trinity is based on the mentioning of the "Father," "Son," and the "Holy Spirit" often together throughout the New Testament (Matthew 28:19). Similarly, belief in the change of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ is based on the words of Christ at the Last Supper as interpreted by Christians from the earliest times, as for instance by Ignatius of Antioch. Christians who reject the doctrine of transubstantiation do not believe that the teaching is implied at all in scripture, much less to the same extent as the Trinity. The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... ... Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus)(c. ...


Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Roman Catholics, who together constitute about two thirds of Christians,[8] hold that the consecrated elements in the Eucharist are indeed the body and blood of Christ. Some Anglicans hold the same belief.[9] They see as the main Scriptural support for their belief that in the Eucharist the bread and wine are actually changed into the body and blood of Christ the words of Jesus himself at his Last Supper: the Synoptic Gospels[10] and Saint Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians[11] recount that in that context Jesus said of what to all appearances were bread and wine: "This is my body … this is my blood." The Last Supper in Milan (1498), by Leonardo da Vinci According to the Gospels, the Last Supper (also called Lords Supper) was the last meal Jesus shared with his Twelve Apostles before his death. ... In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ...


Protestants do not accept this literal interpretation of these words. They say that Jesus repeatedly spoke in non-literal terms e.g. "I am the bread of life", "I am the door", "I am the vine", "Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees" (Matthew 16:6-12),etc. Figurative language in the Synoptic Gospels, which are those that give the words of Jesus at the Last Supper, includes: "You are the salt of the earth ... You are the light of the world" (Matthew 5:13-14); "Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees" (Matthew 16:6) and many other verses. They believe that, if Jesus wanted to communicate the concept of transubstantiation He could easily have said "τοῦτο γέγονε τὸ σῶμά μου" ("this has turned into my body"), instead of saying: "τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου ("this is my body"). They also believe that because Jesus was holding what appeared to be bread while He said "this is my body", it was very obvious to the apostles that he was not speaking in a literal sense. They further quote David's words in 2 Samuel 23:17, where, speaking figuratively, he said of water that had been obtained at the risk of men's lives: "Is not this the blood of the men who went in jeopardy of their lives?"


Believers in the literal sense of Christ's words, "This is my body", "This is my blood" claim that there is a marked contrast between metaphorical figurative expressions that of their nature have a symbolic meaning and these words about concrete things presented to the apostles. [12] Believers in a metaphorical interpretation disagree with this assessment, saying that Matthew 16:7-12, in which Jesus' corrected the apostles' literal interpretation of his words, demonstrates Jesus speaking metaphorically on that occasion about what seemed in the minds of the apostles to be concrete things.


The Gospel of John presents Jesus as saying: "Unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood you have no life in you [13]… he who eats my flesh and drinks my blood abides in me and I in him" (6:53-56), and as then not toning down these sayings, even when many of his disciples thereupon abandoned him (6:66), shocked at the idea, which appeared to be in conflict not only with ordinary human sentiment but also with the Noahide Law's prohibition against consuming the blood even of animals (see Genesis 9:4, Lev 17:10-14, cf. Acts 15:19-21 and Council of Jerusalem). The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the canon of the New Testament, traditionally ascribed to John the Evangelist. ... The phrase suck my dick is a primarily Semitic idiom that originated in Ancient Mesopotamia, used to let a woman know how he wants it up the ass. ... In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. ... Covenant, meaning a solemn contract, oath, or bond, is the customary word used to translate the Hebrew word berith (ברית, Tiberian Hebrew bÉ™rîṯ, Standard Hebrew bÉ™rit) as it is used in the Hebrew Bible, thus it is important to all Abrahamic religions. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Book of Acts, Chapter 15 Council of Jerusalem is a title applied in retrospect to an unnamed meeting described in Acts of the Apostles chapter . ...


In response to a report that, while some came hungry to the celebration of the Lord's Supper, others were drunk (1 Corinthians 11:21), Saint Paul reminded the Corinthian Christians of Jesus' words at the Last Supper and concluded from that: "Whoever, therefore, eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of profaning the body and blood of the Lord" (1 Corinthians 11:27). Paul of Tarsus (b. ...


In general, Orthodox, Catholic and other Christians who believe that the reality in the Eucharist is that of the body and blood of Christ consider it unnecessary to "prove" from texts of Scripture a belief that they see as held by Christians from earliest times. They point out that the Church and its teaching existed before any part of the New Testament was written, so that the teaching of the apostles was transmitted not only in writing but also orally.[14] They see nothing in Scripture that contradicts the traditional belief that the reality beneath the visible signs in the Eucharist is the body and blood of Christ, but instead see passages that support it.


On the other hand, Christians who reject the doctrine of transubstantiation postulate that the only doctrines that need to be held are those expressed in the Bible. Some believe that anything not thus expressed is a false accretion. They hold that there is a lack of scriptural support for the belief that the bread and wine are in reality changed into the body and blood of Christ, and that many Bible passages, as well as what they see as the central message of the gospel of Christ, contradict belief in such a doctrine. For them, any claims of a handed-down tradition are not enough to substantiate belief in a doctrine that they see as heretical, especially when inspired Scripture documents strange doctrines infiltrating the Church even while the apostles were still living, and having to be defended against by the "elders of the church". [15]


Historical development

The short document known as the Didache, which may be the earliest Church document outside of the New Testament to speak of the Eucharist, neither confirms nor denies the Real Presence and transubstantiation.[16] The Didache (, Koine Greek for Teaching[1]) is the common name of a brief early Christian treatise ( 70–160), containing instructions for Christian communities. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...


A letter by Saint Ignatius of Antioch is an example of a Church authority (a bishop) defending[17] belief in the Eucharist as the body and blood of Christ against the Gnostics, who asserted that Christ was a spiritual being who never had a physical body or physical blood. In his letter to the Christians of Smyrna, he warned them to "stand aloof from such heretics", because, among other reasons, "they abstain from the Eucharist and from prayer, because they confess not the Eucharist to be the flesh of our Saviour Jesus Christ, which suffered for our sins, and which the Father, of His goodness, raised up again."[18] This letter was written in about 106. Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus)(c. ...


In about 150, Justin Martyr wrote of the Eucharist: "Not as common bread and common drink do we receive these; but in like manner as Jesus Christ our Saviour, having been made flesh by the Word of God, had both flesh and blood for our salvation, so likewise have we been taught that the food which is blessed by the prayer of His word, and from which our blood and flesh by transmutation are nourished, is the flesh and blood of that Jesus who was made flesh."[19] Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ...


Other early documents mixed references to the body and blood of the Lord's supper with vocabulary denoting symbolism. Eusebius of Caesarea (died c. 339 AD) on the one hand declares: "We are continually fed with the Savior's body, we continually participate in the lamb's blood", but on the other states that Christians daily commemorate Jesus' sacrifice "with the symbols of his body and saving blood", and that he instructed his disciples to make "the image of his own body", and to use bread as its symbol. The Apostolic Constitutions (compiled c. 380 AD) uses words such as "antitypes"[20] and "symbols" to describe the elements, though it speaks of the Eucharist as the body of Christ and the blood of Christ. Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ... The Apostolic Constitutions is a late 4th century collection, in 8 books, of independent, though closely related, treatises on Early Christian discipline, worship, and doctrine, intended to serve as a manual of guidance for the clergy, and to some extent for the laity. ...


Those who believe that the Eucharist is in reality the body and blood of Christ point out that none of the early writers who thus speak of the symbolism of the signs of bread and wine deny that the reality is that of the body and blood of Christ, but on the contrary often expressly affirm it. Roman Catholics, in particular, see what is thus said about the Eucharistic signs as expressions of the traditional Catholic teaching that not only the reality signified but also the sign itself are essential aspects of the Eucharist: both must be upheld, for if either were lacking, the Eucharist would not be a sacrament, namely a sign, an efficacious sign.[21]


On the other hand, those who deny that the Eucharist is the literal body and blood of Christ, accompanied by his soul and divinity, interpret these mentions of symbolism, significations, and antitypes[22] as evidence that many early writers believed that the elements in the Lord's supper were only symbols or signs, and that the statements made about the Eucharist as "the flesh of our Saviour Jesus Christ, which suffered for our sins" must be metaphorical. They therefore say that most early Church documents do not assert the doctrine of "real presence" but show that such a view was very uncommon in the second century. They hold that the doctrine slowly crept in over many centuries.


A case related to the tendency to interpret mentions of symbolism and signification as denials of the reality in the Eucharist concerns what Ambrose of Milan (d. 397) wrote: For other uses, see Ambrose (disambiguation). ...

Perhaps you will say, "I see something else, how is it that you assert that I receive the Body of Christ?" ... Let us prove that this is not what nature made, but what the blessing consecrated, and the power of blessing is greater than that of nature, because by blessing nature itself is changed. ... We observe, then, that grace has more power than nature, and yet so far we have only spoken of the grace of a prophet's blessing. But if the blessing of man had such power as to change nature, what are we to say of that divine consecration where the very words of the Lord and Saviour operate? For that sacrament which you receive is made what it is by the word of Christ. But if the word of Elijah had such power as to bring down fire from heaven, shall not the word of Christ have power to change the nature of the elements? You read concerning the making of the whole world: "He spoke and they were made, He commanded and they were created." Shall not the word of Christ, which was able to make out of nothing that which was not, be able to change things which already are into what they were not? For it is not less to give a new nature to things than to change them. But why make use of arguments? Let us use the examples He gives, and by the example of the Incarnation prove the truth of the mystery. Did the course of nature proceed as usual when the Lord Jesus was born of Mary? If we look to the usual course, a woman ordinarily conceives after connection with a man. And this body which we make is that which was born of the Virgin. Why do you seek the order of nature in the Body of Christ, seeing that the Lord Jesus Himself was born of a Virgin, not according to nature? It is the true Flesh of Christ which crucified and buried, this is then truly the Sacrament of His Body. The Lord Jesus Himself proclaims: "This is My Body." Before the blessing of the heavenly words another nature is spoken of, after the consecration the Body is signified. He Himself speaks of His Blood. Before the consecration it has another name, after it is called Blood. And you say, Amen, that is, It is true. Let the heart within confess what the mouth utters, let the soul feel what the voice speaks."[23]

Those who do not believe that the Eucharist is the body and blood of Christ in a real, rather than symbolic, sense interpret Ambrose's phrase "the Body is signified" (the Latin word "significatur" would be better translated as "is meant")[24] as evidence that in the 4th century the doctrine of "real presence" as held by all the ancient Christian Churches of East and West was not yet fully developed. Yet Ambrose explicitly says that "this body which we make is that which was born of the Virgin", that in the Eucharist "nature itself is changed", that "the word of Christ that was able to make out of nothing that which was not" must obviously "be able to change things which already are into what they were not". Thus, even if it were true that, with the phrase in question, Ambrose was speaking only about the sign, he did not thereby deny that the reality in the Eucharist is the body and blood of Christ: instead he strongly affirmed it, and even explicitly spoke of the word of Christ, repeated at the "consecration", as having "power to change the nature of the elements", which is precisely what is meant by transubstantiation.


The earliest known use of the term "transubstantiation" to describe the change from bread and wine to body and blood of Christ was by Hildebert de Lavardin, Archbishop of Tours (died 1133) in about 1079,[25] long before the Latin West, under the influence especially of Saint Thomas Aquinas (c. 1227-1274), accepted Aristotelianism. (The University of Paris was founded only between 1150 and 1170.) Hildebert, Hydalbert, Gildebert or Aldebert, sometimes styled Hildebert of Tours (c. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ...


In 1215, the Fourth Lateran Council used the word transubstantiated in its profession of faith, when speaking of the change that takes place in the Eucharist. The Fourth Council of the Lateran was summoned by Pope Innocent III with his Bull of April 19, 1213. ...


In 1551 the Council of Trent officially defined that "by the consecration of the bread and wine there takes place a change of the whole substance of the bread into the substance of the body of Christ our Lord and of the whole substance of the wine into the substance of his blood. This change the holy Catholic Church has fittingly and properly called transubstantiation" (Session XIII, chapter IV; cf. canon II). The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


By the time of the Protestant Reformation, the doctrine of transubstantiation became a source of extreme controversy. Martin Luther believed that the body and blood of Christ are really present in the bread and wine of the sacrament (a view often called consubstantiation by non-Lutherans), by 1525 Huldrych Zwingli taught that the sacrament is purely symbolic and memorial in character. Later, in the five-year reign (1553-1558) of Mary I of England, rejection of the doctrine of transubstantiation was considered proof of heresy, and many, including John Frith, John Rogers (Protestant minister), and Rowland Taylor refused, even under pain of torture and death, to accept it, as recounted in sources such as Foxe's Book of Martyrs. Her successor Elizabeth declared that: "Transubstantiation (or the change of the substance of Bread and Wine) in the Supper of the Lord, cannot be proved by holy Writ; but is repugnant to the plain words of Scripture, overthroweth the nature of a Sacrament, and hath given occasion to many superstitions";[26] and made assistance at Mass illegal.[27] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Consubstantiation is a theory which (like the competing theory of transubstantiation, with which it is often contrasted) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in terms of philosophical metaphysics. ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli or Ulricus Zuinglius (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... John Frith (1503–July 4, 1533) was an English Protestant priest, writer, and martyr. ... John Rogers (c. ... Rowland Taylor (October 6, 1510 - February 9, 1555) was an English Protestant martyr of the Tudor period. ... William Tyndale, just before being burnt at the stake, cries out Lord, ope the King of Englands eies in this woodcut from an early edition of Foxes Book of Martyrs. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... A Medieval Low Mass by a bishop. ...


Many Protestants believe that the early Church founded by Christ knew nothing of the doctrine of transubstantiation (referring, of course, to the content of the doctrine, not to the word itself, which all agree was unknown) and that this doctrine is a distortion that slowly evolved over time.


Views of other Churches on transubstantiation

Eastern Christianity

The Eastern Catholic, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Orthodox Churches, along with the Assyrian Church of the East, agree that the bread and wine truly and actually become the body and blood of Christ. They have in general refrained from philosophical speculation, and usually rely on the status of the doctrine as a "mystery," something known by divine revelation that could not have been arrived at by reason without revelation. Accordingly, they prefer to say too little about the details and remain firmly within Holy Tradition, than to say too much and possibly deviate from the truth. However, they do speak clearly of a "change" (in Greek μεταβολή) or "metousiosis" (μετουσίωσις) of the bread and wine. Met-ousi-osis is the Greek form of the word Tran-substantia-tion. The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope in Rome. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Eastern Orthodox Church... The Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ ܘܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ) under His Holiness Mar Dinkha IV is a Christian church that traces its origins to the See of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle as well as Saint Mari and Addai as evidenced in the... Metousiosis is a Greek mystical term that literally means a great change of essence. ...


Anglicanism

During the reign of Henry VIII, the official teaching of the Anglican Church was identical with the Roman Catholic Church's doctrine, in defence of which the king wrote a book for which the Pope rewarded him with the title of Defender of the Faith. Under his son, Edward VI, the Anglican Church accepted a more Protestant theology, and directly opposed transubstantiation. Elizabeth I, as part of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, gave royal assent to the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion, which sought to distinguish Anglican from Roman Church doctrine. The Articles, declared: "Transubstantiation (or the change of the substance of Bread and Wine) in the Supper of the Lord, cannot be proved by holy Writ; but is repugnant to the plain words of Scripture, overthroweth the nature of a Sacrament, and hath given occasion to many superstitions." Henry VIII (28 June 1491 - 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) became King of England, King of France (in practice only the town and surrounding district of Calais) and Ireland on 28 January 1547, and crowned on 20 February, at just nine years of age. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... The Elizabethan Religious Settlement was Elizabeth I’s response to the religious divisions created over the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and Mary I.This response was set out in two acts of parliament. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ...


Anglicans generally consider no teaching binding that, according to the Articles, "cannot be found in Holy Scripture or proved thereby." Consequently, some Anglicans (especially Anglo-Catholics and High Church Anglicans) accept Transubstantiation, while others do not. In any case, the Articles are not considered binding on any but Church of England clergy, especially for Anglican Churches other than the Church of England. While Archbishop John Tillotson decried the "real barbarousness of this Sacrament and Rite of our Religion", considering it a great impiety to believe that people who attend Holy Communion "verily eat and drink the natural flesh and blood of Christ. And what can any man do more unworthily towards a Friend? How can he possibly use him more barbarously, than to feast upon his living flesh and blood?" (Discourse against Transubstantiation, London 1684, 35), official writings of the Churches of the Anglican Communion have consistently upheld belief in the Real Presence. Some recent Anglican writers explicitly accept the doctrine of transubstantiation, or, while avoiding the term "transubstantiation", speak of an "objective presence" of Christ in the Eucharist. On the other hand, others hold views, such as consubstantiation or "pneumatic presence", close to those of Reformed Protestant Churches. The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Catholic tradition. ... High Church relates to ecclesiology and liturgy in Christian theology and practice. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... John Tillotson (October 1630 - November 22, 1694) was an Archbishop of Canterbury (1691 - 1694). ... Impiety is a lack of proper concern for the obligations owed to cult in its proper sense. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Consubstantiation is a theory which (like the competing theory of transubstantiation, with which it is often contrasted) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in terms of philosophical metaphysics. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms...


Theological dialogue with the Roman Catholic Church has produced common documents that speak of "substantial agreement" about the doctrine of the Eucharist: the ARCIC Windsor Statement of 1971,[28] and its 1979 Elucidation.[29] Remaining arguments can be found in the Church of England's pastoral letter: The Eucharist: Sacrament of Unity.[30]


Lutheranism

Lutherans believe that within the Eucharistic celebration the body and blood of Jesus Christ are objectively present "in, with, and under the forms" of bread and wine (cf. Book of Concord). They place great stress on Jesus' instructions to "take and eat", and "take and drink", holding that this is the proper, divinely ordained use of the sacrament, and, while giving it due reverence, scrupulously avoid any actions that might indicate or lead to superstition or unworthy fear of the sacrament. However, Luther explicitly rejected transubstantiation, believing that the bread and wine remained fully bread and fully wine while also being fully the body and blood of Jesus Christ. Luther instead emphasized the sacramental union (not exactly the consubstantiation, as it is often claimed). The Book of Concord or Concordia is a compilation of the major theological documents of early Lutheranism. ... Sacramental Union (Latin, unio sacramentalis; German, sacramentlich Einigkeit) is the Lutheran theological view of the Real Presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Christian Eucharist. ... Consubstantiation is a theory which (like the competing theory of transubstantiation, with which it is often contrasted) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in terms of philosophical metaphysics. ...


Other Protestants

Many Protestant denominations believe that the Lord's supper is a symbolic act done in remembrance of what Christ has done for us on the cross. He commanded the apostles: "This do in remembrance of me", after "he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, saying, This is my body which is given for you" (Luke 22:19, 1 Corinthians 11:24). Therefore they see it as a symbolic act done in remembrance and as a declaration (1 Corinthians 11:26) of faith in what they consider Christ's finished (John 19:30) work on the cross. They reject the idea that a priest can transform bread and wine into the actual body and blood, soul, and presence of God incarnate in Jesus Christ, and a few see the doctrine as a problem because of its connection with practices such as Eucharistic adoration, which they believe may be idolatry, worshipping, praying to, and kneeling before mere bread and wine, as if it were God.[31] They base their criticism of the doctrine of the Real Presence on a number of verses including the second commandment as stated in Exodus 20:4-5, and on their interpretation of central message of the gospel. They see a lack of support for the "Real Presence" in scripture e.g. Jesus said "This is my body", but did NOT say "this is me", "this is my soul", or "this is my presence" and scripture does not say "the bread was transformed" or "changed" in any way. Therefore they consider the doctrine of transubstantiation to be unbiblical from more than one approach. For other uses, see Twelve Apostles (disambiguation). ... Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ...


A few Protestants apply to the doctrine of the Real Presence the warning that Jesus gave to His disciples in Matthew 24:26: "Wherefore if they shall say unto you, Behold, he is in the desert; go not forth: behold, he is in the secret chambers; believe it not", believing that "secret chambers" (also translated as "inner rooms", "a secret place", "indoors in the room") may refer to the church buildings or church tabernacles in which consecrated hosts are stored. They thus do not believe the words of those who say that Jesus Christ (in host form) resides inside churches or in church tabernacles. They believe that Christ's words at the Last Supper were meant to be taken metaphorically and believe that support for a metaphorical interpretation comes from Christ's other teachings that utilized food in general (John 4:32-34), bread (John 6:35), and leaven (Matthew 16:6-12), as metaphors. They believe that when Christ returns in any substance with any physical[32] form (accidental or actual), it will be apparent to all and that no man will have to point and say "there He is". The Tabernacle at St. ...


Protestant Churches that hold strong beliefs against the consumption of alcohol replace wine with grape juice during the Lord's supper. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (also referred to as Mormons), a Restorationist sect, uses bread and water to commemoratively symbolize Christ's body and blood. The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other usages, see... In Mormonism, the Sacrament is the Lords Supper, in which participants eat bread and drink wine (or water, in the case of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints since the late 1800s). ...


Others, such as some Presbyterian denominations, profess belief in the Real Presence, but offer explanations other than transubstantiation. Classical Presbyterianism held the Calvinist view of "pneumatic" presence or "spiritual feeding." However, when the Presbyterian Church (USA) signed "A Formula for Agreement" with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, both affirmed belief in the Real Presence. Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Emblem of the PC(USA) The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) or PC(USA) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


References

  1. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1376
  2. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1377; Christ’s Presence in the Eucharist: True, Real and Substantial
  3. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1413
  4. ^ Cannibalism; cf. Another Letter to an Agnostic
  5. ^ [http://history.hanover.edu/early/trent/ct13ce.htm Council of Trent, The Thirteenth Session}
  6. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1333-1336 is headed "The signs of bread and wine".
  7. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1131
  8. ^ Major Branches of Religions Ranked by Number of Adherents
  9. ^ Transubstantiation and the Black Rubric; and see Anglican Eucharistic theology
  10. ^ Mark 14:22-24; Matthew 26:26-28; Luke 22:19-20
  11. ^ 1 Corinthians 11:23-25
  12. ^ Catholicism and Fundamentalism
  13. ^ Many Christians, though a minority among Christians as a whole Matthew 13-14, do not take this literally or as a reference to participation in the practice of Lord's supper and assert that if it were such, no one prior to the last supper could have received the gift of eternal life and that eternal life would then depend on the act of physically eating consecrated bread and wine. They believe that such interpretations not only contradict countless verses of scripture but also the gospel of Christ in general and the context of the passage from which this verse is taken. Instead of taking these words literally, they believe that Jesus often used eating as a metaphor for believing and foods such as leaven as metaphors for teachings or doctrines. According a metaphorical interpretation, requiring the eating of Christ's flesh would then be believing not just in a teaching or doctrine of His but believing in Him personally as Savior and Creator. In their view this interpretation fits with all of scripture including the Old Testament where individuals received salvation by grace through faith in God's promises concerning the messiah.
  14. ^ See, for instance, The Dogmatic Tradition of the Orthodox Church, Catechism of the Catholic Church, 74-82.
  15. ^ Acts 20:17-32
  16. ^ Eucharist from the Didache. The Didache speaks of the Eucharist as a "sacrifice": "On the Lord’s Day . . . gather together, break bread and offer the Eucharist, after confessing your transgressions so that your sacrifice may be pure" (14:1-3)
  17. ^ cf. Acts 20:17-32
  18. ^ Epistle to the Smyrnaeans, 7
  19. ^ First Apology, LXVI
  20. ^ In Christian typology, an "antitype" is the reality of which the Old Testament "types" were only images, foreshadowings or symbols (Types and Shadows).
  21. ^ In the part of the Catechism of the Catholic Church concerning the Eucharist, one section is headed "The signs of bread and wine" (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1333-1336).
  22. ^ A word that refers to the reality that a symbol or sign points to.
  23. ^ On the Mysteries, 50-54
  24. ^ The Lewis and Short Latin Dictionary gives "declaro" as a synonym of "significo"
  25. ^ Sermones xciii; PL CLXXI, 776
  26. ^ Thirty-Nine Articles, article 28
  27. ^ The Literature of Persecution and Intolerance; James MacCaffrey, vol. 2; St. Margaret Clitherow
  28. ^ http://www.prounione.urbe.it/dia-int/arcic/doc/e_arcic_eucharist.html
  29. ^ http://www.prounione.urbe.it/dia-int/arcic/doc/e_arcic_elucid_euch.html
  30. ^ http://www.cofe.anglican.org/info/ccu/england/catholics/eucharist.pdf
  31. ^ Dr Samuel Johnson remarked: "Sir, there is no idolatry in the Mass. They believe GOD to be there, and they adore him" (Boswell's Life of Johnson, retrieved 11 May 2007.[1]
  32. ^ The Catholic teaching is that the presence of Christ in the Eucharist is not physical in the ordinary sense of this word; it can be called "physical" only in the sense of "real", as opposed to "symbolic", "figurative", "subjective", "dynamic". It is thus quite different from Christ's presence in his final coming. See Summa Theologica, III, 76; Christ’s Presence in the Eucharist: True, Real and Substantial; The Reality of the Real Presence.

Anglican Eucharistic theology is divergent in practice, reflecting the essential comprehensiveness of the tradition. ... The word typology literally means the study of types. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... In English literature, The Life of Samuel Johnson, L.L.D. was a biography of Dr. Samuel Johnson by James Boswell, published in 1791. ...

See also

Consubstantiation is a theory which (like the competing theory of transubstantiation, with which it is often contrasted) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in terms of philosophical metaphysics. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Ecclesial communities contrasted in relation to Eucharistic theology: // Orthodox Christianity the Eucharistic mystery bears an objective, Real Presence, par excellence. ... The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... Eucharistic adoration is a practice in the Roman Catholic and in Anglican Churches, in which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed to and adored by the faithful. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ...

Persons killed for believing in or disbelieving transubstantiation

St. ... John Frith (1503–July 4, 1533) was an English Protestant priest, writer, and martyr. ... John Rogers (c. ... Rowland Taylor (October 6, 1510 - February 9, 1555) was an English Protestant martyr of the Tudor period. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Transubstantiation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1401 words)
Transubstantiation (from Latin transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into that of the body and blood of Christ, the change that according to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church occurs in the Eucharist.
For this reason the consecrated elements are preserved, generally in a church tabernacle, for giving holy communion to the sick and dying, and also for the secondary, but still highly prized, purpose of adoring Christ present in the Eucharist.
The earliest known use of the term "transubstantiation" to describe the change from bread and wine to body and blood of Christ was by Hildebert de Savardin, Archbishop of Tours (died 1133) in about 1079, long before the Latin West, under the influence especially of Saint Thomas Aquinas (c.
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