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Encyclopedia > Transport in the United Kingdom

The transport system in the United Kingdom is well developed. A radial road network of 29,145 miles (46,632 km) of main roads is centred on London, Edinburgh and Belfast, whilst, in Great Britain, a motorway network of 2,173 miles (3,477 km) is centred on Birmingham, Manchester and London. There are a further 213,750 miles (342,000 km) of paved roads. The National Rail network of 10,072 route miles (16,116 route km) in Great Britain and 189 route miles (303 route km) in Northern Ireland carries over 18,000 passenger and 1,000 freight trains daily. Urban rail networks are also well developed in London and several other cities. Heathrow Airport is the world's busiest international airport, and the UK has a considerable network of ports which received over 558 million tonnes of goods in 2003-04. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... This article is about the British city. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... National Rail uses the BR double-arrow logo A typical National Rail station sign showing the double-arrow logo National Rail is a brand name of the Association of Train Operating Companies (ATOC). ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... London Heathrow Airport (IATA airport code: LHR, ICAO airport code: EGLL, and often simply Heathrow) is the United Kingdoms busiest and best-connected airport. ...


The government department overseeing transport is the Department for Transport, although some matters, such as local roads, are devolved responsibilities in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. In the United Kingdom, the Department for Transport is the government department responsible for the transport network. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ...

The West Coast Main Line railway, alongside the M1 motorway
The West Coast Main Line railway, alongside the M1 motorway

Contents

Download high resolution version (1000x557, 291 KB)A Virgin trains Pendolino running on the West Coast Main Line alongside the M1 motorway near Daventry in Northamptonshire, England. ... Download high resolution version (1000x557, 291 KB)A Virgin trains Pendolino running on the West Coast Main Line alongside the M1 motorway near Daventry in Northamptonshire, England. ... The WCML running alongside the M1 motorway at Watford Gap in Northamptonshire A Virgin Pendolino and freight train on the WCML The West Coast Main Line (WCML) is one of the most important intercity railway lines in the United Kingdom, part of the British railway system. ... The M1 motorway heading south towards junction 37 at Barnsley, South Yorkshire. ...

Transport trends

Since 1952 (the earliest date for which comparable figures are available), the UK has seen a dramatic shift away from the use of public transport and towards the use of private transport, for both passengers and freight. Bangkok Skytrain. ...


In 1952 just 27% of distance travelled was by car or taxi; with 42% being by bus or coach and 18% by rail. A further 11% was by bicycle and 3% by motorcycle. The distance travelled by air was negligible.


By 2003 85% of distance travelled was by car or taxi; with just 6% being by bus and 6% by rail. Air, pedal cycle and motorcycle accounted for roughly 1% each. In terms of journeys, slightly over 1,000,000,000 are made per annum by main line rail, 1,100,000,000 by London Underground and other metro systems, 4,500,000,000 by bus, and 21,000,000 on domestic air flights.


Passenger transport has grown significantly in recent years. Figures from the DTI [1] show that total passenger travel inside the UK has risen from 403 billion passenger kilometres in 1970 to 797 billion in 2004.


Freight transport has undergone similar changes, greatly increasing in volume and shifting from railways onto the road. In 1953 89,000,000,000 tonne kilometres of goods were moved, with rail accounting for 42%, road 36% and water 22%. By 2002 the volume of freight moved had almost trebled to 254,000,000,000 tonne kilometres, of which 7.5% was moved by rail, 26% by water, 4% by pipeline and 62% by road.


This shift from rail to road is both caused by, and a cause of, changes in the relative sizes of their networks; wheareas the rail network has halved from 31,336 km in 1950 to 16,116 km today, the motorway network, which today is 3476 km long, did not exist in 1950. It has also been caused by rising economic affluence, the move of the population away from city centres, and changes in industry.


Railways

Main articles: Rail transport in Great Britain, Rail transport in Ireland, Rapid transit in the United Kingdom

The rail network in the United Kingdom consists of two independent parts, that of Northern Ireland and that of Great Britain. Since 1994, the latter has been connected to mainland Europe via the Channel Tunnel. The network of Northern Ireland is connected to that of the Republic of Ireland. The National Rail network of 10,072 route miles (16,116 route km) in Great Britain and 189 route miles (303 route km) in Northern Ireland carries over 18,000 passenger trains and 1,000 freight trains daily. Urban rail networks are also well developed in London and several other cities. There was once over 30,000 route mile of rail network in the U.K., however most of this was reduced over a time period from 1955 to 1975, much of it after a report by a government advisor Richard Beeching in the mid 1960s (known as the Beeching Axe). Class 180 multiple unit of First Great Western at speed near Yate, Bristol. ... Most rail services in Ireland are provided by Iarnród Éireann in the Republic of Ireland, and by Northern Ireland Railways in Northern Ireland. ... Transport in the form of rapid transit has been very varied throughout history in the United Kingdom. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Continental Europe refers to the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and peninsulae. ... The British terminal at Cheriton in west Folkestone, from the Pilgrims Way. ... National Rail uses the BR double-arrow logo A typical National Rail station sign showing the double-arrow logo National Rail is a brand name of the Association of Train Operating Companies (ATOC). ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Richard Beeching Richard Beeching, Baron Beeching (21 April 1913 - 23 March 1985), commonly known as Doctor Beeching, was chairman of British Railways and a physicist and engineer. ... Many railway lines were closed as a result of the Beeching Axe The Beeching Axe is an informal name for the British Governments attempt in the 1960s to reduce the cost of running the British railway system. ...


Great Britain

Virgin's Pendolino train at Birmingham's New Street station
Virgin's Pendolino train at Birmingham's New Street station

The rail network in Great Britain is the oldest such network in the world. The system consists of five high-speed main lines (the West Coast, East Coast, Midland, Great Western and Great Eastern), which radiate from London to the rest of the country, augmented by regional rail lines and dense commuter networks within the major cities. The Channel Tunnel Rail Link is operationally separate from the rest of the network, and is built to the same standard as the TGV system in France. Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 697 KB)BR Class 390, no. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 697 KB)BR Class 390, no. ... Virgin Trains is a train operating company in the United Kingdom. ... Class 390 no. ... Birmingham New Street could refer to: Birmingham New Street Station New Street, Birmingham This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The WCML running alongside the M1 motorway at Watford Gap in Northamptonshire A Virgin Pendolino and freight train on the WCML The West Coast Main Line (WCML) is one of the most important intercity railway lines in the United Kingdom, part of the British railway system. ... The East Coast Main Line viaduct at Durham. ... The Midland Main Line is a main railway line in the United Kingdom, part of the British railway system. ... Maidenhead Railway Bridge The Great Western Main Line is a main line railway in England that runs westwards from London Paddington station to Temple Meads station in Bristol. ... The Great Eastern Main Line, or the G.E., is a major railway line of the British railway system, which connects Liverpool Street station in the City of London with destinations in east London and the East of England; including Ipswich, Norwich and several coastal resorts. ... A Eurostar train on the CTRL, near Ashford The Channel Tunnel Rail Link (CTRL) is a project to construct a 108 km (67 mile) high-speed railway line from London through Kent to the British end of the Channel Tunnel. ... For the group of heart conditions referred to as TGV, see transposition of the great vessels. ...


The world's first intercity railway was the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, designed by George Stephenson and opened by the Prime Minister, the Duke of Wellington on 15 September 1830. The network grew rapidly as a patchwork of literally hundreds of separate companies during the Victorian era, which eventually was consolidated into just four by 1922, as the boom in railways ended and they began to lose money. Eventually the entire system came under state control in 1948 under British Rail, and the network was reduced to less than half of its original size by the infamous Beeching cuts of the 1960s when many unprofitable branch lines were closed. Inaugural journey of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway The Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR) was the worlds first intercity passenger railway in which all the trains were timetabled and operated for most of the distance solely by steam locomotives. ... George Stephenson George Stephenson For the British politician, see George Stevenson. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her accession to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the defunct entity British Railways, which later traded as British Rail. The History of rail transport in Great Britain is covered in its own article. ... Many railway lines were closed as a result of the Beeching Axe The Beeching Axe is an informal name for the British Governments attempt in the 1960s to reduce the cost of running the British railway system. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1994 and 1995, British Rail was split into infrastructure, maintenance, rolling stock, passenger and freight companies, which were privatised from 1996 to 1997. The privatisation has delivered mixed results with healthy passenger growth, mass refurbishment of infrastructure and investment in new rolling stock being offset by concerns over safety, punctuality, network capacity and the overall cost to the taxpayer. Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or — especially in India — disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership. ...


In Britain, the infrastructure (track, stations, depots and signalling chiefly) is owned and maintained by Network Rail, a not for profit company. Network Rail replaced Railtrack, which became bankrupt in 2002 following the Hatfield rail crash in 2000. Passenger services are operated by train operating companies (TOCs), most of which are franchises awarded by the UK Government. Examples include First Group, GNER and Virgin Trains. Freight trains are operated by Freight Operating Companies, such as EWS, which are commercial operations unsupported by government. Most Train Operating Companies do not own the locomotives and coaches that they use to operate passenger services. Instead, they are required to lease these from the three Rolling Stock Operating Companies (ROSCO’s), with train maintenance carried out by companies such as Bombardier and Alstom. Network Rail is a British not for dividend company limited by guarantee whose principal asset is Network Rail Infrastructure Limited, a company limited by shares. ... A non-profit organization (often called non-profit org or simply non-profit or not-for-profit) can be seen as an organization that doesnt have a goal to make a profit. ... For the generic term, see rail tracks. ... The Hatfield rail crash was a railway accident that occurred on 17 October 2000, at Hatfield, Hertfordshire, UK. A Great North Eastern Railway Intercity train bound for Leeds had left London Kings Cross at 1210 local time. ... Due to historical differences the railway network of the United Kingdom is split into two independent systems: one on the island of Great Britain and one in Northern Ireland, which is closely linked to the railway system of the Republic of Ireland. ... First Group PLC (LSE: FGP) is a British transport company operating in the United Kingdom, Ireland and North America, with headquarters in Aberdeen, Scotland. ... GNER operates along the East Coast Main Line from London Kings Cross to Northern Scotland. ... Virgin Trains is a train operating company in the United Kingdom. ... English, Welsh and Scottish Railway (EWS) is the largest British rail freight company Created as a subsidiary of Wisconsin Central Ltd in 1996, it was acquired by Canadian National Railway when it bought Wisconsin Central in 2001. ... Class 180 multiple unit of First Great Western at speed near Yate, Bristol. ... For other uses, see Bombardier (disambiguation). ... Alstom (formerly GEC-Alsthom) (Euronext: ALO) is a large French company whose businesses are power generation, railway signalling; and manufacturing trains (e. ...


In Great Britain there is 16,536 km of 1435 mm gauge track. 4,928 km of track is electrified and 12,591 km is double or multiple tracks. The maximum scheduled speed on the regular network has historically been around 125 miles per hour (200 km/h) on the InterCity lines. On the Channel Tunnel Rail Link, linking London with the Channel Tunnel, trains are now able to reach the speeds of French TGVs. There was once over 30,000 route mile of rail network in the U.K., however this was reduced by two-thirds (to 10,072 miles now), during successive administrations. A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... As railways developed and expanded one of the key issues to be decided was that of the rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) which should be used. ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... A High Speed Train power car in Intercity livery InterCity was the sector of British Rail responsible for long-distance express trains. ... A Eurostar train on the CTRL, near Ashford The Channel Tunnel Rail Link (CTRL) is a project to construct a 108 km (67 mile) high-speed railway line from London through Kent to the British end of the Channel Tunnel. ... For the group of heart conditions referred to as TGV, see transposition of the great vessels. ...


Northern Ireland

In Northern Ireland, Northern Ireland Railways (NIR) both owns the infrastructure and operates passenger rail services. The Northern Ireland rail network is one of the few networks in Europe that carry no freight. It is publicly owned. NIR was united in 1996 with Northern Ireland's two publicly owned bus operators — Ulsterbus and Metro (formally Citybus) — under the brand Translink. 1906 reference Rail Map Northern Ireland Railways (NIR or NI Railways) – formerly, and very briefly, known as Ulster Transport Railways (UTR) – is the railway operator in Northern Ireland. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Ulsterbus is a public transport operator in Northern Ireland and operates bus services outside of Belfast. ... Metro Logo Operated as Metro, Citybus Limited (pre 7 February 2005 name) is a bus company in Belfast, Northern Ireland. ... Translink Translink is the brand name of the Northern Ireland Transport Holding Company (NITHCo), a public corporation of Northern Ireland charged to oversee the provision of public transport in the country. ...


In Northern Ireland there is 342 km of track at 1600 mm gauge. 190 km of it is multiple track. Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... For other uses, see Gauge. ...


Rapid transit

Three cities in the UK have rapid transit systems. Most well known is the London Underground (commonly known as the Tube), the oldest and longest rapid transit system in the world. Also in London are the separate Docklands Light Railway (though this is integrated with the Underground in many ways), and the North London Line, operated by Silverlink (formerly by British Rail). Outside of London there is the Glasgow Subway and the Tyne and Wear Metro. However, many other cities in the UK have rapid transit systems combined of local or light rail with bus and tram systems. “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... The London Underground is an underground railway system - also known as a rapid transit system - that serves a large part of Greater London, United Kingdom and some neighbouring areas. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... London Transport Portal The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) is a light rail system serving the redeveloped Docklands area of East London, England. ... A North London Line train pulls into Stratford station during the morning rush Geographical map of the North London Line Line map of the North London Line showing connections and zones A North London Line train at North Woolwich station The North London Line is a railway line through northern... Silverlink Train Services Ltd is a train operating company in the United Kingdom, with routes in North London and from London to Northampton, previously to Birmingham via Coventry prior to 2005. ... This article is about the defunct entity British Railways, which later traded as British Rail. The History of rail transport in Great Britain is covered in its own article. ... An Inner Circle train arrives at West Street station. ... The Tyne and Wear Metro is a light rail metro system based around Newcastle upon Tyne and Sunderland, in the county of Tyne and Wear in North East England. ...


Trams and Light Rail

A vintage British tram, preserved at the National Tramway Museum
A vintage British tram, preserved at the National Tramway Museum

Tram systems were popular in the UK in the late 19th and early 20th century. However with the rise of the car they began to be widely dismantled in the 1950s. By 1962 only Blackpool tramway remained. However in recent years trams have seen a revival in the UK, as in other countries, as has light rail systems. Examples of this second generation of tram systems and light rail include: Download high resolution version (700x649, 165 KB)A vintage British tram. ... Download high resolution version (700x649, 165 KB)A vintage British tram. ... The National Tramway Museum at Crich, Derbyshire, England, is home to many trams, most of which ran through the streets of cities throughout the United Kingdom and some of which are from other countries. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... the first thing that was invented was the automatic DILDO. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Brush Railcoach No 623 in Mystique livery Illuminated tram No 633, rebuilt in the shape of a Trawler The Blackpool tramway serves Blackpool and Fleetwood and is the only surviving first-generation tramway in the UK, dating back to 1885. ...

See also: Category:Tram transport in the United Kingdom, Trams in London, and Trams_in_Europe

London Transport Portal The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) is a light rail system serving the redeveloped Docklands area of East London, England. ... East London area East London is the name commonly given to the north eastern part of London, England on the north side of the River Thames. ... A Metrolink tram in Manchester city centre. ... Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England which has a population of 2. ... The Sheffield Supertram is a tram network in Sheffield, England, operated by Stagecoach Group under contract to the South Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive. ... For other uses, see Sheffield (disambiguation). ... Midland Metro tram 05 approaching West Bromwich tram stop The Midland Metro is a light-rail or tram system in the West Midlands of England. ... The County of West Midlands is a metropolitan county in western central England with a population of around 2,600,000 people. ... Tramlink (initially known as Croydon Tramlink) is a public transport tramway in south London, operated by FirstGroup on behalf of Transport for London. ... For other uses, see Croydon (disambiguation). ... A tram in central Nottingham. ... For other uses, see Nottingham (disambiguation). ... Although there currently is no tram network in Edinburgh, like many other cities in the UK, Edinburgh had a tram network in the first half of the 20th century, running as far as Leith and Musselburgh. ... Merseytram was a proposed tramway for Liverpool and surrounding districts of Merseyside, England. ... Merseyside is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 1,365,900. ... There have been two separate generations of trams in London, one running from 1860 to 1952 and the second starting in 2000. ... Europe, particularly Germany,France,Italy, Finland, Austria, Switzerland, Netherlands, Sweden and Belgium, has an extensive number of tramway networks. ...

Roads

See also Driving in the United Kingdom

The road network in the United Kingdom is extensive, with around 370,000 km of road, and is one of, if not the most, popular method of transportation. A high-speed motorway system, with a total length of 3300 km, was constructed from the 1950s onwards. The major motorways and trunk roads, many of which are dual carriageway, form the trunk network which links all cities and major towns. The maximum speed limit is 70 miles per hour (113 km/h) on motorways and dual carriages. Alongside the trunk network are various lesser A and B roads, and many unclassified roads. // The rules of British Driving are generally defined by the Highway Code. ... Mountain road with hairpin turns in the French Alps For other uses, see Road (disambiguation). ... Motorway symbol in UK, France and Ireland. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A trunk road or strategic road is a major road, usually connecting one or more cities, ports, airports etc, which is the recommended route for long-distance and freight traffic. ... This early German Autobahn uses a dual carriageway design. ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ...


The Highways Agency (an Executive Agency of the Department for Transport) is responsible for maintaining motorways and trunk roads in England. Other English roads are maintained by local authorities. In Scotland and Wales roads are the responsibility of Transport Scotland, an Executive Agency of the Scottish Executive, and the Welsh Assembly respectively. Northern Ireland's roads are overseen by the Roads Service, a section of the Department for Regional Development. The Highways Agency is an executive agency, part of the Department for Transport in the United Kingdom. ... An Executive Agency is a British public institution that carries out some part of the executive functions of the United Kingdom government, Scottish Executive, Welsh Assembly and Northern Ireland Executive. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... There is no single system of local government in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... Transport Scotland was created on January 1, 2006 as the national transport agency of Scotland. ... The Executives logo, shown with English and Scottish Gaelic caption The term Scottish Executive is used in two different, but closely-related senses: to denote the executive arm of Scotlands national legislature (i. ... The National Assembly for Wales (or NAW) (Welsh: Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) was established in 1998, following a 1997 referendum in which a small majority of voters (but not the electorate) voted in favour of the Labour Governments plans for devolution. ... The Department for Regional Development (DRD) (Irish: An Roinn Forbartha Réigiúnaí, Ulster Scots: Männystrie o Kintra Pairts Fordèrin) is a government department of the Northern Ireland Executive created in 1999. ...


Toll roads are rare in the United Kingdom, though there are many toll bridges such as the Severn crossing. In 2003 the UK's first toll motorway, the M6 Toll, opened in the Birmingham area to relieve the congested M6 motorway. Congestion charging systems also operate in a few cities such as central London and Durham. The government is considering introducing further road pricing schemes. A toll road, turnpike or tollpike is a road on which a toll authority collects a fee for use. ... Paying toll on passing a bridge. ... The Severn crossing is generally used to refer to two river crossings over the River Severn between England and Wales. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The M6 Toll (previously called the Birmingham North Relief Road, or BNRR) is the United Kingdoms first toll-paying motorway, other than the Severn Bridges on the M4 and M48 motorways. ... This article is about the British city. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Road pricing is a generic term for charging for the use of roads using direct methods, charging the users of a specific section of the road network for its use. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Durham (IPA: locally, in RP) is a small city and main settlement of the City of Durham district of County Durham in North East England. ... Road pricing is a term that refers to the charging for the use of streets and roads. ...


Driving is on the left.

See also: Great Britain road numbering scheme, List of motorways in the United Kingdom

The Great Britain road numbering scheme is a numbering system used to classify and identify all major roads in Great Britain. ... List of motorways in the United Kingdom is a complete list of motorways in the United Kingdom. ...

Buses

Coaches provide long-distance links throughout the UK: in England & Wales the majority of coach services are provided by National Express. Megabus run no-frills coach services in competition with National Express and services in Scotland in co-operation with Scottish Citylink. Within regional areas, there is are various local bus systems which in Great Britain were usually originally owned by local councils, but have been deregulated and privatised under the Transport Act 1980. Since deregulation the majority (80% by the late 1990s [1]) of these local bus companies have been taken over by one of the "Big Five" private transport companies: Arriva, First Group, Go-Ahead Group, National Express Group (owners of National Express) and Stagecoach Group. In Northern Ireland coach, bus (and rail) services remain state-owned and are provided by Translink. For other uses, see Coach. ... National Express coach on route 561 National Express is the brand under which the majority of long distance bus and coach services in the United Kingdom are marketed, and also the company that manages this network and operates some of the services. ... The Megabus logo Megabus is a no-frills intercity bus service run by the Scottish-based Stagecoach Group in the United Kingdom. ... Scottish Citylink Coaches Ltd is a long distance express coach operator in Scotland and the Republic of Ireland (where it operates simply as Citylink.). The company was formed as a subsidiary of Scottish Transport Group in June 1985. ... “Autobus” redirects here. ... There is no single system of local government in the United Kingdom. ... An Arriva train in Denmark Arriva plc is a UK-based international public transport operator and vehicle rental company, headquartered in Sunderland. ... FirstGroup plc (LSE: FGP) is a Scottish transport company operating in the United Kingdom, Ireland and North America, with headquarters in Aberdeen. ... Brighton & Hove Bus Metrobus Scania OmniDekka 447 (YV03 RBF) Southern Class 171 Turbostar Thameslink Class 319 dual voltage unit The Go-Ahead Group is a rail and bus operating company that was created following the liberalisation of the UKs train and bus industries. ... National Express Group plc (LSE: NEX) is a UK-based transport group that operates airport, bus and rail services in the UK, the US and Canada, Australia, Spain, Portugal and Morocco and long-distance coach routes across Europe. ... Stagecoach Group plc (LSE: SGC) is a leading international transport group operating bus, train, tram, express coach and ferry operations. ... Translink Translink is the brand name of the Northern Ireland Transport Holding Company (NITHCo), a public corporation of Northern Ireland charged to oversee the provision of public transport in the country. ...


Water

Map of the UK showing its Exclusive Economic Zone and applicable jurisdictions; the territorial sea extends to no more than twelve nautical miles from land.
Map of the UK showing its Exclusive Economic Zone and applicable jurisdictions; the territorial sea extends to no more than twelve nautical miles from land.

Due to the United Kingdom's island nature, before the Channel Tunnel and the advent of air travel the only way to enter or leave the country was on water, except at the border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 455 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1384 × 1823 pixel, file size: 327 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Map of the UK showing its Exclusive Economic Zone and applicable jurisdictions; the territorial sea extends to no more than twelve nautical miles from land. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 455 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1384 × 1823 pixel, file size: 327 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Map of the UK showing its Exclusive Economic Zone and applicable jurisdictions; the territorial sea extends to no more than twelve nautical miles from land. ... Sea areas in international rights Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. ... The territorial waters are sea waters of a littoral state that are regarded as under jurisdiction of the state: commonly, those waters measured from the shoreline of a sovereign state where the laws of that state are applicable. ... The British terminal at Cheriton in west Folkestone, from the Pilgrims Way. ... A Silk Air Airbus A320-200 in the air. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


Ports and harbours

Approximately 95% of freight enters the UK by sea (75% by value). Three major ports handle most freight traffic:

There are many other ports and harbours around the UK, including the following towns and cities: , For the Aircraft manufacturer, see Seaplane Experimental Station, Felixstowe Felixstowe is a North Sea seaport in Suffolk, England. ... Tilbury is located on the north bank of the River Thames, in the borough of Thurrock in England, at the point where the river suddenly narrows to about 800 yards/740 metres in width. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Southampton (disambiguation). ...


Aberdeen, Avonmouth, Barry, Belfast, Cardiff, Dover, Falmouth, Glasgow, Gloucester, Grangemouth, Harwich, Holyhead, Hull, Kirkwall, Leith, Liverpool, London, Manchester, Milford Haven, Peterhead, Plymouth, Poole, Port Talbot, Portsmouth, Scapa Flow, Sullom Voe, Swansea, Tees, Tyne. This article is about the Scottish city. ... Categories: Stub | Bristol | Ports and harbours of the UK ... The single word Barry may refer to: Barry (name) Barry (dog), a famous St. ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... Arms of Dover Borough Council This article is about the English port. ... Falmouth (Cornish: Aberfal) is a seaport on the River Fal on the south coast of Cornwall, England, UK. It is both a town and a civil parish. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city of Gloucester in England; for other uses see Gloucester (disambiguation). ... Grangemouth petrochemical works, November 2006 A map of Grangemouth from 1945 Grangemouth is a town and former burgh in the council area of Falkirk, Scotland, and formerly in the County of Stirling. ... Arms of Harwich Town Council Harwich (IPA, /hɑːˈɹɪtʃ/) is a town in Essex, England, located on the coast with the North Sea to the east. ... Holyhead (Welsh: Caergybi, the fort of St. ... Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... Kirkwall is the largest town and capital of the Orkney Islands, off the coast of northern mainland Scotland. ... The Water of Leith looking upriver from the docks, with the old buildings along Leith Shore including The Kings Wark and The Old Ship Hotel and Kings Landing. ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... This article is about the town. ... , There is also a suburb of Adelaide named Peterhead, South Australia Peterhead called Ceann Phadraig in Gaelic is a town in Scotland with a population of approximately 18,000. ... This article is about the city of Plymouth in England. ... Poole is a coastal town, port and tourist destination, situated on the shores of the English Channel, in the ceremonial county of Dorset in southern England. ... Port Talbot (Welsh: Aberafan or Porth Talbot) is an industrial town in the traditional county of Glamorgan, south Wales, with a population of approximately 50,000. ... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Gutter Sound be merged into this article or section. ... Sullom Voe is an inlet between North Mainland and Northmavine on Shetland in Scotland, and an oil terminal sited on its shore. ... For other places with the same name, see Swansea (disambiguation). ... The Tees, a river of England, rises on the eastward slope of Cross Fell in the Pennine Chain, and traverses a valley about 85 miles (137 km) in length to the North Sea. ... The River Tyne can refer to two rivers in the United Kingdom: River Tyne, England River Tyne, Scotland This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Merchant marine

For long periods of the last millennium Britain had the largest merchant fleet in the world, but it has slipped down the rankings. There are 429 ships of 1,000 GRT or over, making a total of 9,181,284 GRT (9,566,275 DWT). These are split into the following types: bulk carrier 18, cargo 55, chemical tanker 48, container 134, liquefied gas 11, passenger 12, passenger/cargo 64, petroleum tanker 40, refrigerated cargo 19, roll on/roll off 25, vehicle carrier 3. There are also 446 ships registered in other countries, and 202 foreign-owned ships registered in the UK. (2005 CIA estimate) THE GRT GROUP The GRT Group is promoted by GR Thangamaligai South Indias leading jewellery house, established in 1964 by Mr. ... THE GRT GROUP The GRT Group is promoted by GR Thangamaligai South Indias leading jewellery house, established in 1964 by Mr. ... In numerical analysis and functional analysis, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) refers to wavelet transforms for which the wavelets are discretely sampled. ...

Mersey ferry
Mersey ferry

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1561x833, 219 KB) Mersey Ferry - River Mersey - Liverpool By and copyright Tagishsimon, 28th June 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Transport in the United Kingdom River Mersey Mersey Ferry User:Tagishsimon/Gallery - 2005 photos 1 ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1561x833, 219 KB) Mersey Ferry - River Mersey - Liverpool By and copyright Tagishsimon, 28th June 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Transport in the United Kingdom River Mersey Mersey Ferry User:Tagishsimon/Gallery - 2005 photos 1 ...

Other shipping

Passenger ferries operate internationally to nearby countries such as France, the Republic of Ireland, Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain and Norway. Ferries also operate within the UK, connecting Scotland with Northern Ireland, Southampton with Isle of Wight and many smaller routes. This article is about the country. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... For other uses, see Southampton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Isle of Wight (disambiguation). ...


Cruise ships depart from the UK for destinations worldwide, many heading for ports around the Mediterranean and Caribbean. Pacific Sky sails under Sydney Harbour Bridge A cruise ship or a cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ships amenities are considered an essential part of the experience. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ...


The Solent is a world centre for yachting and home to largest number of private yachts in the world. Satellite image showing the Solent, separating the Isle of Wight from mainland Britain The Solent is a stretch of sea separating the Isle of Wight from the mainland of Great Britain. ... Yachting is a physical activity involving boats. ...


Inland waterways

Major canal building began in the UK after the onset of the Industrial revolution in the 18th century. A large canal network was built and it became the primary method of transporting goods throughout the country. However, by the 1830s with the development of the railways the canal network began to go into decline. For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... // Electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday Evolutionary theorist Charles Darwins expedition on the HMS Beagle. ...


There are currently 1,988 miles (3200 km) of waterways in the United Kingdom, and the primary use is recreational. 385 miles (620 km) is used for commerce. (2004 CIA estimate) Waterways in the United Kingdom is a link page for any river, canal, firth or estuary in the United Kingdom. ...


Air transport

Main article: Air transport in the United Kingdom

See also: Busiest airports in the United Kingdom by total passenger traffic British Airways Boeing 747 landing at London Heathrow Airport Air transport in the United Kingdom is the commercial carriage of passengers, freight and mail by aircraft, both within the United Kingdom (UK) and between the UK and the rest of the world. ... Queue of aircraft for take-off at the UKs, Europes and the Worlds busiest international airport - London Heathrow BAA owns 7 UK Airports, operates 8 Overseas Airports and runs 3 US Airports Retail industry Heathrow Terminal 5 under construction in July 2005 The tables below contain available...


There are 471 airports in the UK, of which 334 are paved. There are also 11 heliports. (2004 CIA estimates) This article is about the American English usage of pavement as the durable surfacing of roads and walkways. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ...


BAA is the UK's largest airport operator, its flagship being London Heathrow Airport, the largest traffic volume international airport in Europe and one of the world's busiest airports, and London Gatwick Airport, the second largest. The third largest is Manchester Airport, in Manchester, which is run by Manchester Airport Group, which also owns various other airports. BAA plc is the owner and operator of seven major United Kingdom airports and operator of several airports worldwide, making the company one of the largest transport companies in the world. ... Heathrow redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Worlds busiest airport is a claim that is fiercely fought over by the owners of the worlds largest airports. ... Gatwick Airport (IATA: LGW, ICAO: EGKK) is Londons second largest airport and the second busiest airport in the United Kingdom after Heathrow. ... For City Airport Manchester, UK, see City Airport Manchester. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... The Manchester Airport Group is a holding company owned by the boroughs of the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester. ...


Other major airports include London Stansted Airport in Essex, about thirty miles (50 km) north of London and Birmingham International Airport, in Birmingham. The lawn in front of Stansted Airport used to attract large numbers of people waiting for their flight during the summer. ... This article is about the county of Essex in England. ... There is also a airport located on the border of the city of Birmingham and borough of Solihull (and mostly in the latter) in the West Midlands, England. ... This article is about the British city. ...


Outside of England, Cardiff International Airport, Edinburgh Airport and Belfast International Airport, are the busiest airports serving Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland respectively. Cardiff International Airport (Welsh: Maes Awyr Rhyngwladol Caerdydd) (IATA: CWL, ICAO: EGFF) is an major British airport located in the village of Rhoose, Vale of Glamorgan, approximately south-west of the Welsh capital, Cardiff, serving all of South and Mid Wales. ... Edinburgh Airport (IATA: EDI, ICAO: EGPH) is located in Edinburgh, Scotland, and, in 2007, was the second busiest airport in Scotland and the ninth-busiest airport in the UK by passengers and the fifth busiest in the UK by aircraft movments. ... Belfast International Airport (IATA: BFS, ICAO: EGAA) is an airport located some 21 kilometres (13 miles) northwest of Belfast in Northern Ireland. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


The largest airline in the UK is British Airways, who operate long-distance flights from the UK to all over the globe. Others include bmi, bmibaby, easyJet, Flybe and Virgin Atlantic. For the 1930s airline of similar name, see British Airways Ltd. ... bmi is a scheduled airline based in the United Kingdom. ... bmi baby is a British low-cost airline and a subsidiary of British Midland PLC. It flies to destinations in Europe from its main bases at East Midlands, Manchester, Cardiff, and Birmingham International. ... easyJet (LSE: EZJ) is a low cost airline officially known as easyJet Airline Company Limited, based at London Luton Airport. ... Flybe is a British airline based at Exeter Airport, England. ... Virgin Atlantic Airways Ltd (usually referred to as Virgin Atlantic) is a British airline which is owned by Richard Bransons Virgin Group (51%) and Singapore Airlines (49%). It operates long-haul routes between the United Kingdom and North America, the Caribbean, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and Australia from...


External links

  • Tom Harris will be delivering the keynote speech at Rail 2007 - Developing our rail network which will take place on the 17th May at the Birmingham ICC

See also

Major Public Transport Companies in the United Kingdom
Arriva Group - ComfortDelGro Corporation - First Group
Go-Ahead Group - National Express Group
Stagecoach Group - Transdev Group - Translink
See also:
Transport for London - Passenger Transport Executive
Strathclyde Partnership for Transport

This is a list of topics related to the United Kingdom. ... Wales - yes Scotland - yes France - yes - Via Channel Tunnel England Category: ... The transport system in Scotland is generally well-developed. ... Railways Rail links with adjacent countries Republic of Ireland - yes Scotland - no - But Proposed Tunnel Under North Channel See also Northern Ireland Transport in Ireland Category: ... This article is about means of transport in the British principality of Wales, of which the capital city is Cardiff. ... [edit] Railways [edit] Rail links with adjacent countries Northern Ireland - yes Wales - no - But Proposed Tunnel Under Irish Sea [edit] See also Republic of Ireland Category: ... Air transport for the Royal Family and executive of the United Kingdom is currently provided by No. ... Class 67 67005 Queens Messenger brings up the rear of the Royal Train as it heads along the Dawlish sea front on 15 September 2004. ... // Transport Direct is a non-profit web site funded by the UK Department for Transport, the Welsh Assembly Government and the Scottish Executive. ... An Arriva train in Denmark Arriva plc is a UK-based international public transport operator and vehicle rental company, headquartered in Sunderland. ... ComfortDelGro Corporation Limited SGX: C52 is the largest transport company in Singapore, as well as the second largest in the world [1], with a fleet of 39,100 buses, taxis and rental vehicles. ... FirstGroup plc (LSE: FGP) is a Scottish transport company operating in the United Kingdom, Ireland and North America, with headquarters in Aberdeen. ... Brighton & Hove Bus Metrobus Scania OmniDekka 447 (YV03 RBF) Southern Class 171 Turbostar Thameslink Class 319 dual voltage unit The Go-Ahead Group is a rail and bus operating company that was created following the liberalisation of the UKs train and bus industries. ... National Express Group plc (LSE: NEX) is a UK-based transport group that operates airport, bus and rail services in the UK, the US and Canada, Australia, Spain, Portugal and Morocco and long-distance coach routes across Europe. ... Stagecoach Group plc (LSE: SGC) is a leading international transport group operating bus, train, tram, express coach and ferry operations. ... Transdev is a major international multi-modal transport group based in Paris, France. ... Translink Translink is the brand name of the Northern Ireland Transport Holding Company (NITHCo), a public corporation of Northern Ireland charged to oversee the provision of public transport in the country. ... Transport For London (TfL) is a local government body responsible for most aspects of the transport system throughout Greater London in England. ... In the United Kingdom, Passenger Transport Executives (PTEs) are local government bodies which are responsible for public transport within large urban areas. ... A Class 156 train in SPT livery at Glasgow Central station The Strathclyde Partnership for Transport (SPT) is a public body which is responsible for planning and co-ordinating regional transport, and especially the public transport system, in the Strathclyde area of western Scotland. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.dtistats.net/energystats/ecuk2_2.xls Passenger kilometres by bus, rail, air, motorcycle, pedal cycle, 1970 to 2004, URN No: 06/453, DTI

This article contains material from the CIA World Factbook which, as a U.S. government publication, is in the public domain. The World Factbook 2007 (government edition) cover. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


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