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Encyclopedia > Transsexuality
Look up Transsexuality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Transsexualism or transsexuality is a condition in which a transsexual person self-identifies as a member of the gender opposite to the one assigned to them at birth. Transsexual people are stereotypically described as "women trapped in male bodies" or vice versa, although some members of the transsexual community, as well as some outside the community, reject this model. [1] Transsexualism manifests itself as an extremely agonous uncomfortability on one's biological birth gender and inability to live on its social role. at worst it becomes gender dysphoria, and as untreated can lead into serious mental and psychiatrical problems. Suicides are common amongst the untreated transsexuals. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary is a Wikimedia Foundation project intended to be a free wiki dictionary (hence: Wiktionary) (including thesaurus and lexicon) in every language. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Gender describes a classification using masculinity and femininity. ... Gender identity disorder as identified by psychologists and medical doctors is a condition where a person who has been assigned one gender (usually at birth on the basis of their sex, but compare intersexual) but identifies as belonging to another gender, or does not conform with the gender role their...


Most transsexual men and women desire to establish a permanent social role as a member of the gender with which they identify. Many transsexual people also desire various types of medical alterations (sex reassignment therapy) to their bodies. These physical alterations are collectively referred to as sex reassignment therapy and often include hormones and sex reassignment surgery. The entire process of switching from one physical and social gender presentation to the other is often referred to as transition, and usually takes several years. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Transsexuality. ... Transwomen or trans-women are transsexuals or as some prefer, transgenders who were assigned male sex at birth (or, in some cases of intersexuality, later), and feel that this is not an accurate or complete description of themselves and therefore identify as female or strive to fit in and live... A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ... Gender describes a classification using masculinity and femininity. ... Sex reassignment therapy is an umbrella term for all medical procedures regarding gender reassignment of both transgender and intersexual people. ... Sex reassignment therapy is an umbrella term for all medical procedures regarding gender reassignment of both transgender and intersexual people. ... Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for transgender and transsexual people replaces the hormones naturally occurring in their bodies with those of the other sex. ... Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) includes the surgical procedures by which a persons physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are changed to that of the other sex. ... Transitioning is the process of ceasing to live in one gender role and starting to live in another, undertaken by transgender and transsexual people. ...


To obtain sex reassignment therapy, transsexual people are usually required to receive psychological therapy and a diagnosis of gender identity disorder. They must also live as members of their target sex for a period of time, known as the Real-life test, prior to surgery, and meet other requirements specified by protocols known as Standards of Care. These requirements are intended to prevent individuals from transitioning and later regretting doing so; however, their effectiveness is questionable. By most estimates, less than 1% of transsexual people ever regret transitioning. Psychotherapy is a set of techniques intended to improve mental health, emotional or behavioral issues of individuals, family members or a whole familys interactional climate. ... Gender identity disorder, as identified by psychologists and medical doctors, is a condition with which a person who has been assigned one gender (usually at birth on the basis of their sex, but compare intersexual), but identifies as belonging to another gender, or does not conform with the gender role... In many countries or areas, an individuals pursuit of sexual reassignment surgery (SRS) is often governed, or at least guided, by documents called standards of care (SOC), or standards of care for gender identity disorders. ...


Currently, the causes of transsexualism are unknown, and estimates of prevalence vary substantially. The common consensus is, however, that transsexualism is a neurobiological condition which manifests itself as gender dysphoria.

Contents


Definitions

Transsexualism is a complex condition that is defined differently by different people. Many terms have been proposed through the years to describe transsexual people and the processes they go through. Some of these terms are controversial, among the transsexual community as well as society at large.


Defining transsexualism

The definition of "transsexual" is debated. Many within the trans community feel that a person is transsexual if they personally identify as such. However, some, especially health care providers and some transsexual people, believe there is a certain set of procedures that must always be completed for a person to be called "transsexual". The general public often defines "a transsexual" as someone who has had or plans to have "sex change" surgery, although this term is considered inaccurate by many people who believe that sex cannot really be changed. The term currently in widest use for modification of primary sex characteristics is sex reassignment surgery (SRS), a term which reflects the belief that transsexual people do not consider themselves to be changing their sex, but to be correcting their bodies. However, some feel that the term "sex change" is appropriate and that it stresses that transsexual people are not castrated members of their original sex. [2] Health care or healthcare is the prevention, treatment, and management of illness and the preservation of mental and physical well-being through the services offered by the medical, nursing, and allied health professions [1]. The organised provision of such services may constitute a healthcare system. ... A clownfish Sex change in animals Some species are known to change sex, including reproductive functions, in special circumstances, such as the clownfish. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) includes the surgical procedures by which a persons physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are changed to that of the other sex. ...


It is accepted in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders that expression of desire to be of the opposite sex, or assertion that one is of the sex opposite to the one with which they were identified at birth, constitutes being transsexual. [3] The ICD-10 also states that transsexualism is defined by "the desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex, usually accompanied by the wish to make his or her body as congruent as possible with the preferred sex through surgery and hormone treatment." In contrast, some transgender people often do not identify as being of or desiring to be the opposite sex, but as being of or wanting to be another gender. It has been suggested that DSM cautionary statement be merged into this article or section. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ... Transgender is an overarching term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at birth. ...


Transsexualism (also known as transsexuality) is one of a number of behaviours or states collectively referred to as transgender, which is generally considered an umbrella term for people who do not conform to typical gender roles. However, some in the transsexual community do not identify as transgender, or see transsexualism not as a sub-division of transgender. Often, those people complain that non-transsexual transgender people are somehow "degrading" transsexual people by first describing them as "just tranvestites" (this refers to the assumption, that gender variant people can neatly be divided into "transsexuals" and "transvestites") or "perverts" or similar, and then claiming that this is not what transsexual people are. This is usually accompanied by demanding that medical treatment and legal change of name and legal gender should be reserved only for transsexual people. Some also see the term 'transgender' as subsuming and erasing their identity, rejecting it for themselves because to them it implies a breaking down of gender roles, when in fact they see themselves as fitting a gender role -- just not the one they were assigned at birth. Those contesting this view point out that the idea of a more inclusive "Gender identity disorder" has long replaced the idea of dividing gender variant people into "transsexuals" and "transvestites", that classifying transsexualism as a sub-division of transgender does not automatically erase any transsexual identity, that not all transgender people wish to break down gender barriers, and that any marginalized group trying to gain acceptance of those opposed to them by trying to oppress another group has not only never been successful, it is also ethically questionable according to certian individuals and faiths. Transgender is an overarching term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at birth. ... A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ... Gender identity disorder, as identified by psychologists and medical doctors, is a condition with which a person who has been assigned one gender (usually at birth on the basis of their sex, but compare intersexual), but identifies as belonging to another gender, or does not conform with the gender role... This article deals with the history of the word transvestite. For information about cross-dressing, see there. ... A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ...


Transsexualism should not be confused with cross dressing or with the behaviour of drag queens, which can be described as transgender, but usually not transsexual. Also, transvestic fetishism usually has little, if anything, to do with transsexualism. This articles is about cross-dressing in general, that is the act of wearing the clothing of another gender for any reason. ... Drag queens Luc DArcy and Jerry Cyr and friend at Montreals 2003 Divers/Cité pride parade. ... Also, not every sexual behaviour where clothes of the other gender are involved are transvestic fetishism, they are also often used in sexual roleplay without being a fetish. ...


Gender terminology for transsexual people

Transsexual people are usually referred to by the gender pronouns and terms associated with their target gender. For example, a transsexual man is a person who was identified as female at birth on the basis of his genitals, but who identifies as a man and is transitioning or has transitioned to a male gender role and has or will have a masculine body. Transsexual people are sometimes referred to with "assigned-to-target" gender terms such as "female-to-male" for a transsexual man or "male-to-female" for a transsexual woman. These terms may be abbreviated as "M2F", "F2M", "MTF", "F to M", etc. These terms help to prevent confusion, as some people are oblivious as to whether a "transsexual woman" is a female transitioning to become a male or a male transitioning to become a female. Transsexual men and women are also sometimes referred to as transmen and transwomen. A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in a complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Transsexuality. ... Transwomen or trans-women are transsexuals or as some prefer, transgenders who were assigned male sex at birth (or, in some cases of intersexuality, later), and feel that this is not an accurate or complete description of themselves and therefore identify as female or strive to fit in and live...


Transsexual people are often construed as belonging to the LGBT community, and many identify with the community; others do not, or prefer not to use the terms. It should be noted that transsexualism is not associated with or dependent on sexual orientation. Transsexual men and women exhibit a range of sexual orientations just as non-transsexual (cissexual) people do. They almost always use terms for their sexual orientation that relate to their target gender. For example, someone assigned to the male gender at birth but who identifies as a woman, and who is attracted solely to men, will identify as heterosexual, not gay; likewise, someone who was assigned female sex at birth, identifies as a man, and prefers male partners will identify as gay, not heterosexual. Transsexual people, like other people, can be bisexual or asexual as well. LGBT (or GLBT) is an abbreviation used as a collective term to refer to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ... Sexual orientation describes the direction of an individuals sexuality, often in relation to their own sex or gender. ... Cisgender (IPA: , from Latin cis and gender) is a concept in queer studies that labels persons who are not transgender as something other than simply normal. That is, it provides a name for a gender identity or performance in a gender role that society considers to match or be appropriate... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In modern society, gay is a word which can be used as either a noun or adjective. ... Bisexual redirects here. ... This article is about human asexuality; asexual reproduction is a separate topic. ...


Older medical texts often referred to transpeople as members of their original sex; in other words referring to a male-to-female transsexual as a "male transsexual". They also described sexual orientation in relation to the person's assigned sex, not their gender of identity; in other words, referring to a male-to-female transsexual who is attracted to men as a "homosexual male transsexual." This dwindling usage is considered by many to be scientifically inaccurate and clinically insensitive today, and such a person would now be called and most likely identify herself as a heterosexual transwoman. Some medical textbooks still refer to transsexual people as members of their assigned sex, but many now use "assigned-to-target" terms. Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... Heterosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love or sexual desire exclusively for members of the opposite sex or gender, contrasted with homosexuality and distinguished from bisexuality and asexuality. ...


A number of people outside the transsexual community still refer to transsexual people with terms associated with their birth sex (for example calling a male-to-female transsexual "him"). This usage, generally considered insensitive, has been (though not exclusively) based on biological arguments such as the unchanged karyotype, which is usually consistent with the sex assigned to the person at birth, or the absence of reproductive capability after transition and sex reassignment surgery. Arguments for this usage have also been based on religious dogma. Conservative groups such as the Traditional Values Coalition are among those to refer to transsexual people as members of their original sex. Karyogram of human male A karyotype is the complete set of all chromosomes of a cell of any living organism. ... Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas) is belief or doctrine held by a religion, ideology or any kind of organization to be authoritative and not to be disputed or doubted. ... The Traditional Values Coalition is a Christian Right organization that claims to represent 43,000 conservative Christian churches throughout the United States of America. ...


Alternative terminology

Among the transsexual community, the short form trans is sometimes used, e.g. TS, trans guy, trans dyke, T-folk, trans folk. Some use the controversial terms tranny and/or trans, though others consider these terms to be offensive. Those who use these terms claim that they are diminishing the power of the term as an insult. Others feel that the terms are insulting or inaccurate regardless of the context.


Some people prefer to spell transexual with one s, in an attempt to divorce the word from the realm of psychiatry and medicine and place it in the realm of identity, but this trend is most common in the United States and, for example, is almost never used in the United Kingdom. [4] Some consider this usage to be silly and/or incorrect.


Some prefer the term transsexed over transsexual, as they believe the term sexual found in transsexual is misleading and implies that transsexualism is a sexual orientation. Another justification made for this preference is that they feel it is more in line with the term intersex, as more transsexual groups are welcoming them because they feel both groups have much in common. It is, by some definitions, possible to be both intersexed and transsexed. Other attempts to avoid the misleading -sexual have been the increasing acceptance of transgender or trans* and in some areas, transidentity. An intersexual is a person (or individual of any unisexual species) who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ...


Many transsexual also prefer transgendered over transsexual, because the issue is about gender rather than sexuality. They make a parallel with intergender, whose issue is about being inter (in-between) the genders. It is often assumed, particularly by transsexual people, that transsexualism is simply a subset of intersex. "Intersex" previously referred only to those who are genitally intersexed, i.e., with genitals that don't look classically male or female (in spite of the fact that human genitals show an extremely wide variation in general). However, since sex in humans is composed of many different attributes, such as genes, chromosomes, regulatory proteins, hormones, hormone receptors, body morphology, brain sex, and gender identity, any variation among any of those attributes falls under the rubric of "intersex." Transsexualism, in this view, simply becomes neurological intersexuality. (See below for research of physiological causes of transsexualism). An intersexual is a person (or individual of any unisexual species) who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... This article is about the biological chromosome. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ... A hormone receptor is a receptor protein on the surface of a cell that binds to a specific hormone. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ...


Some people feel that both 'trans' and 'sexual', are misleading. A large variety of other terms exist, though almost all of them are somewhat controversial.


Some people also refer to transsexualism as Harry Benjamin's Syndrome, or simply Benjamin's Syndrome, named for Harry Benjamin, a pioneer in the field of sex reassignment. They feel that this term is more medically accurate than transsexualism or gender identity disorder, to describe what they believe to be an intersex condition. [5] Benjamins Syndrome has been proposed as a name for what is now known formally as Gender Identity Disorder and informally as Gender Dysphoria, Transsexualism, Transsexuality, and by other terms. ... Harry Benjamin (1885-1986) was a German-born sexologist[1]. He is best known for his pioneering work with transsexualism. ... Gender identity disorder, as identified by psychologists and medical doctors, is a condition with which a person who has been assigned one gender (usually at birth on the basis of their sex, but compare intersexual), but identifies as belonging to another gender, or does not conform with the gender role...


Prevalence

There are no reliable statistics on the prevalence of transsexualism. According to the DSM-IV, statistics from smaller European countries have suggested that roughly 1 in 30,000 physical males and 1 in 100,000 physical females seek sex reassignment surgery. [6]. However, it is commonly suggested that many transsexual people do not seek SRS and therefore are not reflected in the statistics. The DSM itself states that no recent epidemiological studies on transsexualism are available. Lynn Conway has suggested that transsexualism is much more prevalent, that 1 in 2500 physical males in the United States has undergone SRS since the 1960s, and that perhaps 1 in 500 individuals experiences gender dysphoria. [7]. The Dutch estimates (Cohen-Kettenis et al, 1988) suggest that the frequency is 1 in 12,000 and is equally common amongst physical males and females, though females seek treatment less often. Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) includes the surgical procedures by which a persons physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are changed to that of the other sex. ... Lynn Conway is a U.S. computer scientist and inventor. ...


Causes of transsexualism

There is no scientifically proven cause of transsexualism. However, in recent years, many theories have been presented which suggest that the cause of transsexualism has its roots in biology. Because of this, the medical profession has slowly come to view transsexualism as a physical issue, rather than a psychological one. However, at this time (2006), physiological causes of transsexualism have not yet been proven.


Proposed psychological causes

Many psychological causes for transsexualism have been proposed; including "overbearing mothers and absent fathers", "parents who wanted a child of the other sex", "repressed homosexuality", "emotional disturbance", "sexual abuse", or a variety of sexual "perversions". (Compare autogynephilia.) Psychology (Gk: psyche, soul or mind + logos, speech) is an academic and applied field involving the study of the mind, brain, and behavior, both human and nonhuman. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Perversion is a term and concept describing those types of human behavior that are perceived to be a deviation from what is considered orthodox or normal. ... Look up autogynephilia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Autogynephilia (from Greek auto (self), gyno (woman) and philia (love) — love of oneself as a woman) is a behavioral model proposed in 1989 by Ray Blanchard, who defines it as a mans paraphilic tendency to be sexually aroused by the thought...


None of these theories, however, could be applied successfully to a majority of transsexual people, and often not even to a significant minority. Many theories developed to describe transsexual women were even less useful when applied to transmen. One such example was Ray Blanchard's theory that all transwomen could be divided into the categories of "autogynephilic" and "homosexual". Many psychological theories had also been applied to homosexual people, also usually without success. This led to theories which considered physical reasons for transsexualism. Ray Blanchard is a Canadian sexologist who is in charge of the gender program at the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry in Toronto, Canada. ... Look up autogynephilia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Autogynephilia (from Greek auto (self), gyno (woman) and philia (love) — love of oneself as a woman) is a behavioral model proposed in 1989 by Ray Blanchard, who defines it as a mans paraphilic tendency to be sexually aroused by the thought... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ...


Experience with individuals who were sexually reassigned at birth, in order to correct deformities such as those caused by accidental castration or intersex conditions, suggests strongly that one's mental gender identification is determined at birth - individuals born male but raised as female (or vice versa) often show the same symptoms of gender dysphoria as transsexual people. One notable example was David Reimer. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An intersexual is a person (or individual of any unisexual species) who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ... For David J. Reimer (politician), see list of candidates David Reimer (August 22, 1965 – May 5, 2004) was a Canadian man who was born as a normal boy, but was sexually reassigned and raised as a girl in an attempt to improve his life after his penis was inadvertently destroyed...


"Curing" transsexualism

Psychological treatments aimed at curing transsexualism are historically known to be unsuccessful. In 1972, the American Medical Association Committee on Human Sexuality published the medical opinion that psychotherapy was generally ineffectual for transsexual adults and that sex reassignment therapy was more useful. (Human Sexuality; The American Medical Association Committee on Human Sexuality; Chicago; 1972.) A number of other treatments have been tested on transsexual people, including aversion therapy, psychoactive medications, electroconvulsive therapy, hormone treatments consistent with the patient's birth sex, and hypnosis. These treatments have also been shown to be ineffective. The American Medical Association (AMA) is the largest association of medical doctors in the United States. ... Sex reassignment therapy is an umbrella term for all medical procedures regarding gender reassignment of both transgender and intersexual people. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Hypnotic Seance, by Richard Bergh Hypnosis is understood to be a psychological condition in which an individual may be induced to show apparent differences in behavior and thinking. ...


Reparative therapy, which is usually aimed at gay or lesbian people, has also been applied to transsexual and transgender people. The Kinsey scale once expressed a view of transsexualism as an extreme form of homosexuality; the scientific community now rejects this part of Kinsey's theory. [citation needed] Reparative therapy is generally ineffective for transsexual and transgender people as well as gay and lesbian people. [8] Even though many major medical and psychological associations have condemned reparative therapy as not only ineffective, but actually harmful [9], it continues to be advocated as a treatment for both homosexual and transsexual people by various organizations in the Western World, often with ties to the conservative Christian movement or other conservative religious movements. Reparative therapy, or conversion, reorientation or differentiation therapy, is any of several techniques that are aimed at changing a persons sexual orientation from homosexuality to heterosexuality (or ex-gay). ... In modern society, gay is a word which can be used as either a noun or adjective. ... A lesbian is a female who is aesthetically, sexually, romantically and/or emotionally attracted to other females. ... The Kinsey scale attempts to measure an individuals sexual orientation, from 0 (exclusively heterosexual) to 6 (exclusively homosexual), in terms of the biological sex of their former sexual partners. ... The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... The term Religious Right is a broad label applied by both scholars and critics to a number of political and religious movements and groups that primarily are active around conservative and right wing social issues. ...


However, for certain transsexual persons, therapies aimed at resolving gender conflicts, other than somatic treatments to reassign physical sex, may be effective and useful. Some people may have milder conflicts between their gender identity and physical sexual characteristics. These individuals may not wish to pursue sex reassignment therapy, but may seek care to help deal with the conflicts they face. If individuals express this desire for psychological care without SRS, supportive and psychoeducational counseling may be helpful. Additionally, some transsexual people, who may have a significant lifelong conflict between gender identity and their sexed-body may present for care without requesting SRS. Their reasons for forgoing transition and/or SRS may include family or professional concerns, perceptions of difficulty of transition, fear of loss of social standing or role, religious beliefs, real or perceived inability to finance transition, and advanced age or chronic medical problems, which may, in some cases, be considered medical contraindications to hormone therapy and/or sex reassignment surgery. Regardless of their reasoning, if their decision is consistent, it should be respected. [citation needed] These individuals often seek alternative methods with which they can improve their functional status, promote acceptance of their gender identity as valid, and ameliorate mood symptoms caused by gender conflict, through psychotherapy, and sometimes with medications. Additionally, these individuals sometimes benefit from partial somatic treatment. Low dose hormonal therapy, validation of patients desire to dress and live partially in the gender role appropriate to their gender, and even simply allowing the person a safe outlet to express themselves as a male or female can provide a great deal of comfort to patients who, for any reason, choose not to fully transition. [citation needed] Such therapies may also benefit people who manifest transsexual-like symptoms but who are not diagnosable as "genuine" transsexual people. Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) includes the surgical procedures by which a persons physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are changed to that of the other sex. ...


Physical causes

Many transsexual (and also many other transgender) people assume that there is a physical cause of their transsexualism, because they claim to have had the feeling of being a girl or a boy for as long as they can remember. Several studies have shown evidence that such a physical cause may exist.


One study by Zhou et. al [10] has been touted as strong evidence that transsexualism is based in structural and neurochemical similarities between the brains of transsexual people and brains typical of their gender identity; this study has been alleged to have numerous flaws. [citation needed] A second study by Kruijver, et al replicated the results of the first study and included controls to help eliminate many of the alleged flaws. [11]. Although transsexualism manifests itself as an anomaly in brain structure in which transsexual people have neuron density in the Central subdivision of the Bed Nucleus in Stria Terminalis (BSTc), a region of the hypothalamus, similar to members of their target gender, it is not known whether this is a cause, consequence, or manifestation of transsexualism. In the anatomy of mammals, the hypothalamus is a region of the brain located below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon and functioning to regulate certain metabolic processes and other autonomic activities. ...


Numerous animal studies have demonstrated that exposure to cross-sex hormones during development can reliably produce cross-sex behaviors in animals. In addition, twin studies have demonstrated a strong heritability for transsexualism. (Concordance for Gender Identity Among Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twin Pairs. Diamond, M and Hawk, S. American Psychological Association 2004 Annual Meeting. July 28 - August 1, 2004, Honolulu, Hawaii.) This research provides additional evidence that transsexualism may be caused by genetics and in utero hormonal environment. In Utero is the third and final studio album from the American grunge band, Nirvana. ...


A recent study from Germany provides additional evidence for a physical basis for transsexualism. The study found a correlation between digit ratio and male-to-female transsexualism. Male-to-female transsexual people were found to have a higher digit ratio than control males, but one that was comparable to control females. Because digit ratio is directly related to prenatal hormone exposure, this tends to support theories linking such to male-to-female transsexualism. (Schneider, Pickel & Stalla 2005) The digit ratio is the ratio of the lengths of different digits, fingers or toes, typically as measured from the bottom crease where the finger joins the hand to the tip of the finger. ...


There is also evidence from transsexual people born between the 1930s and 1970s that a powerful synthetic estrogen known as diethylstilbestrol (DES), which was routinely used at the time to prevent miscarriage and treat morning sickness, may have contributed to disrupting the hormonal balance within the womb. Evidence suggests that an unusually high percentage of physical males whose mothers were known to have taken this medication present as transgender or transsexual, either in childhood or in later life. [12] This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a drug, a synthetic estrogen that was developed to supplement a womans natural estrogen production. ... Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the natural or accidental termination of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or the fetus is incapable of surviving, generally defined at a gestation of prior to 20 weeks. ... Morning sickness, also called nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), or pregnancy sickness, affects between 50 and 95 percent of all pregnant women. ...


Due to incidents of birth defects and other side effects, the use of DES and other synthetic estrogen compounds has been largely abandoned or replaced with natural estrogens. [13] Today, with widespread use of certain plastics and other substances, there are likely to be many environmental pollutants which closely mimic the chemical structures of the withdrawn drugs. This suggests that prenatal environmental factors could also influence the development of this condition. A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ...


A 2005 study found that prenatal exposure to phthalates reduced the anogenital distance in males. [14] Shorter anogenital distances in males were found to be associated with smaller penises, cryptorchidism, and lower levels of aggressiveness. Although no transsexual patients were included in this study, it suggests that environmental pollutants can affect sexual development in physical males. R, R =CnH2n+1; n = 4-15 Phthalates, or phthalate esters, are a group of chemical compounds that are mainly used as plasticizers (substances added to plastics to increase their flexibility). ... The anogenital distance is a measure of feminisation measuring the distance between the anus and to the base of the penis. ... Cryptorchidism is a medical term referring to absence from the scrotum of one or both testes. ...


All of the studies suggesting physical causes of transsexualism have been criticized as being flawed due to methodological problems, erroneous conclusions, or both. Methodology is a meta-knowledge. ...


Objections against research of causes

Many scholars of gender theory, professionals who work with transsexual people, and transsexual and transgender people themselves, contest the very rationale of searching for a cause of transsexualism. An assumption behind this quest for causes is that gender dimorphism (the idea that there are only two discrete, well defined and dichotomous genders) is an established fact. The critics cite, among other things, historiographic and anthropological findings pointing to the fact that different cultures had diverse concepts of gender, some of them including three or more genders (see berdache, hijra, and xanith for examples). Historically speaking though, the "binary" gender model has been most prevalent, and the "third" gender has been, more or less, a "curiosity", or its members have formed an underclass. Gender studies is a theoretical work in the social sciences or humanities that focuses on issues of sex and gender in language and society, and often addresses related issues including racial and ethnic oppression, postcolonial societies, and globalization. ... Berdache (from French, from Arabic bardajo meaning kept boy) is a generic term used by some for a third gender (woman-living-man) among many, if not most, Native American tribes. ... Hijra may refer to: Hijra (Hegira/Hijrah/Hejira) is an Arabic term referring to the migration of the Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622. ... Xanith, also written as khanith is a vernacular Arabic term for both mukhannath and khuntha. Mukhannath refers to individuals with a gender identity that is discordant with their visible sexual organs. ... A social class is, at its most basic, a group of people that have similar social status. ...


One argument against the search for a cause of transsexualism is that it assumes a priori the legitimacy of normative gender identity, i.e. gender identity congruent with the external genitalia. This, affirm the critics, is an unproven contention. Historical research shows that the relation between genitals and gender identity changes across cultures. Assuming a priori that variant gender identity is anomalous (and therefore that its causes should be investigated) distorts science's view of gender and contributes to the stigmatization of gender non-conformists. In positivist philosophy, normative is contrasted with its antonym, positive, when describing types of theories, beliefs, or statements. ...


Additionally, many people do not consider transsexualism to be a disease or disorder. [15] It should also be noted that the search for a physiological cause of transsexualism is similar to the search for a physiological cause of homosexuality. Many consider such research to be irrelevant, because they feel that, even if such a cause were established, it would not promote social acceptance of transsexual people, which is, for most transsexual people, the primary reason behind this quest for a physiological cause of their condition. The Finnish organization for the trans- and intergendered, Trasek, suggested the term condition requiring medical intervention, similar to childbirth. A disease is an abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person afflicted or those in contact with the person. ... Disorder may refer to : A disease, in medicine Randomness (lack of order), in information theory This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Childbirth (also called labo(u)r, birth, partus or parturition) is the culmination of a human pregnancy with the emergence of a newborn infant from its mothers uterus. ...


Sex reassignment therapy

Most transsexual men and women suffer from psychological and emotional pain due to the conflict between their gender identity and their original gender role and anatomy. They often find that their only recourse is to change their gender role and undergo sex reassignment therapy. This may include hormone therapy to modify their secondary sex characteristics and/or sex reassignment surgery to alter their primary sex characteristics. A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ... Sex reassignment therapy is an umbrella term for all medical procedures regarding gender reassignment of both transgender and intersexual people. ... Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for transgender and transsexual people replaces the hormones naturally occurring in their bodies with those of the other sex. ... A peafowl displays its secondary sexual characteristics (long, colored feathers). ... Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) includes the surgical procedures by which a persons physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are changed to that of the other sex. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis...


Psychological treatment

Psychological techniques that attempt to alter gender identity to one considered appropriate for the person's assigned sex have been shown to be ineffective, as stated above. Therefore, it is generally accepted that the only effective course of treatment for transsexual people is sex reassignment therapy.


The need for physical treatment is emphasized by the high rate of mental health problems, including depression, anxiety, and various addictions, as well as a much higher suicide rate among untreated transsexual people than in the general population. [16] Many of these problems, in the majority of cases, disappear or decrease significantly after a change of gender role and physical characteristics. [17] Mental health is a concept that refers to a human individuals emotional and psychological well-being. ... Clinical depression is a state of sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ... Anxiety refers to a complex combination of negative emotions that includes fear, apprehension and worry, and is often accompanied by physical sensations such as palpitations, nausea, chest pain and/or shortness of breath. ... Addiction is an uncontrollable compulsion to repeat a behavior regardless of its negative consequences. ... Suicide (from Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the act of willfully ending ones own life. ...


Many transgender and transsexual activists, and many caregivers, point out that these problems usually are not related to the gender identity issues themselves, but to problems that arise from dealing with those issues and social problems related to them. Also, many feel that those problems are much more likely to be diagnosed in transsexual people than in the general population, because transsexual people are usually required to visit a mental health professional to obtain approval for hormones and sex reassignment surgery. These professionals routinely evaluate their patients for mental health problems.


A growing number of transsexual people are resenting or even refusing psychological treatment which is mandated by the Harry Benjamin Standards of Care, because they believe that gender dysphoria itself is untreatable by psychological means, and that they have no other problems that need treatment. This can cause them significant problems when they attempt to obtain physical treatment. In many countries or areas, an individuals pursuit of sexual reassignment surgery (SRS) is often governed, or at least guided, by documents called standards of care (SOC), or standards of care for gender identity disorders. ...


Therapists' records reveal that many transsexual people do not believe they need psychological counseling, but acquiesce to legal and medical demands in order to gain rights which are granted through the medical/psychological hierarchy. (Brown 103) Legal needs such as a change of sex on legal documents, and medical needs, such as sex reassignment surgery, are usually impossible to obtain without a doctor's and/or therapist's approval. Because of this, many transsexual people feel coerced into confirming pre-ordained symptoms of self-loathing, impotence, and sexual-preference, in order to see simple legal and medical hurdles overcome. (Brown 107) Transsexual people who do not submit to this medical hierarchy likely face the option of remaining invisible, with no legal rights and possibly, identification documents incongruent with gender presentation. Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) includes the surgical procedures by which a persons physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are changed to that of the other sex. ...


Diagnosing transsexualism

Transsexual people who present themselves for psychological treatment are usualy diagnosed with gender identity disorder; the diagnosis of "transsexualism" having fallen out of favour in recent years. This diagnostic label is often necessary to obtain sex reassignment therapy. However, some people diagnosed with gender identity disorder have no desire for sex reassignment therapy, particularly not genital reassignment surgery, and/or are not appropriate candidates for such treatment. While some feel that formal diagnosis helps to destigmatize transsexualism, others feel that it adds stigma. (Brown 105) Diagnosis (from the Greek words dia = by and gnosis = knowledge) is the process of identifying a disease by its signs, symptoms and results of various diagnostic procedures. ... Gender identity disorder, as identified by psychologists and medical doctors, is a condition with which a person who has been assigned one gender (usually at birth on the basis of their sex, but compare intersexual), but identifies as belonging to another gender, or does not conform with the gender role...


Some people who desire sex reassignment therapy do not have gender identity disorder, as the term is usually defined, and desire to transition for other reasons. This includes homosexual people who are unable to accept their homosexuality (or which were, up until the 1970s, encouraged by caretakers to change their gender role, including SRS), cross-dressers who feel more comfortable dressed as members of the opposite gender and may become confused (although many transsexual women do go through a phase where they identify as cross-dressers), and people with certain psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, dissociative identity disorder, and Munchausen syndrome. (Brown 106-107) Most professionals believe that sex reassignment therapy is not appropriate for such individuals. (Brown 107) If SRS is performed in such cases, the result is usually expected to be very negative for the individual, since it, unlike with patients with GID, does not help them, but leaves them with a body undesirable to them. [18]. A common phrase amongst transsexual people is: Think twice on what you are doing. If you aren't transsexual before the surgery, you certainly are after it. [citation needed] Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... This articles is about cross-dressing in general, that is the act of wearing the clothing of another gender for any reason. ... Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is defined within psychiatry, and some other fields, as a disorder characterized primarily by emotional dysregulation, extreme black and white thinking in some areas, and disrupted relationships. ... Dissociative identity disorder is a diagnosis described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Revised, as the existence in an individual of two or more distinct identities or personalities, each with its own pattern of perceiving and interacting with the environment. ... Munchausen syndrome is a form of psychological disorder known as a factitious disorder (the term Munchausen syndrome is sometimes used, incorrectly, to refer to any form of factitious disorder). ...


However, some transsexual people suffer from co-morbid psychiatric conditions unrelated to their gender dysphoria. The DSM-IV itself states that in rare instances, gender identity disorder may co-exist with schizophrenia. Psychiatric disorders generally are not considered contraindications to sex reassignment therapy, unless they are the primary cause of the patient's gender dysphoria. (Brown 108) However, the process of psychological treatment is usually much more complicated for transsexual people with co-morbid psychiatric conditions. In medicine and in psychiatry, comorbidity refers to: The presence of one or more disorders (or diseases) in addition to a primary disease or disorder. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the handbook used most often in diagnosing mental disorders in the United States and other countries. ...


Some transsexual people have pressured the American Psychiatric Association to remove Gender Identity Disorder from the DSM. Many of these people feel that mental health professionals are being insensitive by labeling transsexualism as "a disease", rather than as a trait. [19] Furthermore, many people feel that psychologists and psychiatrists have developed specific models of transsexualism which exclude many transsexual people, such as Ray Blanchard's model. Some who feel that transsexualism is a physical rather than a mental condition have proposed the diagnosis of Benjamin's Syndrome to replace GID. Andrea James has proposed the terms interest in feminization and interest in masculinization to refer to desire for sex reassignment therapy, regardless of whether the person with the desire is transsexual. [20] Some people believe that all forms of body modification, including sex reassignment therapy, should be offered on demand. (Brown 103) However, some who feel that transsexualism is an inborn trait believe that defining it as an "interest" places emphasis on the hypothesis that transsexualism is a "lifestyle choice". The American Psychiatric Association is a professional organization of psychiatrists whose members are American and international physicians who are trained in psychiatry. ... Ray Blanchard is a Canadian sexologist who is in charge of the gender program at the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry in Toronto, Canada. ... Benjamins Syndrome has been proposed as a name for what is now known formally as Gender Identity Disorder and informally as Gender Dysphoria, Transsexualism, Transsexuality, and by other terms. ... Andrea James (born January 16, 1967) is an American transsexual woman, film producer, screenwriter, actress, transgender activist, and consumer activist. ... Body modification (or body alteration) is the permanent or semi-permanent deliberate altering of the human body for non-medical reasons, such as spiritual, various social (markings), BDSM edgeplay or aesthetic. ...


Additionally, the rules or requirements for diagnosis are almost always determined by non-transsexual medical gatekeepers, who have the power to allow or deny a transsexual person's need to transition based on their own perceptions of how a transsexual person should act and/or appear, which are sometimes prejudiced or based largely on cultural stereotypes. For example, they may reject the hair of a transsexual man as being "too long", even though many non-transsexual men like to wear long hair.


Requirements for sex reassignment therapy

Main article: Standards of Care for Gender Identity Disorders In many countries or areas, an individuals pursuit of sexual reassignment surgery (SRS) is often governed, or at least guided, by documents called standards of care (SOC), or standards of care for gender identity disorders. ...


The requirements for hormone replacement therapy vary greatly. Often, a minimum time period of psychological counseling, or a time period spent living in the desired gender role is required. This time period of "cross-living" is usually known as the Real-Life-Test (RLT) or Real-Life-Experience (RLE). This is not always possible; transsexual men frequently cannot "pass" this period without hormones. Transsexual women may also require hormones to pass as women in society. Most transwomen also require facial hair removal, voice training or voice surgery, and sometimes, facial feminization surgery, to be passable as females; these treatments are usually provided upon request with no requirements for psychotherapy or "cross-living". The most recent revision of the HBIGDA Standards of Care recognizes this limitation for some transgender people. Therefore, the SOC state that patients may be approved for hormone treatment after either a period of successful cross-living or a period of diagnostic psychotherapy - generally at least three months. Some doctors are willing to prescribe hormones to any patient who requests them; however, most physicians are reluctant to do so, especially for transmen. In transmen, some hormonally-induced changes may become virtually irreversible within weeks, whereas transwomen usually have to take hormones for many months before any irreversible changes will result. Some transsexual men and women are able to avoid the medical community's requirements for hormone therapy altogether by obtaining hormones from black market sources, such as internet pharmacies which ship from overseas. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for transgender and transsexual people replaces the hormones naturally occurring in their bodies with those of the other sex. ... Voice therapy or voice training refers to any non-surgical technique used to improve or modify the human voice. ... Facial Feminization Surgery (FFS) refers to elective surgical procedures to alter a masculine face to become a feminine face. ... The Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association, Inc. ... The black market or underground market is the part of economic activity involving illegal dealings, typically the buying and selling of merchandise or services (for example sexual services in many countries) illegally. ... Bowl of Hygeia Pharmacy (from the Greek φάρμακον = drug) is the profession charged with ensuring the safe use of medication. ...


Some surgeons who perform sex reassignment surgeries may require their patients to live as members of their target gender in as many ways as possible for a specified period of time, prior to any surgery. However, some surgeons recognize that this so-called real-life test for transmen, without breast removal and/or chest reconstruction, may be difficult. Therefore, many surgeons are willing to perform some or all elements of sex reassignment surgery without a real-life test. This is especially common amongst surgeons who practice in Asia. However, almost all surgeons practicing in North America and Europe who perform genital reassignment surgery require letters of approval from two psychotherapists; most Standards of Care recommend and most therapists require a one-year real-life test prior to genital reassignement surgery, though some therapists are willing to waive this requirement for certain patients. A recent study done on transwomen has shown that a real-life test of less than one year, or no real-life test at all, does not increase the likelihood that a patient will regret genital reassignment surgery. [21] World map showing the location of Asia. ...


Hormone replacement therapy

Main article: Hormone replacement therapy (trans) Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for transgender and transsexual people replaces the hormones naturally occurring in their bodies with those of the other sex. ...


For transsexual men and women, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) causes the development of many of the secondary sexual characteristics of their desired gender. However, many of the existing primary and secondary sexual characteristics cannot be reversed by HRT. For example, breasts will grow in transsexual women but they will not regress in transsexual men. Facial hair will grow in transsexual men, but will not regress in transsexual women. However, some characteristics, such distribution of body fat and muscle, as well as menstruation in transsexual men, may be reversed by hormonal treatment. Generally, those traits that are easily reversible will also revert on cessation of hormonal treatment, unless chemical or surgical castration has occurred. For many transsexual people, surgery is required to obtain satisfactory physical characteristics. Chemical castration is a form of temporary castration caused by certain hormonal drugs. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Several health risks are associated with hormone replacement therapy, especially when higher doses are taken, as is common for pre-operative transsexual patients. Therefore, it is generally inadvisable for transsexual people to take hormones without a physician's supervision.


Sex reassignment surgery

Main article: Sex reassignment surgery Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) includes the surgical procedures by which a persons physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are changed to that of the other sex. ...


Sex reassignment surgery consists of procedures which transsexual women and men undergo in order to match their anatomical sex to their gender identity. While genital reassignment surgery (GRS) refers only to surgeries that correct genital anatomy, sex reassignment surgery (SRS) may refer to all surgical procedures undergone by transsexual patients.


SRS tends to be expensive and is not always covered by public or private health insurance. In many countries with comprehensive nationalized health care, such as Canada and most European countries, SRS is covered under these plans. However, requirements for obtaining SRS and other transsexual services under these plans are sometimes more stringent than the requirements laid out in the Harry Benjamin Standards of Care, and in Europe, many local Standards of Care exist. In other countries, such as the United States, no national health plan exists and the majority of private insurance companies do not cover SRS. There are also significant medical risks associated with SRS that should be considered by those who are contemplating the surgery. World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ...


Prior to surgery, transsexual men and women are often referred to as pre-operative (pre-op); those who have already had the surgery may be referred to as post-operative (post-op) or simply identified as members of the sex to which they have transitioned. Not all transsexual people undergo sexual reassignment surgery (either because of the high cost of such surgery, medical reasons, or other reasons), although they live constantly in their preferred gender role; these people are often called non-operative (non-op). A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ...


A more modern idea suggests that the focus on surgery status is misplaced, and therefore, an increasing number of people are refusing to define themselves in terms of operative status, often defining themselves based on their social presentation instead. Many transsexual people believe that SRS is only a small part of a complete transition. Transitioning is the process of ceasing to live in one gender role and starting to live in another, undertaken by transgender and transsexual people. ...


Legal and social aspects

Many Western societies, nowadays, have procedures whereby an individual can change their name, and sometimes, their legal gender, to reflect their gender identity (see Legal aspects of transsexualism). Name change is a basic legal act that is recognized in practically all legal systems to allow an individual the opportunity to adopt a name other than the name given by birth, marriage, or adoption. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Transsexual people are persons who establish a permanent identity with the opposite gender to their birth sex. ...


Medical treatment for transsexual and transgender people is also available in most Western countries. However, transsexual and transgender people challenge the "normative" gender roles of many cultures and often face considerable hatred and prejudice. The film Boys Don't Cry chronicles the case of Brandon Teena, a transsexual man who was raped and murdered after his status was discovered. The project Remembering Our Dead, founded by Gwendolyn Ann Smith, archives numerous cases of transsexual and transgender people being murdered. [22] In the United States, November 20 has been set aside as the "Day of Remembrance" for all murdered transgender people. Boys Dont Cry is a 1999 movie based on the real-life story of Brandon Teena, a young transgender man who was raped and murdered by his male friends after they found out he had female genitalia. ... Brandon Teena (who was known simply as Brandon), born Teena Renae Brandon in Lincoln, Nebraska on December 12, 1972, is the subject of the Academy Award-winning 1999 film Boys Dont Cry, which was itself based on the documentary film The Brandon Teena Story. ... Look up November in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Events Roman Empire Tiberias is built on the Sea of Galilee by Herod Antipas, in honour of Tiberius. ...


Some people who have switched their gender role will adopt or provide foster care for children, as complete sex reassignment therapy inevitably results in infertility. Sometimes, they adopt children who are also transsexual or transgender and help them live according to their gender identity.[citation needed] Societies are, in some instances, challenged to assimilate these men and women into their social institutions such as marriage and the role of parenting. Some transsexual people have children from before transition. Some of these children continue living with their transitioning/transitioned parent, or retain close contact with them. Recent research shows that this does not harm the development of these children in any way.[23] To the dismay of many transpeople, older children frequently reject their transsexual parents and refuse to live with them. Additionally, many younger children are barred from visiting their transsexual parents by other family members or by court order. Adoption is the legal act of permanently placing a child with a parent or parents other than the birth parents. ... Foster care is a system by which adults care for minor children who are not able to live with their biological parents. ... Infertility is the inability to naturally conceive a child or the inability to carry a pregnancy to term. ... A marriage is a committed relationship between or among individuals, recognized by civil authority and/or bound by the religious beliefs of the participants. ... This article is in need of improvement. ... A court order is an official proclamation by a judge (or panel of judges) that defines the legal relationships between the parties before the court and requires or authorizes the carrying out of certain steps by one or more parties to a case. ...


The style guides of many media outlets prescribe that a journalist who writes about a transsexual person should use the name and pronouns used by that person. Family members and friends, who are often confused about pronoun usage or the definitions of sex, are frequently instructed in proper pronoun usage, either by the transsexual person or by professionals or other persons familiar with pronoun usage as it relates to transsexual people. Sometimes, transsexual people have to correct their friends and family members many times before they begin to use the proper pronouns consistently. Look up Sex in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Employment issues

Transsexual people have historically had difficulty maintaining employment. Most transsexual people find it necessary to remain employed during transition in order to cover the costs of living and transition. However, employment discrimination against trans people is rampant and many of them are fired when they come out or are involuntarily outed at work. [24] Transsexual people must decide whether to transition on-the-job, or to find a new job when they make their social transition. The transsexual community usually regards this as a personal decision, though those who are fired during transition will have to find new jobs. Finding employment is often a challenge, especially for those in mid-transition. Employment discrimination refers to employment practices that are prohibited by law such as bias in hiring, promotion, job assignment, termination, compensation, and various types of harassment. ... // While outing often refers to an outdoor excursion, in the late twentieth century, the term acquired an additional meaning, taking someone out of the closet, that is, publicising that someone is secretly homosexual. ...


Legal policies regarding name and gender changes in many countries make it difficult for pre-op transsexual people to conceal their trans status from their employers. [25] Because the Harry Benjamin Standards of Care require a one year RLT prior to SRS, some feel this creates a Catch 22 situation which makes it difficult for transpeople to remain employed or obtain SRS. For other uses, see Catch-22 (disambiguation). ...


In many countries, laws are providing increasing protection to transpeople from workplace discrimination, and an increasing number of companies are including "gender identity" in their non-discrimination policies. [26] However, these laws and policies often have gaps, and they are not always fully implemented and enforced.


Stealth

After transsexual men and women are living full-time as members of their target gender, they may wish to blend in with other members of their new sex, and will avoid revealing their past. They do this believing that it will provide greater peace and security on the other side of a stressful and potentially dangerous transition, and/or because they wish to be seen only as members of their target sex, not as transsexuals.


This behaviour, known as stealth, is recognized by most people in the transsexual community as an individual decision that one must make. Some, however, within and outside the transsexual community, feel that one should be upfront about his or her past, and that stealth living is somehow dishonest. Some draw a parallel with a perceived need for lesbian and gay people to "come out", and may perceive a failure to do so as betrayal of a greater community, seeing hope for advancement of civil rights and public image in the visibility of greater numbers. However, most people within the community understand that revealing one's transsexual history is a deeply personal choice. Moreover, this is part of an individual's medical history, and as such should be his or hers alone to disclose. Coming out of the closet (very often shortened to coming out in winking reference to the public introduction of debutantes) describes the voluntary public announcement of ones sexual orientation, sexual attractions, gender identity, or (less commonly) paraphilia. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... The medical history of a patient (sometimes called anamnesis [1][2] ) is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information (in this case, it is sometimes called heteroanamnesis). ...


The equation with "coming out", whereby a lesbian or gay person, or a transsexual person who has hidden their true gender identity while maintaining their originally assigned gender role, feels they reveal their true self, has been countered by the explanation that, in contrast, because of prejudice, sensationalism, and how it can trigger unconscious personal feelings and emotions, knowledge of someone's transsexual past can prevent the average person from being able see the transitioned person's true self. Coming out of the closet (very often shortened to coming out in winking reference to the public introduction of debutantes) describes the voluntary public announcement of ones sexual orientation, sexual attractions, gender identity, or (less commonly) paraphilia. ...


The decision to live completely stealth is believed to present its own psychological difficulties. Many believe that post-transition transsexual people who have no one in which to confide may have tendencies towards anxiety and depression. The term deep stealth is sometimes used for those who have completely isolated themselves from their past, their birth families, the medical professionals directly involved in their treatment process, and from the support structures that may have helped them through transition. Several examples exist of people who have gone deep stealth whose status was only discovered at their death. For example, the jazz musician Billy Tipton was deep stealth and his status was unknown, even by his wife and (adopted) children. Tipton's death illustrates one of the dangers of going deep stealth. This fear of discovery as being transsexual may often keep people from seeking needed medical care. Tipton bled to death from an ulcer that could have been readily treated at the time had he been able to seek medical care without fear of discovery. Anxiety refers to a complex combination of negative emotions that includes fear, apprehension and worry, and is often accompanied by physical sensations such as palpitations, nausea, chest pain and/or shortness of breath. ... Clinical depression is a state of sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ... Billy Lee Tipton (December 29, 1914 - January 21, 1989) was a United States jazz pianist and saxophonist. ...


However, many believe that fear of discovery, as mentioned above, is justifiable. Several examples also exist of people who have been denied medical treatment upon discovery of their trans status, whether it was revealed by the patient or inadvertently discovered by the doctors. For example, Leslie Feinberg was once turned away from a hospital emergency room where s/he had sought treatment for encephalitis. (Feinberg 2) Like Tipton, Feinberg was presenting as a man but had female genital anatomy. S/he nearly died after being denied treatment. Feinberg's case demonstrates one of the many dangers of actually being discovered. Additionally, Tyra Hunter died after being denied care by paramedics and emergency room physicians after she was injured in an automobile accident. Leslie Feinberg (born 1949 in Kansas City, Missouri, USA) is a transgender activist, speaker, and author. ... The emergency room is the American English term for a room, or group of rooms, within a hospital that is designed for the treatment of urgent and medical emergencies. ... Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. ... Tyra Hunter was a 24 year old transsexual woman who died on August 7, 1995 in Washington, DC after being injured as a passenger in a car accident. ... Typical view of the defibrillator operator. ...


The majority of the transsexual and transgender community has learned to accept that people choose, for many reasons, including political beliefs, religion, family responsibilities, career, perception of how well they will be accepted by others, and personal psychology, to live at a certain place on the spectrum from 'out and proud' to 'deep stealth'. By this view, Billy Tipton's decision to live deep stealth was no more or less valid than Jamison Green's decision to be out and politically active, as detailed in his book 'Becoming a Visible Man'. There are risks and benefits associated with every point on the spectrum and the decision is widely considered a personal one.


Transsexual youth

Main article: Transgender youth Transgender youth are children and adolescents who identify as transgender and/or transsexual. ...


Different individuals come to terms with their gender identity during many different stages of life. In most cases, the transsexual condition becomes apparent at some time in childhood, when the child may express behaviour incongruent with, and dissatisfaction related to, their assigned gender. However, many of these children hide their differences from an early age; therefore, acquaintances, friends, and even parents of these children may be unaware of their differences. Many of these children fear coming out, often justifiably. Some, but not all, parents react negatively when they learn that their child is transsexual. Because most children and adolescents are dependent on their parents, coming out has potential consequences. A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... Coming out of the closet (very often shortened to coming out in winking reference to the public introduction of debutantes) describes the voluntary public announcement of ones sexual orientation, sexual attractions, gender identity, or (less commonly) paraphilia. ...


According to the DSM-IV, the majority of children diagnosed with gender identity disorder establish a gender identity congruent with their physical sex by adulthood, and often in adolescence. Puberty is agonizing for most transsexual adolescents, as the physical androgyny of childhood is lost and these teenagers experience bodily changes with which they are uncomfortable. However, in recent years, more parents have come to accept transsexual children, and more doctors are willing to offer them medical treatment, though most are still reluctant to do so. It has been suggested that DSM cautionary statement be merged into this article or section. ... Gender identity disorder, as identified by psychologists and medical doctors, is a condition with which a person who has been assigned one gender (usually at birth on the basis of their sex, but compare intersexual), but identifies as belonging to another gender, or does not conform with the gender role...


Regrets and detransitions

After transitioning, transsexual people sometimes regret their transition, or even choose to detransition to their original sex. However, every recent study done on the number of detransitions states that their number is well below 1%, and that the reasons for detransitioning are very diverse.[27] The majority, but not all transsexual people who detransition consider themselves regretful.


Although the incidence of regret is not known, there are many documented cases of regret. Evidence suggests [citation needed] that regret is more common among self-identified autogynephiles, transsexual people with co-existing psychiatric problems, patients with surgical complications, and patients having religious views that their transition was "wrong". In a 2001 study of 232 MTF patients who underwent GRS with Dr. Toby Meltzer, none of the patients reported complete regret and only 6% reported partial or occasional regrets. [28] Jerry Leach, a Christian minister who claims to have backed out of SRS a few weeks before his scheduled surgery date, and reverted to living as a man, also claims that he is contacted by many post-op transsexual people with stories of regret. There are some recent claims that examination of his own personal story of transition reveals some inconsistencies and implausibilities. [citation needed] He runs a website on which he has posted some stories of regretful trans patients. [29]. Among notable regretful trans patients are Renee Richards and Danielle Bunten Berry. [30] Look up autogynephilia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Autogynephilia (from Greek auto (self), gyno (woman) and philia (love) — love of oneself as a woman) is a behavioral model proposed in 1989 by Ray Blanchard, who defines it as a mans paraphilic tendency to be sexually aroused by the thought... Renee Richards (born Richard Raskind 1934) is a physician and professional tennis player. ... Danielle Bunten Berry (February 19, 1949 - July 3, 1998), a. ...


These cases are often cited as reasons for the lengthy triadic process outlined in the Standards of Care, which specifies a treatment process combining psychological, hormonal, and surgical care. While many have criticized this process as being too slow for some, it is argued that without the safeguards within the Standards of Care, the incidence of unsuccessful surgical transitions would be much higher. This is also questioned by many critics, especially with regard to particular demands of some caregivers. The article above states that in some of these cases, transitioning could have been prevented if some demands made by caregivers, or demands perceived as coming from the caregivers, had been less rigid; particularly, if the patients had not felt that talking about any problems or doubts would jeopardize their further treatment. An unwavering demand for medical treatment and the absolute conviction of "doing the right thing" is often seen as a necessity for the diagnosis of transsexualism, and therefore the prerequisite for any further treatment; consequently, further treatment has been denied to people who uttered any doubts or even questions. In many countries or areas, an individuals pursuit of sexual reassignment surgery (SRS) is often governed, or at least guided, by documents called standards of care (SOC), or standards of care for gender identity disorders. ...


Critics claim that when patients cannot talk about problems or doubts, but have to present themselves as having neither, the patients, anxious to get treatment they perceive at this point to be absolutely necessary, will face these problems or doubts after transitioning, when dealing with them may be much more difficult, and this will often lead to social problems, depression, anxiety, or other problems. They believe that, in some cases, this may lead to a retransitioning. While there is no scientific study on the question, many trans*-organisations and groups claim that patients who feel less pressure to conform to any particular stereotype will have more satisfactory outcomes after transition. This does not preclude any screening for mental problems which might lead to pseudo-transsexualism, nor supportive psychological therapy, if necessary. Clinical depression is a state of sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ... Anxiety refers to a complex combination of negative emotions that includes fear, apprehension and worry, and is often accompanied by physical sensations such as palpitations, nausea, chest pain and/or shortness of breath. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Additionally, some people detransition after SRS because their desire was to undergo SRS and continue living in the gender role assigned to them at birth. [31] However, they transition temporarily in order to satisfy the requirement of a real-life test.


Depictions of transsexualism in the media

While the majority of transsexuals in the western world have ordinary, "bourgeoisie" jobs and careers, transsexual women are commonly featured in pornographic works. When depicted without having undergone vaginoplasty, they are usually referred to as "shemales". While some pre-operative transwomen call themselves and others like them "shemales," the term is regarded as offensive by many transsexual people. [32] Pornographic movies Pornography (from Greek πορνη prostitute and γραφία written material) (also informally referred to as porn or porno) is the representation of the human body or sexual activity with the goal of sexual arousal. ... A vaginoplasty is an operation to construct or reconstruct a vagina. ... The term shemale refers to transwomen (male-to-female transgender or transsexual people) who have female breasts (through hormone replacement therapy and/or through breast augmentation), and who usually have other female secondary sex characteristics, but who have not undergone genital reassignment surgery. ...


Films depicting transgender issues include The World According to Garp and The Crying Game. The film Different for Girls is notable for its depiction of a transsexual woman who meets up with, and forms a romantic relationship with, her former best friend from her all-male boarding school. Ma Vie en Rose portrays a six-year-old child who is gender variant. The World According to Garp book cover The World According to Garp is a novel by John Irving. ... The Crying Game is a 1968 novel by John Braine. ... Different for Girls is a 1996 British comedy with a major character who is a transsexual. ... Ma Vie en Rose (My Life in Pink) is a 1997 French film that was directed by Alain Berliner and produced by Carole Scotta. ...


Two notable films depict transphobic violence based on true events: Soldier's Girl (about the relationship between Barry Winchell and Calpernia Addams, and Winchell's subsequent murder) and Boys Don't Cry (about Brandon Teena's murder). Soldiers Girl is a 2003 dramatic film produced by Showtime. ... Barry Winchell (31 August 1977—6 July 1999) was a soldier in the United States Army whose murder by fellow soldiers gave a human face to the ongoing debate about the Dont Ask, Dont Tell policy enforced by the military regarding sexual orientation. ... Calpernia Sarah Addams (born 20 February 1971) is an American author, actress and activist in the transgender community. ... Boys Dont Cry is the title of: a 1999 movie starring Hilary Swank: see Boys Dont Cry (movie) the US name of the 1979 The Cure album Three Imaginary Boys: see Boys Dont Cry (album) a band of session musicians who had a one-hit wonder in... Brandon Teena (who was known simply as Brandon), born Teena Renae Brandon in Lincoln, Nebraska on December 12, 1972, is the subject of the Academy Award-winning 1999 film Boys Dont Cry, which was itself based on the documentary film The Brandon Teena Story. ...


Transsexual people have also been depicted in some popular television shows. In Just Shoot Me, David Spade's character meets up with his childhood male friend, who has transitioned to living as a woman. After initially being frightened, he eventually forms sexual attraction to his friend, but is scorned, as he is 'not her type'. In a 1980s episode of The Love Boat, McKenzie Phillips portrays a transwoman who is eventually accepted as a friend by her old high school classmate, series regular Fred Grandy. Just Shoot Me was an American television sitcom airing on NBC from 1997 to 2003. ... David Spade David Spade (born July 22, 1964) is an American actor, comedian and producer. ... The Love Boat - Opening Title The Love Boat was a TV series set on a cruise ship, which aired on the ABC Television Network from 1977 until 1986. ... Mackenzie Phillips, as Julie Cooper on One Day at a Time. ... Fred Grandy (born June 29, 1948) was an actor on the U.S. television series, The Love Boat, before his election in 1986 to the United States House of Representatives from the state of Iowa. ...


The series' Law & Order and Nip/Tuck have had transsexual characters, but they were played by non-transsexual women or professional cross-dressers. The series Without a Trace featured an episode in which a transsexual woman went missing and is almost killed by her ex-wife's husband after visiting her family, which she abandoned before transtioning. CSI: Crime Scene Investigation had an episode dealing with a transsexual victim, Ch-Ch-Changes. Many transsexual actresses and extras appeared on the episode, including Marci Bowers and Calpernia Addams. The transwoman victim, Wendy, was played by Sarah Buxton, a cisgender woman. [33] Addams has appeared in numerous movies and television shows, including the 2005 comedy Transamerica, in which Felicity Huffman portrays a pre-op transsexual woman. [34] Law & Order is an American televison police procedural and legal drama set in New York City. ... Nip/Tuck is an American drama television series created by Ryan Murphy for FX Networks. ... Without a Trace is an American television show set in New York City. ... CSI: Crime Scene Investigation is a popular Alliance Atlantis/CBS police procedural television series, running since October 2000, about a team of forensic scientists. ... Dr. Marci L. Bowers is an American gynecologist with practices in Seattle and more recently, Trinidad, Colorado. ... Calpernia Sarah Addams (born 20 February 1971) is an American author, actress and activist in the transgender community. ... Sarah Buxton in Sunset Beach Sarah Buxton (born March 23, 1965 in Brentwood, California) is an American actress. ... Cisgender (IPA: , from Latin cis and gender) is a concept in queer studies that labels persons who are not transgender as something other than simply normal. That is, it provides a name for a gender identity or performance in a gender role that society considers to match or be appropriate... Transamerica is a Golden Globe-winning and Academy Award-nominated 2005 comedy-drama produced by IFC Films and The Weinstein Company. ... Huffman as Lynette Scavo on Desperate Housewives Felicity Huffman (born December 9, 1962) is a Golden Globe and Emmy-winning and Academy Award-nominated film and television actress. ...


In fall 2005, the Sundance Channel aired a documentary series known as Transgeneration. This series focused on four transsexual college students, including two transwomen and two transmen, in various stages of transition. [35] In February 2006, LOGO aired Beautiful Daughters, a documentary film about the first all-trans cast of The Vagina Monologues, which included Addams, Lynn Conway, Andrea James, and Leslie Townsend. [36] Sundance Channel logo used from 1996 to 2002. ... TransGeneration is an eight episode documentary film depicting the lives of four transgender college students as they attempt to balance college, their social lives, and their current transitions to a new sex. ... The Vagina Monologues is an episodic play written by Eve Ensler. ... Lynn Conway is a U.S. computer scientist and inventor. ... Andrea James (born January 16, 1967) is an American transsexual woman, film producer, screenwriter, actress, transgender activist, and consumer activist. ...


Transsexualism in non-Western cultures

Transsexual people enjoy varying degrees of acceptance in non-Western societies.


Before the Islamic Revolution in 1979, the issue of transsexualism in Iran had never been officially addressed by the government. Beginning in the mid-1980s, however, transgendered individuals have been officially recognized by the government and allowed to undergo sex reassignment surgery. (See Transsexuality in Iran) Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


This stance might be considered liberal from an American or European viewpoint, but some Iranian clerics use the stance to stress heteronormativity on the part of Iranian and Islamic society. Homosexuality is still forbidden in Iran, and the viewpoint is that males who are attracted to other males should become women. This article discusses liberalism as a major worldwide political ideology, its development, and its many modern-day variations. ... Heteronormativity is a term used in the discussion of sexual behavior, gender, and society, primarily within the fields of queer theory and gender theory. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ...


This heteronormative stance is also seen in countries such as Brazil and Thailand. Thailand is thought to have the highest prevalence of transsexualism in the world. In Thailand, kathoey (who are often, but not always, transsexual) are accepted to a greater extent than in most countries, but are not completely free of societal stigma. Feminine transsexual kathoey are much more accepted than gay male kathoey; this may be seen as an example of heteronormativity. Due to the relative prevalence and acceptance of transsexualism in Thailand, there are many accomplished Thai surgeons who are specialized in sex reassignment surgery. Thai surgeons are a popular option for Western transpeople seeking surgery, largely due to the lower cost of surgery in Thailand. Kathoey working as Go-Go dancers in Bangkoks Nana Plaza. ...


The social acceptability of transsexualism appears to be inverse to that of homosexualism and directly proportional to heteronormativity; in cultures, where homosexualism is approved and heteronormativity is weak, transgendered are unaccepted and form an underclass. In those cultures which shun homosexualism and where heteronormativity is strong, the transgendered are more accepted and approved. The extreme is Iran, where homosexualism is punishable by death, but where sex changes are judicially approved. Heteronormativity is a term used in the discussion of sexual behavior, gender, and society, primarily within the fields of queer theory and gender theory. ...


See also Transgender in non-Western contexts. Transgender is an overarching term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at birth. ...


References

  • Brown, Mildred L. and Rounsley, Chloe Ann (1996); True Selves; Jossey-Bass.
  • Feinberg, Leslie (1998); Trans Liberation; Beacon Press.
  • Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association (2001); Standards of Care for Gender Identity Disorders, Sixth Version. [37]
  • Kruijver, Frank P. M. Zhou, Jiang-Ning Pool, Chris W. Hofman, Michel A. Gooren, Louis J. G. and Swaab, Dick F., (2000); Male-to-Female Transsexuals Have Female Neuron Numbers in a Limbic nucleus; J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., May 2000; 85: 2034 - 2041.
  • Schneider, Harald J. Pickel, Johanna and Stalla, Gunter K., (2005); Typical female 2nd-4th finger length (2D:4D) ratios in male-to-female transsexuals--possible implications for prenatal androgen exposure; Psychoneuroendocrinology, In Press, Available online 2 September 2005. [38]
  • Xavier, J., & Simmons, R. (2000). The Washington transgender needs assessment survey, Washington, DC: The Administration for HIV and AIDS of the District of Columbia Government. [39]

See also

  • List of transgender-related topics
  • List of transgender-rights organizations
  • List of transgender-support organizations
  • List of LGBT-related organizations
  • List of transgendered people

Transgender is a very complex topic, where consensual and precise definitions have not yet been reached. ... // International FTM International - based in the US Transexual Menace International homepage International Foundation for Gender Education (IFGE) homepage Transgender Community of Police and Sherrifs - in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Transgender support organizations. ... This is a list of organizations of lesbian, gay, bisexual and trangendered people, or campaigning for the rights of LGBT people, or of allies of LGBT people. ... A number of noted individuals are or were transgender. ...

External links

  • HGIBDA "Standards Of Care" - The Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association's Standards of Care for Gender Identity Disorders, Sixth Version.
  • The International Journal of Transgenderism - The Official Journal of the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association (HBIGDA)
  • Basic TG/TS/IS Information - including Successful Transwomen and Successful Transmen
  • Transsexuality - Jennifer Diane Reitz's Help & Support Site. Home of the COGIATI gender test, a controversial assessment of gender identity and transsexuality.
  • How to Respect a Transsexual Person
  • What transsexuality Is
  • The Gender Trust - The UK Charity for the support of trans individuals, their friends & family, employers and professionals
  • Definition and Synopsis of the Etiology of Adult Gender Identity Disorder and Transsexualism - prepared by 24 internationally recognized experts, published by the Gender Identity Research and Education Society (GIRES)(See: http://www.gires.org.uk)
  • The International Foundation for Gender Education Publishes Transgender Tapestry and provides information and programs to promote acceptance for transgender people.
  • Gender.org - The home of Gender Education & Advocacy, a nonprofit corporation using the web to provide education and advocacy for transsexual and transgender issues.
  • Dr. Becky's website - Lists of therapists and physicians, medical info, etc.
  • Trans Family - A support group for transgendered and transsexual people, their parents, partners, children, other family members, friends, and supportive others. Based in Cleveland Ohio, but providing resources for transgender people and their families around the world.
  • Our Trans Children A Publication of the Transgender Network of Parents, Families, and Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG). Third Edition, 2001.
  • TransParentcy - Organization to support transgender parents and their advocates (lawyers, mental health professionals, friends, family) by providing information and resources to diffuse and/or disspell the myths about any adverse impact being transgendered/transsexual might have on one's children.

The Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association, Inc. ... Jennifer Diane Reitz (born December 30, 1959) is the creator of the webcomics Unicorn Jelly, Pastel Defender Heliotrope and To Save Her, and of computer games such as Boppin. She has created computer games and anime-style comics since 1981. ...

Specific to trans-women

  • Mom, I Need to Be a Girl - a book by the mother of a transsexual child
  • Transsexual Road Map - practical and medical information
  • Lynn Conway - her goal is to "illuminate and normalize the issues of gender identity and the processes of gender transition."
  • Annelawrence.com Medical and Other Resources for Transsexual Women - often considered to be a controversial figure within the community due to her support for the autogynephilia theory
  • Older Tees Medical, support and general articles for the transsexual community.
  • Saving Throw - Brenda Make's Saving Throw / Genderrain Project is a full-length autobiography, which also touches on bisexuality, abuse, recovery, drug abuse, gender ethics, and politics.

This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Look up autogynephilia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Autogynephilia (from Greek auto (self), gyno (woman) and philia (love) — love of oneself as a woman) is a behavioral model proposed in 1989 by Ray Blanchard, who defines it as a mans paraphilic tendency to be sexually aroused by the thought...

Specific to trans-men

  • FTM International - Female To Male International: practical and medical information
  • Men's Ts Resources, Australia (also known as FTM Australia) - Australian-wide network providing up to date contact, support and information.
  • Transster - A photo repository of female-to-male surgery, with patient surveys on quality of care experiences with different surgeons.
  • Medical Therapy and Health Maintenance for Transgender Men: A Guide For Health Care Providers - Guidebook available free online.
  • The Transitional Male - a Comprehensive, Educational Personal Website for Transmen, FTM's, Spouses, Family & Friends.
  • Why Don't You Tell Them I'm A Boy? - Raising a Gender- Nonconforming Child, by Florence Dillon. A mother's experience with raising a transgender (FtM) son.
  • Hudson's FTM Resource Guide - A basic guide including information about testosterone, health, surgeries, binding, packing, shaving, acne, hair loss, STP/bathrooms, clothing and shoes, and other topics, as well as FTM-related product links.

  Results from FactBites:
 
What (2311 words)
Transsexuality occurs roughly equally in both physical males and physical females, and is caused by factors (such as a critically timed hormonal release caused by stress in the mother, or by the presence of hormone mimicking chemicals present during critical development) which interfere with fetal development.
The standard treatment for a diagnosis of transsexuality is to reassign the transsexual to a physical sex congruent with their gender identity, a process involving the administration of appropriate hormones and surgery.
Whereas transsexuality is concerned primarily with gender identity and the correction of physical form to fit that identity, transvestitism is primarily a sexual fetish that occurs after puberty, and the transvestite has no desperation to redress a physical incongruity.
Transsexualism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (8295 words)
Transsexualism or transsexuality is a condition in which a transsexual person self-identifies as a member of the gender opposite to the one assigned to them at birth.
Transsexualism should not be confused with cross dressing or with the behaviour of drag queens, which can be described as transgender, but usually not transsexual.
Transsexual people are often construed as belonging to the LGBT community, and many identify with the community; others do not, or prefer not to use the terms.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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