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Encyclopedia > Transportation in Albania

Contents


Overview

In the early 1990s, the rock-strewn roadways, unstable rail lines, and obsolete telephone network crisscrossing Albania represented the remnants of the marked improvements that were made after World War II. Enver Hoxha's xenophobia and lust for control had kept Albania isolated, however, as the communications revolution transformed the wider world into a global village. Even internal travel amounted to something of a luxury for many Albanians during communism's ascendancy. For years, peasants needed special passes to visit nearby districts, and until 1990 the government banned private ownership of automobiles. Urban mass transit consisted primarily of bus lines for ferrying workers between home and work. Breakdowns in Tirana's bus lines sometimes forced employees to walk to work or pay for rides in the beds of passing trucks. The communications system sustained severe damage in the chaos of the economic collapse as people ripped down telephone lines to use as fencing. Despite generally deteriorating conditions, the importation of fleets of used cars and buses and popular hunger for contact with the outside world raised hopes that matters would improve. The 1990s refers to the years 1990 to 1999; the last decade of the 20th Century, but in an economical sense The Nineties is often considered to span from the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 to the September 11 attacks in 2001. ... World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrination, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atomic bomb. ... Enver Hoxha. ... This article is about the year. ... average temperature and precipitations in Tirana Tirana (Albanian: Tiranë or Tirana) is the capital and largest city of Albania. ...


Railways

  • Total: 447 km
    • Standard gauge: 447 km 1.435-m gauge (2001 est.)

Albania's standard-gauge rail lines linked Shkodër with Durrës, Tirana, Elbasan, Pogradec, Ballsh, and Vlorë. The country's only international rail link, opened in 1986, connected Shkodër with Yugoslavia's rail system. The connection is now made through Montenegro. Albania's communist government focused on developing new rail lines to serve mining regions and the coastal plain. According to official figures, Albania's railroad in 1987 and 1988 carried about 33 percent of the country's total freight tonnage for that period. The opening of the rail link with Yugoslavia facilitated the movement of goods to Europe, and Yugoslav railroads reportedly shipped 174,300 tons of Albanian goods in the first half of 1990, a 19.4 percent increase over the first half of 1989. None of Albania's railroads was electrified. In 1991 vandals and thieves caused so much damage to the tracks and rolling stock that the rail system's transport capacity was cut in half; operations later ceased altogether. Shkodër Shkodër or Shkodra is a city located on Lake Skadar (Shkodra Lake) in northwestern Albania in the District of Shkodër, and is the capital of the District of Shkodër. ... Durrës (Italian: Durazzo; see also different names) is the most ancient and one of the most economically important important cities of Albania. ... average temperature and precipitations in Tirana Tirana (Albanian: Tiranë or Tirana) is the capital and largest city of Albania. ... Elbasan (Albanian: Elbasan or Elbasani) is a city in central Albania. ... Church (Photo by Bernard Cloutier) Hotel Royal (Photo by Bernard Cloutier) Pogradec (Albanian: Pogradec or Pogradeci) is one of the southeastern cities of Albania. ... Ballsh (Albanian: Ballsh or Ballshi) is the capital city of the southern Albanian District of Mallakastër. ... Vlora (Photo by Marc Morell) Vlorë (Albanian: Vlorë or Vlora; Greek: Αυλών/Aulōn (ancient), Αυλώνα/Avlóna (modern); Italian: Valona) is the second largest port city of Albania, after Durrës, with a population of about 85,000 (2003 estimate). ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shkodër Shkodër or Shkodra is a city located on Lake Skadar (Shkodra Lake) in northwestern Albania in the District of Shkodër, and is the capital of the District of Shkodër. ... Official language none (1963–1974: Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Croato-Serbian, Slovenian) Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Area (1991)  - Total  - % water Ranked xxst 255,804 km² Negligible Population  - Total (2004)  - Density Ranked xxth 20,522,972 80/km² Currency Yugoslav dinar Time zone  - in summer CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2... Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia    â€“ Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    â€“ Vojvodina  â€“ Montenegro Official language Serbian Capital Podgorica Former Royal Capital Cetinje President Filip Vujanović Prime Minister Milo Đukanović Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water  13,812 km²  n/a Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ Density  616,258  48. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, covering around 10,790,000 km² (4,170,000 sq mi) or 2. ... This article is about the year. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The modernization of the railway has been slow. However a deal signed with GE last year by the former government of Fatos Nano has opeend the way for new investment into the country. GE is to construct a 1 billion dollar railway and stations connecting the two cities of Tirana and Durres with Rinas international airport.


Railway links with adjacent countries

Highways

  • Total: 18,000 km
    • Paved: 5,400 km
    • Unpaved: 12,600 km (1998 est.)
Rough roads in Albania
Rough roads in Albania

The total length of Albania's roads had more than doubled in about three decades, and by the 1980s almost all of the country's remote mountain areas were connected, at least by dirt roads, with the capital city and ports. The country's roads, however, were generally narrow, poorly marked, pocked with holes, and in the early 1990s often crowded with pedestrians and people riding mules, bicycles, and horse-drawn carts. Even in tiny villages, hundreds of people of all ages gathered daily along main roads waving their arms seeking rides, and gangs of children often blocked rural highways hoping to coax foreign travelers into tossing them candy. Heavy snowfalls cut off some mountain areas for weeks at a time. Central government funding of local road maintenance effectively ended in 1991, and the breakdown of repair vehicles because of a lack of spare parts threatened to close access to some remote areas. A group of Greek construction companies signed a protocol with the Albanian government in July 1990 to build a 200 kilometer road across the southern part of the country, extending from the Albanian-Greek border to Durrës. The project was scheduled to last four years and cost US$500 million. Rough roads in Albania This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Rough roads in Albania This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The 1980s (sometimes refered to as the geighties) in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1980 and 1989. ... The 1990s refers to the years 1990 to 1999; the last decade of the 20th Century, but in an economical sense The Nineties is often considered to span from the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 to the September 11 attacks in 2001. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Durrës (Italian: Durazzo; see also different names) is the most ancient and one of the most economically important important cities of Albania. ...


Despite the appalling quality of Albania's roads, most of the country's freight was conveyed over them in a fleet of about 15,000 smoke-belching trucks. According to official figures, in 1987 Albania's roadways carried about 66 percent of the country's total freight tonnage. In 1991 the Albanian government lifted the decades-old ban on private-vehicle ownership. The country's roads, once almost devoid of motor traffic, began filling up with recklessly driven cars that had been snapped up in used-car lots across Europe. Car imports numbered about 1,500 per month, and a black-market car lot began operating just off Tirana's main square. Traffic in the capital remained light, but traffic lights and other control devices were urgently needed to deal with the multiplying number of privately owned cars. Albanian entrepreneurs also imported used Greek buses and started carrying passengers on intercity routes that did not exist or had been poorly serviced during the communist era. Gangs of hijackers and thieves, who preyed on truck and automobile traffic, made road travel hazardous in some regions. 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, covering around 10,790,000 km² (4,170,000 sq mi) or 2. ...


http://www.medialb.com/forumi/foto/61926_1.jpg http://www.girovaghi.supereva.it/toscana/autostrada.jpg Many of the countries roads are either being repaired or have been repaired. The contruction of the north-south and east-west are almost completed. By 2007 the main cities will have been linked and a new highway system linking Tirana with Prishtina, Podgorica, Skopje and Athens will have been completed. In 2004 a deal was signed to connect the port of Durres with City of Prishtina in Kosova with a six lane highway. Contruction has begun and the highway is expected to be finished by 2008.


Waterways

  • Total: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Shkodër Lake, Ohër Lake, and Big Prespa Lake (1990)

Albania's main seaports are Durrës, Vlorë, Sarandë, and Shëngjin. By 1983 there was regular ferry, freight, and passenger service from Durrës to Trieste, Italy. In 1988 ferry service was established between Sarandë and the Greek island of Corfu. A regular lake ferry linked the Macedonian town of Ohrid with Pogradec. The estimated total displacement of Albania's merchant fleet was 56,000 tons in 1986. The limited capacity of the wharves at Durrës caused severe bottlenecks in the distribution of foreign food aid in 1991. Skadar Lake (also called Shkodër, Scutari or Skadarsko lake), is a lake on the border of Serbia and Montenegro and Albania, the largest lake on the Balkan Peninsula. ... Lake Ohrid is straddling the mountainous border between the southwestern region of the Republic of Macedonia and eastern Albania, 340 sq km (130 sq mi) in area. ... Durrës (Italian: Durazzo; see also different names) is the most ancient and one of the most economically important important cities of Albania. ... Vlora (Photo by Marc Morell) Vlorë (Albanian: Vlorë or Vlora; Greek: Αυλών/Aulōn (ancient), Αυλώνα/Avlóna (modern); Italian: Valona) is the second largest port city of Albania, after Durrës, with a population of about 85,000 (2003 estimate). ... Photo of Sarandë (By Marc Morell) Syri i Kaltër, or the Azure Eye, is a well known natural cold water spring in Sarandë. (By Marc Morell) Sarandë (Albanian: Saranda or Sarandë, IPA or ; Italian: Santa Quaranta, Forty Saints); Greek: Άγιοι Σαράντα or... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location within Italy Trieste (Latin Tergeste, Italian Trieste,German and Friulian Triest, Slovenian and Croatian Trst, ) is a city in northeastern Italy, capital of Friuli-Venezia Giulia region and Trieste province, population 211,184 (2001). ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Corfu (ancient and modern Greek Κέρκυρα, Kérkyra, Latin Corcyra; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an island of Greece, in the Ionian Sea, off the coast of Albania, from which it is separated by a strait varying in breadth from less than 2 to about 15 miles... Ohrid (see also different names) is a city on the eastern shore of Lake Ohrid in western Republic of Macedonia. ... Church (Photo by Bernard Cloutier) Hotel Royal (Photo by Bernard Cloutier) Pogradec (Albanian: Pogradec or Pogradeci) is one of the southeastern cities of Albania. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Pipelines

Crude oil 196 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64 km (1996)

The construction of 1.2 billion dollar pipeline has begun in 2005. This will connect the port of Burgas in Bulgaria with the port of Vlora in Albania. It is expected to ship 750,000 barrels of crude oil each day.


Ports and Harbors

Durrës, Sarandë, Shëngjin, Vlorë

Durrës (Italian: Durazzo; see also different names) is the most ancient and one of the most economically important important cities of Albania. ... Photo of Sarandë (By Marc Morell) Syri i Kaltër, or the Azure Eye, is a well known natural cold water spring in Sarandë. (By Marc Morell) Sarandë (Albanian: Saranda or Sarandë, IPA or ; Italian: Santa Quaranta, Forty Saints); Greek: Άγιοι Σαράντα or... Vlora (Photo by Marc Morell) Vlorë (Albanian: Vlorë or Vlora; Greek: Αυλών/Aulōn (ancient), Αυλώνα/Avlóna (modern); Italian: Valona) is the second largest port city of Albania, after Durrës, with a population of about 85,000 (2003 estimate). ...

Merchant Marine

  • Total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 13,423 GRT/20,837 DWT
  • By type: cargo 7, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Croatia 1, Honduras 1 (2002 est.)

Airways

In 1977 Albania's government signed an agreement with Greece, opening the country's first air links with noncommunist Europe. By 1991 Tirana had air links with many major European cities, including Paris, Rome, Zürich, Vienna, and Budapest. Tirana was served by a small airport located twenty-eight kilometers from the capital at the village of Rinas. Albania had no regular domestic air service. A Franco-Albanian joint venture launched Albania's first private airline, Ada Air, in 1991. The company offered flights in a thirty-six-passenger airplane four days each week between Tirana and Bari, Italy, and a charter service for domestic and international destinations. For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... average temperature and precipitations in Tirana Tirana (Albanian: Tiranë or Tirana) is the capital and largest city of Albania. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost 4,000,000 1... Location within Switzerland â–¶(?) (German pronunciation IPA: ; in English often Zurich, without the umlaut) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Hungarian: Bécs, Czech: Vídeň, Slovak: Viedeň, Romany Vidnya; Serbian: Beč) is the capital of Austria, and also one of Austrias nine states (Land Wien). ... Budapest seen from north. ... Rinas Mother Teresa Airport (Albanian: Rinas or Rinasi) is the main airport of Albania, located 25km outside of Tirana. ... Ada Air is a regional airline based in Tirana, Albania. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Region Apulia Mayor Michele Emiliano Area  116 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Density 316. ...


Airports

  • Total: 12 (2002 est.)

Kukes aiprt is to open in early 2006. Making this the second civilian airport in Albania. Plans are on the table for an internation airport in Vlore and Sarande.


Total paved runways

3

    • 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2002)
    • 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)

Total unpaved runways

8

    • 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    • under 914 m: 4 (2002)
    • 914 to 1,523 m: 2
    • over 3,047 m: 1

Heliports

  • Total: 1 (2002 est.)

Reference

Much of the material in this article comes from the CIA World Factbook 2002. World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ...


External links

  • Ministry of Public Works of Albania (official site)

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Albania - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2145 words)
Under the Angiò, in the 13th century, the names "Albania" and "Albanenses" indicate the whole country and all the population, as it is demonstrated by the works of many ancient Albanian writers such as Budi, Bardhi (Blanco) and Bogdani (Bogdano).
Albania is one of Europe's poorest countries, with half of the economically-active population still engaged in agriculture and a fifth said to be working abroad.
Albania's coastline on the Ionian Sea, near the Greek tourist island of Corfu, is becoming increasingly popular with foreign visitors due to its relatively unspoilt nature and good beaches.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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