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Encyclopedia > Transport in Bristol
The passenger terminal at Bristol International Airport, Lulsgate
The passenger terminal at Bristol International Airport, Lulsgate

Bristol is a city in south west England, situated near the Bristol Channel coast, approximately 115 miles (185 km) west of London. Several factors have influenced the development of its transport network. It is a major centre of employment, retail, culture and higher education, has many historic areas, and has a history of maritime industry. The city has a population of 400,000, with a metropolitan area of 550,000, and lies at the centre of the former County of Avon, which includes many dormitory towns, and has a population of one million. Additionally, it has the seventh highest population density of any English district. Image File history File links The passenger terminal at Bristol International Airport, Bristol England. ... Image File history File links The passenger terminal at Bristol International Airport, Bristol England. ... Bristol International Airport (IATA: BRS, ICAO: EGGD) is the main commercial airport serving the city of Bristol and the surrounding area in England, UK. // History In 1927 a group of local businessmen raised £6,000 through public subscription to inaugurate a flying club at Filton Aerodrome. ... Bristol (IPA: brÄ­stÉ™l) is a city, unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, 115 miles (185 km) west of London at , . With a population of 400,000, and metropolitan area of 550,000, it is Englands sixth, and the United Kingdoms ninth, most... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages English Capital London Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid... The location of the Bristol Channel The Severn Bridge and Bristol Channel, looking northwestward from England towards Wales The Bristol Channel coast at Ilfracombe, North Devon, looking west towards Lee Bay The Bristol Channel is a major inlet in the island of Great Britain, separating South Wales from South West... London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England and is the most populous city in the European Union. ... The County of Avon was a short-lived non-metropolitan county and ceremonial county in the west of England, named after the River Avon which ran through it. ... This article or section should be merged with Bedroom community A dormitory town is generally a rural town where a large proportion of its population commute to nearby cities. ...

Contents


Major transport routes

National & international

Temple Meads station.

There are two principal railway stations in Bristol: Bristol Parkway and Bristol Temple Meads, and there are scheduled coach links to most major UK cities. The city is connected by road on an east-west axis from London to Wales by the M4 motorway, and on a north-southwest axis from Birmingham to Exeter by the M5 motorway. Also within the county is the M49 motorway, a shortcut between the M5 in the south and M4 Severn Crossing in the west. Bristol Temple Meads railway station with Isambard Kingdom Brunels original terminal station on the left and Matthew Digby Wyatts through station on the far right. ... Bristol Temple Meads railway station with Isambard Kingdom Brunels original terminal station on the left and Matthew Digby Wyatts through station on the far right. ... Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street Station in 1865. ... This new building greatly improved the facilities at Bristol Parkway Bristol Parkway is a railway station on the northern edge of Bristol, at Stoke Gifford in South Gloucestershire. ... The original station (left) closed in 1965. ... London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England and is the most populous city in the European Union. ... For an explanation of often confusing terms such as Great Britain, Britain, United Kingdom, England and Wales and England, see British Isles (terminology). ... The M4 motorway is a motorway in England and Wales linking London and west Wales via Bristol. ... The city from above Centenary Square. ... A number of other places have taken their names from Exeter The city of Exeter is the county town of Devon, in England, UK. It is located at 50° 43 25 N, 3° 31 39 W. In the 2001 census its population was recorded at 111,066. ... This article concerns the M5 motorway in England. ... The M49 motorway is a small motorway west of Bristol, England, that forms a shortcut between the M5 motorway and the Second Severn Bridge on the M4 motorway. ... For the Ontario community, see Severn Bridge, Ontario. ...


The city is also served by its own airport, Bristol International (BRS), at Lulsgate, which has seen substantial improvements to its runway, terminal and other facilities. The airport offers services to major European destinations, and Newark Airport near New York City. Bristol International Airport (IATA: BRS, ICAO: EGGD) is the main commercial airport serving the city of Bristol and the surrounding area in England, UK. // History In 1927 a group of local businessmen raised £6,000 through public subscription to inaugurate a flying club at Filton Aerodrome. ... Newark Liberty International Airport (IATA Airport Code EWR; ICAO Airport Code KEWR) is an international airport within the city limits of both Newark and Elizabeth, New Jersey, United States. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Big Apple, The Capital of the World[1], Gotham Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area    - City 1,214. ...


Local

M32 motorway.
M32 motorway.

Bristol city centre was, until the 1990s, surrounded by a ring road. This has since been partially dismantled, but major routes still converge on the city centre. Radiating from this are several major arterials. The M32 motorway, constructed in the late 1960s, runs north from the centre to the M4, and is the busiest route. The A4 runs east to Keynsham and Bath, and west through the Avon Gorge to the M5 at Avonmouth. The northern suburbs are served by the A4018 and A38 "Gloucester Road", the east by the A420, A431 and A432 and the south by the A37 and A38. Several other commuter towns also lie on major routes radiating from the city, including Weston Super Mare on the A370 and Portishead on the A369. The M32 motorway in Bristol at peak time, by user:Steinsky 25/Jul/2004. ... The M32 motorway in Bristol at peak time, by user:Steinsky 25/Jul/2004. ... The central area of the city of Bristol, South West England, is the area south of the central ring road and north of the Floating Harbour, bordered north by St Pauls and Easton, east by Temple Meads and Redcliffe, and west by Clifton and Canons Marsh. ... A beltway (American English), ring road or orbital motorway (British English) is a circumferential highway found around many cities. ... The motorway runs through a green corridor between Junctions 1 and 2. ... The A4 at Hotwells in Bristol The A4 crosses Picadilly Circus in central London The A4 is a major road in England, also known as the Great West Road. ... Keynsham (pronounced CANE-shm), is a town between Bristol and Bath in south west England. ... For other uses, see Bath (disambiguation). ... The Avon Gorge and Clifton Suspension Bridge, looking south from the Downs The Avon Gorge is a 2. ... Categories: Stub | Bristol | Ports and harbours of the UK ... The A4018 is a British A-road which runs from Bristol city centre to Cribbs Causeway via places such as Westbury-on-Trym. ... A38 passing under M50 in Worcestershire The A38 is a major trunk road in England. ... The A37 is a major road in southern England. ... Weston-super-Mare is an English seaside resort town in North Somerset, population 71,758 (2001 census). ... Map sources for Portishead, Somerset at grid reference ST4676 Portishead (IPA: ) is a coastal town in North Somerset, England. ...


The A4174 "Avon ring road" serves as a relief road for parts of the northern, eastern and southern suburbs of the city. The A4174 is a major road in England. ...


Public transport

Public transport within the city is still largely bus-based. The majority of the local bus service is operated by First Group. The central part of the city also has water-based routes, operated as the Bristol Ferry Boat, which provide both leisure and commuter services on the harbour. Skytrain Bangkok. ... An early motorized bus - a Benz truck modified by Netphener company (1895) A bus is a large automobile intended to carry numerous persons in addition to the driver and sometimes a conductor. ... First Group PLC (LSE: FGP) is a British transport company operating in the United Kingdom, Ireland and North America, with headquarters in Aberdeen, Scotland. ... A ferry boat passes the Welsh Back landing stage, with Bristol Bridge in the background The Bristol Ferry Boat operates passenger ferry boat services on Bristol Harbour in the centre of the English city of Bristol. ...


Bristol was never well served by suburban railways, though the Severn Beach Line to Avonmouth and Severn Beach survived the Beeching Axe and is still in operation today. The Portishead Railway was closed in the Beeching Axe but was relaid between 2000-2002 as far as the Royal Portbury Dock with a Strategic Rail Authority rail-freight grant. Plans to relay a further three miles of track to Portishead, a largely dormitory town with only one connecting road, have been discussed but there is insufficient funding to rebuild stations.[1] The Severn Beach Line is a local railway in Bristol, UK, running from Narroways Junction to Severn Beach. ... Severn Beach is a small town on the mouth of the river Severn in South Gloucestershire in England. ... Many railway lines were closed as a result of the Beeching Axe The Beeching Axe was an informal name for the British Governments attempt in the 1960s to control the spiralling cost of running the British railway system by closing what it considered to be little-used and unprofitable... Tunnel in the Avon Gorge. ... The Royal Portbury Dock The Royal Portbury Dock is part of the Port of Bristol, in England. ... Categories: Stub ... Map sources for Portishead, Somerset at grid reference ST4676 Portishead (IPA: ) is a coastal town in North Somerset, England. ... This article or section should be merged with Bedroom community A dormitory town is generally a rural town where a large proportion of its population commute to nearby cities. ...


Cycling

The Bristol & Bath Railway Path.
The Bristol & Bath Railway Path.

Despite being hilly, Bristol is one of the prominent cycling cities of England, and is home to the national cycle campaigning group Sustrans. It has a number of urban cycle routes, as well as links to National Cycle Network routes to Bath and London, to Gloucester and Wales, and to the south-western peninsula of England. 4.6% of journeys to work are by bicycle.[2] Between 1991 and 2001 Bristol had the third highest increase in bicycle use of any UK council area, at 1.64%.[3] Following the 2001 Local Transport Plan cycling increased even more rapidly, with a 21% increase in journeys.[4] The Sustrans cycleway between Bristol and Bath, England. ... The Sustrans cycleway between Bristol and Bath, England. ... Sustrans is a British engineering charity which promotes sustainable transport. ... The first section of the NCN to be built was the Bristol and Bath Railway Path, opened in 1984. ...


Current problems and future developments

The rate of traffic increase in the Greater Bristol area has been up to three times the national average, and during peak time 50% of motorway traffic is local.[2] Without intervention the council predicts that between 2006 and 2016 an additional 20,000 people would be commuting in cars. Average peak time speeds in Bristol are 16 mph (26 km/h), the lowest of the eight English "core cities", with 23% of journey times spent stationary, costing the local economy £350 million per year.[4] Cars are used for 45% of journeys under 2km, and 68% of 2-5km journeys.[2] The dormitory towns of Weston Super Mare, Clevedon and Portishead, which have good connections to the M5, but poor public transport systems, contribute to the congestion, and have growing populations. Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... Weston-super-Mare is an English seaside resort town in North Somerset, population 71,758 (2001 census). ... Map sources for Clevedon at grid reference ST3971 Clevedon Village - circa 1907 Clevedon seafront is extremely windswept, as witnessed by this tree. ... Map sources for Portishead, Somerset at grid reference ST4676 Portishead (IPA: ) is a coastal town in North Somerset, England. ...

First Bus.
First Bus.

Bristol's bus service, run by First Group, has been a regular target of criticism. The University of the West of England Student's Union described first bus as "unsatisfactory" and "untennable",[5] while the 2006 Local Transport Plan describes public transport in Bristol as unattractive and expensive.[2] Bristol East MP, Kerry McCarthy, has stated that attempts to get motorists onto public transport will fail when, as in Bristol, providers repeatedly put fares up above the rate of inflation.[6] In 2005 the company was fined £96,250 for delays, and nearly lost a sixth of its vehicle licenses due to poor maintenance.[7] Download high resolution version (895x446, 128 KB)Livery of First Group PLC, demonstrated by a Bristol bus. ... Download high resolution version (895x446, 128 KB)Livery of First Group PLC, demonstrated by a Bristol bus. ... The University of the West of England (abbrev. ... A students union, student government, or student council is a student organization present at many colleges and universities, often with its own building on the campus, dedicated to social and organizational activities of the student body. ... Bristol East is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ... Kerry McCarthy (born 26 March 1965) is a British politician who was elected Labour Member of Parliament for Bristol East in the 2005 general election. ...


Since 2000 the city council has included a light rail system in its Local Transport Plan, but has so far been unable to fund the project. The city was offered European Union funding for the system, but the Department for Transport did not provide the required additional funding.[8] This article is about light rail systems in general. ... Local Transport Plans (LTPs) are an important part of Transportation Planning within the United Kingdom. ... In the United Kingdom, the Department for Transport is the government department responsible for the transport network. ...


Appendix: Transport used for commute

Source: 2001 census[9]

Mode of transport Bristol % National %
Car driver 55.20 61.78
On foot 12.78 9.68
Bus or coach 11.08 4.72
Car passenger 6.35 6.77
Bicycle 4.12 2.52
Motorcycle 1.67 1.06
Train 0.76 3.12
Taxi 0.25 0.36
Other 0.31 0.49
Work from home 7.40 9.48

References

  1. ^ House of Commons Debate, 2005. "Bristol-Portishead Rail Link." Hansard, Monday, 24 January 2005.
  2. ^ a b c d B&NES, Bristol City, North Somerset and South Gloucestershire councils, 2006. "Joint Local Transport Plan." Chapter 3. (PDF)
  3. ^ John Parkin, Bolton Institute Comparisons of cycle use for the journey to work from the '81, '91 and 2001 censuses. Traffic Engineering and Control, September 2003, cited in "Lies, damn lies and statistics." Accessed 2006-04-12.
  4. ^ a b B&NES, Bristol City, North Somerset and South Gloucestershire councils, 2006. "Joint Local Transport Plan." Chapter 1. (PDF)
  5. ^ UWESU, 2006. AGM (PDF).
  6. ^ Kerry McCarthy, et al, 2006-01-17. Oral Answers to Questions — Transport, House of Commons / Hansard.
  7. ^ BBC News Online, 2005. "Bus firm must reduce city fleet."
  8. ^ James Skinner, 2006. "Memorandum on Government Discrimination against Innovative Low-cost Light Rail in favour of Urban Diesel Buses." Sustraco / H.M. Treasury.
  9. ^ Office for National Statistics, 2001. Key Statistics 15: Travel to Work.

 
 

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