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Encyclopedia > Transport
Sustainable development Portal
The Ximen station, one of the stations of Metro Taipei.
The Ximen station, one of the stations of Metro Taipei.

Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another. The term is derived from the Latin trans ("across") and portare ("to carry"). Industries which have the business of providing equipment, actual transport, transport of people or goods and services used in transport of goods or people make up a large broad and important sector of most national economies, and are collectively referred to as transport industries. Transport can mean more than one thing: Transport, in the sense of engineering and infrastructure; see also List of transport topics. ... For the movement of people or objects, see transport. ... Image File history File links Sustainable_development. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1115, 1259 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1115, 1259 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Taipei Rapid Transit System (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Táiběi Dàzhòng Jiéyùn Xìtǒng, also known as the MRT, Metro Taipei, or by locals simply as the Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Táiběi Jiéyùn) is a series of underground and elevated metro... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about transported goods. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the human activity. ...

Contents

Aspects of transport

The field of transport has several aspects: loosely they can be dividede into a triad of infrastructure, vehicles, and operations. Infrastructure includes the transport networks (roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals, pipelines, etc.) that are used, as well as the nodes or terminals (such as airports, railway stations, bus stations and seaports). The vehicles generally ride on the networks, such as automobiles, bicycles, buses, trains, aircraft. The operations deal with the way the vehicles are operated on the network and the procedures set for this purpose including the legal environment (Laws, Codes, Regulations, etc.) Policies, such as how to finance the system (for example, the use of tolls or gasoline taxes) may be considered part of the operations. The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ... Business operations are those activities involved in the running of a business for the purpose of producing value for the stakeholders. ... For other uses, see Road (disambiguation). ... In aviation, an airway is a designated route in the air. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street station in 1865. ... For other meanings, see Bus stop (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... This mountain bicycle features oversized tires, a sturdy frame, front shock absorbers, and handlebars oriented perpendicular to the bikes axis Bicycle may also refer to Bicycle Playing Cards. ... This article is about the form of transport. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... Airplane and Aeroplane redirect here. ... Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses, and organizations raise, allocate, and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A gasoline tax (also known as a gas tax, petrol tax, fuel tax or fuel duty) is a sales tax imposed on the sale of gasoline. ...


Broadly speaking, the design of networks are the domain of civil engineering and urban planning, the design of vehicles of mechanical engineering and specialized subfields such as nautical engineering and aerospace engineering, and the operations are usually specialized, though might appropriately belong to operations research or systems engineering. The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... Naval architects design safe, useful or beautiful ships and boats for their clients. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns aircraft, spacecraft, and related topics. ... Operations Research or Operational Research (OR) is an interdisciplinary branch of mathematics which uses methods like mathematical modeling, statistics, and algorithms to arrive at optimal or good decisions in complex problems which are concerned with optimizing the maxima (profit, faster assembly line, greater crop yield, higher bandwidth, etc) or minima... Systems engineering techniques are used in complex projects: from spacecrafts to chip design, from robotics to creating large software products to building bridges, Systems engineering uses a host of tools that include modeling & simulation, requirements analysis, and scheduling to manage complexity Systems Engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary approach and means...


Modes and categories

Main article: Mode of transport

Modes are combinations of networks, vehicles, and operations, and include walking, the road transport system, rail transport, ship transport and modern aviation. Mode of transport is a general term for the different kinds of transportation of people or cargo: Car Truck Ship Aircraft ... A transport network, or transportation network in American English, is typically a network roads, streets, pipes, aqueducts, power lines, or nearly any structure which permits either vehicular movement or flow of some commodity. ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Disruptions in organized traffic flow can create delays lasting hours. ... railroads redirects here. ... A container ship // Water transport redirects here. ... Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft. ...


Categories of (non-human) animal-powered transport

Non-human animal-powered transportis a broad category of the human use of non-human working animals (also known as "beasts of burden") for the movement of people and goods. Humans may ride some of the larger of these animals directly, use them as pack animals for carrying goods, or harness them, singly or in teams, to pull (or haul) sleds or wheeled vehicles. (Non-human) animal-powered transport is a broad category of the human use of non-human animals (also known as beasts of burden) for the movement of people and goods. ... This article is about modern humans. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... For the River in the North-East of England, see River Team. ... Scene from winter nearly anywhere snow may fall on a handy hill—Children at play sledding. ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ...

Aviation or Air transport refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. ... Cable transport refers to the broad class of transport modes that rely on vehicles pulled by cables, rather than having an internal power source. ... Conveyor transport is the broad category of transport that includes modes developed from the idea of a conveyor belt. ... Human-powered transport is transport of person(s) and/or goods powered by human muscle. ... A hybrid transport is a form of transport that combines human power with machine or other power, and is not easily classified in the other categories. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... railroads redirects here. ... Disruptions in organized traffic flow can create delays lasting hours. ... A container ship // Water transport redirects here. ... Currently, the most common technology for space transport is rocket propulsion, which expels matter to provide a net forward thrust. ... Also commonly referred to Sustainable Transport or Sustainable Mobility, there is no widely accepted definition of sustainable transportation by any of these names. ... Topics relevant to transport on planets, natural satellites or other kinds of celestial objects other than the planet Earth: Lunar Rover Lunokhod Mars Rover Aerobot Categories: Transportation | Space exploration ... Most transport media in use today are generally fossil fuel powered. ...

Air transport

Main article: Air transport

A fixed-wing aircraft, commonly called airplane or aeroplane, is a heavier-than-air craft where movement of the wings in relation to the aircraft is not used to generate lift. The term is used to distinguish from rotary-wing aircraft, where the movement of the lift surfaces relative to the aircraft generates lift. A more rare type of aircraft that is neither fixed-wing nor rotary-wing is an ornithopter. A heliplane is both fixed-wing and rotary-wing. Aviation or Air transport refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. ... Airplane and Aeroplane redirect here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Rotary-wing aircraft. ... An ornithopter (from Greek ornithos bird and pteron wing) is an aircraft that flies by flapping its wings. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ...

A Cessna 177 propeller-driven general aviation aircraft
A Cessna 177 propeller-driven general aviation aircraft

Fixed-wing aircraft include a large range of craft from small trainers and recreational aircraft to large airliners and military cargo aircraft. Some aircraft use fixed wings to provide lift only part of the time and may or may not be referred to as fixed-wing. A Cessna 177B Cardinal, Simths Falls Ontario 2004 File links The following pages link to this file: Cessna 177 ... A Cessna 177B Cardinal, Simths Falls Ontario 2004 File links The following pages link to this file: Cessna 177 ... Cessna 177B Cardinal at Smiths Falls, Ontario 2004 Cessna 177RG Cardinal RG at the COPA Flight 33 Arnprior, Ontario Fly-in 10 July 2005 The Cardinal badge sported by many Cessna 177 and 177RG aircraft Cessna 177B Cardinal at the COPA Convention, Wetaskiwin, Alberta June 2005 The Cessna 177 Cardinal... General aviation (abbr. ... An Airbus A340 airliner operated by Air Jamaica An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft with the primary function of transporting paying passengers. ...


The current term also embraces aircraft with folding the wings that are intended to fold when on the ground. This is usually to ease storage or facilitate transport on, for example, a vehicle trailer or the powered lift connecting the hangar deck of an aircraft carrier to its flight deck. It also embraces aircraft, such as the General Dynamics F-111, Grumman F-14 Tomcat and the Panavia Tornado, which can vary the sweep angle of their wings during flight. These aircraft are termed "variable geometry" aircraft. When the wings of these aircraft are fully swept, usually for high speed cruise, the trailing edges of their wings about the leading edges of their tailplanes, giving an impression of a single delta wing if viewed in plan. There are also rare examples of aircraft which can vary the angle of incidence of their wings in flight, such the F-8 Crusader, which are also considered to be "fixed-wing". Flying machine redirects here. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... The General Dynamics F-111 is a medium-range strategic bomber, reconnaissance, and tactical strike aircraft designed in the 1960s. ... The Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, later Grumman Aerospace Corporation, was a leading producer of military and civilian aircraft of the 20th century. ... The Grumman F-14 Tomcat is a supersonic, twin-engine, two-seat, variable geometry wing aircraft. ... RAF Panavia Tornado GR4 Panavia Aircraft is a multinational company established by the three partner nations of the Tornado Multi Role Combat Aircraft (MRCA) project, Germany, Italy and the UK. The company is based and registered in Germany. ... The Panavia Tornado is a family of twin-engine fighters, which was jointly developed by the United Kingdom, Germany and Italy. ... A swing-wing is a wing configuration that allows it to alter its planform for various flight conditions. ... The delta-wing is a wing planform in the form of a triangle. ... Fig. ... The F-8 Crusader (originally F8U) was a single-engine aircraft carrier-based fighter aircraft built by Chance-Vought of Dallas, Texas, USA. It replaced the Vought F-7 Cutlass. ...


Two necessities for all fixed-wing aircraft (as well as rotary-wing aircraft) are air flow over the wings for lifting of the aircraft, and an open area for landing. The majority of aircraft, however, also need an airport with the infrastructure to receive maintenance, restocking, refueling and for the loading and unloading of crew, cargo and/or passengers. While the vast majority of aircraft land and take off on land, some are capable of take off and landing on ice, snow and calm water.


The aircraft is the second fastest method of transport, after the rocket. Commercial jet aircraft can reach up to 875 km/h. Single-engined aircraft are capable of reaching 175 km/h or more at cruise speed. Supersonic aircraft (military, research and a few private aircraft) can reach speeds faster than sound. The record is currently held by the SR-71 with a speed of 3,529.56 km/h (2193.17 mph, 1905.81 knots).[1] This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... The Lockheed SR-71, unofficially known as the Blackbird, is a long-range, advanced, strategic reconnaissance aircraft developed from the Lockheed A-12 and YF-12A aircraft by Lockheeds Skunk works, which was also responsible for the U-2 and many other advanced aircraft. ...


Rail

Main article: Rail transport

Rail transport is the transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. A typical railway (or railroad) track consists of two parallel steel (or in older networks, iron) rails, generally anchored perpendicular to beams (termed sleepers or ties) of timber, concrete, or steel to maintain a consistent distance apart, or gauge. The rails and perpendicular beams are usually then placed on a foundation made of concrete or compressed earth and gravel in a bed of ballast to prevent the track from buckling (bending out of its original configuration) as the ground settles over time beneath and under the weight of the vehicles passing above. The vehicles traveling on the rails are arranged in a train; a series of individual powered or unpowered vehicles linked together, displaying markers. These vehicles (referred to, in general, as cars, carriages or wagons) move with much less friction than on rubber tires on a paved road, and the locomotive that pulls the train tends to use energy far more efficiently as a result. railroads redirects here. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Rail tracks. ... Fig. ... A statically determinate beam, bending under an evenly distributed load. ... Ferroconcrete sleepers A variant fastening of rails to wooden sleepers A railroad tie, cross tie, or sleeper is a rectangular object used as a base for railroad tracks. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... This article is about the construction material. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... The dominant rail gauge in each country shown Rail gauge is the distance between the inner sides of the two parallel rails that make up a railway track. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Soil is a complex mixture of materials, principally ground up rock and water. ... Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm) Gravel is rock that is of a certain particle size range. ... This article is about engineering. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... Great Western Railway No. ...

Acela Express, an American high-speed passenger train
Acela Express, an American high-speed passenger train

In rail transport, a train consists of rail vehicles that move along guides to transport freight or passengers from one place to another. The guideway (permanent way) usually consists of conventional rail tracks, but might also be monorail or maglev. Propulsion for the train is provided by a separate locomotive, or from individual motors in self-propelled multiple units. Most trains are powered by diesel engines or by electricity supplied by trackside systems. Historically the steam engine was the dominant form of locomotive power through the mid-20th century, but other sources of power (such as horses, rope (or wire), gravity, pneumatics, or gas turbines) are possible. Image File history File linksMetadata Acela_2000. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Acela_2000. ... Acela Express (often called simply Acela, leading to early confusion with the Acela Regional and Acela Commuter) is the name used by Amtrak for the high-speed tilting train service operating between Washington, D.C. and Boston via New York City, Baltimore, and Philadelphia along the Northeast Corridor (NEC) in... French-designed Eurostar and Thalys TGVs side-by-side in the Paris-Gare du Nord. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... The permanent way refers to the rails and sleepers of a railway line. ... Rail tracks. ... The KL Monorail in Kuala Lumpur, a colorful straddle-beam monorail A monorail is a single rail serving as a track for a wheeled vehicle; also, a vehicle traveling on such a track. ... Transrapid at the Emsland test facility Transrapid maglev in Shanghai Magnetic levitation transport, or maglev, is a radically new form of transportation that suspends, guides and propels vehicles via electro-magnetic energy. ... Great Western Railway No. ... This article is about Multiple Units vehicles. ... A diesel engine built by MAN AG in 1906 Rudolf Diesels 1893 patent on his engine design A Diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... Overhead wire in Coventry, England Overhead wire and its suspension system in Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA A railway electrification system is a way of supplying electric power to electric locomotives and multiple units. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ... A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, elongated strand of drawn metal. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... Pneumatics is the use of pressurized air to effect mechanical motion. ... This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ...


Road transport

Main article: Road transport

Disruptions in organized traffic flow can create delays lasting hours. ...

Automobile

An automobile is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. Different types of automobiles include cars, buses, trucks, and vans. Some include motorcycles in the category, but cars are the most typical automobiles. As of 2002 there were 590 million passenger cars worldwide (roughly one car for every ten people), of which 170 million in the U.S. (roughly one car for every two people) [1]. “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... For other uses, see Wheel (disambiguation). ... A passenger is a term broadly used to describe any person who travels in a vehicle, but bears little or no responsibility for the tasks required for that vehicle to arrive at its destination. ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Internal combustion engine. ... “Autobus” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A motorcycle (or motorbike) is a two-wheeled vehicle powered by an engine. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...


The automobile was thought of as an environmental improvement over horses when it was first introduced in the 1890s. Before its introduction, in New York City alone, more than 1,800 tons of manure had to be removed from the streets daily, although the manure was used as natural fertilizer for crops and to build top soil. In 2006, the automobile is recognized as one of the primary sources of world-wide air pollution and a cause of substantial noise pollution and adverse health effects. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Air pollution is a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. ... Noise pollution (or environmental noise in technical venues) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ... Health effects, health impacts or health risks are an important consideration in many areas, such as hygiene, pollution studies, workplace safety, nutrition and health sciences in general. ...


See also

“Autobus” redirects here. ... A tanker road train Three road trains, Western Australia A road train is a trucking concept used in remote areas of Australia, the United States, and Western Canada to move bulky loads efficiently. ... 18 wheeler redirects here. ... For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ... Look up limousine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For specific countries see Taxicabs around the world. ... A share taxi is a mode of transport that falls between private transport and conventional bus transport, with a fixed route, but the convenience of stopping anywhere to pick or drop passengers, etc. ... For the 1996 film, see Carpool (film). ...

Water transport

Main article: Water transport

Ship Transport is the process of moving people, goods, etc. ...

Watercraft

A watercraft is a vehicle designed to float on and move across (or under) water for pleasure, physical exercise (in the case of many small boats), transporting people and/or goods, or military missions. A watercraft is a vehicle designed to float on and move across (or through) water for pleasure, physical exercise (in the case of many small boats), transporting people and/or goods, or military missions. ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


The common need for buoyancy unites all watercraft, and makes each one's hull a dominant aspect of its construction, maintenance, and appearance. A hull is the body or frame of a ship or boat. ...


Most watercraft would be described as either ships or boats; although nearly all ships are larger than nearly all boats, the distinction between those two categories is not one of size per se. A watercraft is a vehicle designed to float on and move across (or through) water for pleasure, physical exercise (in the case of many small boats), transporting people and/or goods, or military missions. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ...

  • A rule of thumb says "a boat can fit on a ship, but a ship can't fit on a boat", and a ship usually has sufficient size to carry its own boats, such as lifeboats, dinghies, or runabouts.
  • Often local law and regulation will define the exact size (or the number of masts) that distinguishes a ship from boats.
  • Traditionally submarines were called "boats", perhaps reflecting their cramped conditions: small size reduces the need for power, and thus the need to surface or snorkel for a supply of the air that running diesel engines requires; in contrast, nuclear-powered submarines' reactors supply abundant power without consuming air, and such craft are large, much roomier, and classed as ships.

Another definition says a ship is any floating craft that transports cargo for the purpose of earning revenue; in that context, passenger ships transport "supercargo", another name for passengers or persons not working on board. However, neither fishing boats nor ferries are considered ships, though both carry cargo (their catch of the day or passengers) (and for that matter lifeboats). A rule of thumb is an easily learned and easily applied procedure for approximately calculating or recalling some value, or for making some determination. ... For the 1944 movie, see Lifeboat (film). ... Dinghy of the schooner Adventuress A dinghy is a small utility boat attached to a larger boat. ... A runabout is any small motorboat holding between four and eight people, well suited to moving about on the water. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... mizzen mast, mainmast and foremast Grand Turk The mast of a sailing ship is a tall vertical pole which supports the sails. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... Nuclear power station at Leibstadt, Switzerland. ... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ...


English seldom uses the term watercraft to describe any specific individual object (and probably then only as an affectation): rather the term serves to unify the category that ranges from small boats to the largest ships, and also includes the diverse watercraft for which some term even more specific than ship or boat (e.g., canoe, kayak, raft, barge, jet ski) comes to mind first. (Some of these would even be considered at best questionable as examples of boats.) For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Canadian canoe be merged into this article or section. ... Look up kayak in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Traditional raft, from 1884 edition Huckleberry Finn and Jim Children successfully test their raft, in Brixham harbour, south Devon, England. ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ... Jet ski is the brand name of Kawasaki Heavy Industries personal water craft. ...


Ship transport

Main article: Ship transport

Ship transport is the process of moving people, goods, etc. by barge, boat, ship or sailboat over a sea, ocean, lake, canal or river. This is frequently undertaken for purposes of commerce, recreation or military objectives. A container ship // Water transport redirects here. ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... Diagram of Sailboat, in this case a typical monohull sloop with a bermuda or marconi rig. ... This article is about the body of water. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Fun” redirects here. ...


A hybrid of ship transport and road transport is the historic horse-drawn boat. Hybrids of ship transport and air transport are kite surfing and parasailing. Disruptions in organized traffic flow can create delays lasting hours. ... A horse-drawn boat or tow-boat is a historic boat operating on a canal, pulled by a horse walking on a special road along the canal, the tow-path. ... Aviation or Air transport refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. ... Kiteboarders use inflatable kites tethered to harnesses to glide through water and air. ... Parasailing in Punta Cana, Dominican Republic Parasailing, also known as parascending, is a recreational activity where a person (two or three people may also ride at the same time) is towed behind a vehicle (usually a boat) while attached to a parachute. ...


The first craft were probably types of canoes cut out from tree trunks. The colonization of Australia by Indigenous Australians provides indirect but conclusive evidence for the latest date for the invention of ocean-going craft; land bridges linked southeast Asia through most of the Malay Archipelago but a strait had to be crossed to arrive at New Guinea, which was then linked to Australia. Ocean-going craft were required for the colonization to happen. It has been suggested that Canadian canoe be merged into this article or section. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Languages Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religions Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group names Indigenous... World map depicting Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago is a vast archipelago located between mainland Southeastern Asia (Indochina) and Australia. ... Over-Simplified diagram A strait is a narrow channel of water that connects two larger bodies of water, and thus lies between two land masses. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ...


Early sea transport was accomplished with ships that were either rowed or used the wind for propulsion, and often, in earlier times with smaller vessels, a combination of the two. For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ...


Also there have been horse-powered boats, with horses on the deck providing power [2].


Ship transport was frequently used as a mechanism for conducting warfare. Military use of the seas and waterways is covered in greater detail under navy. For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ...


In the 1800s the first steam ships were developed, using a steam engine to drive a paddle wheel or propeller to move the ship. The steam was produced using wood or coal. Now most ships have an engine using a slightly refined type of petroleum called bunker fuel. Some specialized ships, such as submarines, use nuclear power to produce the steam. // Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... Paddle steamers - Lucerne-Switzerland Left: original paddlewheel from a paddle steamer on the lake of Lucerne. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... A paddle steamer, paddleboat, or paddlewheeler is a ship driven by one or more paddle wheels driven by a steam engine. ... For other uses, see Propeller (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Steam (disambiguation). ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Engine (disambiguation). ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Fuel oil is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ...


Recreational or educational craft still use wind power, while some smaller craft use internal combustion engines to drive one or more propellers, or in the case of jet boats, an inboard water jet. In shallow draft areas, such as the Everglades, some craft, such as the hovercraft, are propelled by large pusher-prop fans. “Fun” redirects here. ... The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... For other uses, see Propeller (disambiguation). ... Map of the Everglades ecoregion as delineated by the WWF. Satellite image from NASA. The yellow line encloses two ecoregions, the Everglades and the South Florida rocklands. The South Florida rocklands ecoregion includes the Florida Keys and offshore islands and two patches within the Everglades. ... A Hovercraft, or Air-Cushion Vehicle (ACV), is an amphibious vehicle or craft, designed to travel over any sufficiently smooth surface - land or water - supported by a cushion of slowly moving, low-pressure air, ejected downwards against the surface close below it. ...


Although relatively slow, modern sea transport is a highly effective method of transporting large quantities of non-perishable goods. Transport by water is significantly less costly than transport by air for trans-continental shipping. Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft. ... Damaged package The Panama canal. ...


In the context of sea transport, a road is an anchorage. For other uses, see Anchor (disambiguation). ...


See also

A New York Water Taxi docks at Pier 11 near Wall Street. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Transport and communications

Transport and communication are both substitutes and complements. Though it might be possible that sufficiently advanced communication could substitute for transport, one could telegraph, telephone, fax, or email a customer rather than visiting them in person, it has been found that those modes of communication in fact generate more total interactions, including interpersonal interactions. The growth in transport would be impossible without communication, which is vital for advanced transportation systems, from railroads which want to run trains in two directions on a single track, to air traffic control which requires knowing the location of aircraft in the sky. Thus, it has been found that the increase of one generally leads to more of the other. Communication is a process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods. ... Communication is a process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods. ...


Transport and land use

The first Europeans who came to the New World brought with them a culture of transportation centred on the wheel. North America's Aboriginal peoples had developed differently, and moved through their country by means of canoes, kayaks, umiaks, coracles, and other water-borne vehicles, constructed from various types of bark, hide, bone, wood, and other materials; as well, the snowshoe, toboggan and sled were essential during the winter conditions that prevailed throughout the northern half of the continent for much of the year. Europeans quickly adopted all of these technologies themselves, and therefore were able to travel to the northern interior of Canada via the many waterways that branched out from the St. Lawrence River and from Hudson Bay.[2] The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... For other uses, see Wheel (disambiguation). ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... It has been suggested that Canadian canoe be merged into this article or section. ... Look up kayak in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The umiak, umiaq, umiac, oomiac or oomiak is a type of boat used by the Inuit for transportation. ... Coracle: Ku-Dru or Kowa of Tibet—Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago A coracle is a primitive type of boat. ... For other uses, see Bark (disambiguation). ... Look up hide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Snowshoe (disambiguation). ... A modern bobsleigh toboggan A toboggan is a simple sled used on snow, to carry one or more people (often children) down a hill or other slope, for recreation. ... Scene from winter nearly anywhere snow may fall on a handy hill—Children at play sledding. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Hudson Bay, Canada. ...


There is a well-known relationship between the density of development, and types of transportation. Intensity of development is often measured by area of floor area ratio (FAR), the ratio of usable floorspace to area of land. As a rule of thumb, FARs of 1.5 or less are well suited to automobiles, those of six and above are well suited to trains. The range of densities from about two up to about four is not well served by conventional public or private transport. Many cities have grown into these densities, and are suffering traffic problems. Land use is the pattern of construction and activity land is used for. ... In the field of zoning, floor area ratio refers to a limit on how much total space, expressed as a fraction of the total size of the parcel of land involved, may be consumed by the floor or floors of a building or buildings constructed on the parcel. ... Bangkok Skytrain. ... Private transport, as opposed to public transport, is transport in ones own vehicle (e. ...


Land uses support activities. Those activities are spatially separated. People need transport to go from one to the other (from home to work to shop back to home for instance). Transport is a "derived demand," in that transport is unnecessary but for the activities pursued at the ends of trips. Good land use keeps common activities close (e.g. housing and food shopping), and places higher-density development closer to transportation lines and hubs. Poor land use concentrates activities (such as jobs) far from other destinations (such as housing and shopping).


There are economies of agglomeration. Beyond transportation some land uses are more efficient when clustered. Transportation facilities consume land, and in cities, pavement (devoted to streets and parking) can easily exceed 20 percent of the total land use. An efficient transport system can reduce land waste. The term Economies of agglomeration is used in urban economics to describe the benefits that firms obtain when locating near each other. ...


Transport in cities

Because of the much higher densities of people and activities, environmental, economic, public health, social and quality of life considerations and constraints are important in cities. For the psychology topic, see Environmental psychology. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... Social refers to human society or its organization. ... The well-being or quality of life of a population is an important concern in economics and political science. ...


Urban transport has been led by professional transport planners and traffic experts, who have made use of the same forecasting and response tools that they have used to good effect in other transport sectors. This has led in most cities to a substantial overbuilding of the road and supporting infrastructure, which has maximized throughput in terms of the numbers of vehicles and the speeds with which they pass through and move around in the built-up areas.


Too much infrastructure and too much smoothing for maximum vehicle throughput means that in many cities there is too much traffic and many - if not all - of the negative impacts that come with it. It is only in recent years that traditional practices have started to be questioned in many places, and as a result of new types of analysis which bring in a much broader range of skills than those traditionally relied on – spanning such areas as environmental impact analysis, public health, sociologists as well as economists who increasingly are questioning the viability of the old mobility solutions. European cities are leading this transition.


See also

Bangkok Skytrain. ... The engineering of this roundabout in Bristol, England, attempts to make traffic flow free-moving Transport engineering (alternatively transportation engineering) is the science of safe and efficient movement of people and goods (transport). ... Also commonly referred to Sustainable Transport or Sustainable Mobility, there is no widely accepted definition of sustainable transportation by any of these names. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Transport, energy, and the environment

Main article: Global warming

Transport is a major use of energy, and transport burns most of the world's petroleum. Transportation accounts for 2/3 of all U.S. petroleum consumption.[3] Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ...


The transportation sector generates 82 percent of carbon monoxide and 56 percent of NOx emissions and over one-quarter of total US greenhouse gas emissions.[4] Hydrocarbon fuels also produce carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas widely thought to be the chief cause of global climate change, and petroleum-powered engines, especially inefficient ones, create air pollution, including nitrous oxides and particulates (soot). Although vehicles in developed countries have been getting cleaner because of environmental regulations, this has been offset by an increase in the number of vehicles and more use of each vehicle. Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... The term climate change is used to refer to changes in the Earths climate. ... For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ... Environmental law is a body of law which addresses the system of complex and interlocking rules which seeks to protect from destruction or development certain species or favored natural areas thought to be endangered by human encroachment. ...


Other environmental impacts of transport systems include traffic congestion and automobile-oriented urban sprawl, which can consume natural habitat and agricultural lands. This article is about the natural environment. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


Toxic runoff from roads and parking lots that can also pollute water supplies and aquatic ecosystems.


Alternative propulsion can reduce pollution. Low pollution fuels may have a reduced carbon content, and thereby contribute less in the way of carbon dioxide emissions, and generally have reduced sulfur, since sulfur exhaust is a cause of acid rain. The most popular low-pollution fuels at this time are biofuels: gasoline-ethanol blends and biodiesel. Hydrogen is an even lower-pollution fuel that produces no carbon dioxide, but producing and storing it economically is currently not feasible. Plug-in hybrids are energy-efficient vehicles that are going to be in the mass-production. Alternative propulsion is a term used frequently for power train concepts differing to the standard internal combustion engine concept used in gasoline- or diesel-fueled vehicles. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... Information on pump, California. ... This article is about transesterified plant and animal oils. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Hybrids Plus plug-in hybrid Toyota Prius conversion with PHEV-30 (30 mile or 48 km all-electric range) battery packs A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an electric power source. ... In physics and engineering, including mechanical and electrical engineering, energy efficiency is a dimensionless number, with a value between 0 and 1 or, when multiplied by 100, is given as a percentage. ...


Efficiency

See also: Fuel efficiency in transportation

Another strategy is to make vehicles more efficient, which reduces pollution and waste by reducing the energy use. Electric vehicles use efficient electric motors, but their range is limited by either the extent of the electric transmission system or by the storage capacity of batteries. Electrified public transport generally uses overhead wires or third rails to transmit electricity to vehicles, and is used for both rail and bus transport. Battery electric vehicles store their electric fuel onboard in a battery pack. Another method is to generate energy using fuel cells, which may eventually be two to five times as efficient as the internal combustion engines currently used in most vehicles. Another effective method is to streamline ground vehicles, which spend up to 75% of their energy on air-resistance, and to reduce their weight. Regenerative braking is possible in all electric vehicles and recaptures the energy normally lost to braking, and is becoming common in rail vehicles. In internal combustion automobiles and buses, regenerative braking is not possible, unless electric vehicle components are also a part of the powertrain, these are called hybrid electric vehicles. This page describes fuel efficiency in means of transportation. ... For battery powered passenger automobiles, see battery electric vehicle. ... Symbols representing a single Cell (top) and Battery (bottom), used in circuit diagrams. ... For electric vehicles other than battery powered passenger automobiles, see electric vehicle. ... A battery pack is a set of any number of (preferably) identical batteries or individual battery cells. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... Regenerative braking is any technology which allows a vehicle to recapture and store part of the kinetic energy that would otherwise be lost to heat when braking. ... A Chevy Volt, one example of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, expected to set a new benchmark. ...


Shifting travel from automobiles to well-utilized public transport can reduce energy consumption and traffic congestion.


Walking and bicycling instead of traveling by motorized means also reduces the consumption of fossil fuels. While the use of these two modes generally declines as a given area becomes wealthier, there are some countries (including Denmark, Netherlands, Japan and parts of Germany, Finland and Belgium) where bicycling comprises a significant share of trips. Some cities with particularly high modal shares of cycling are Oulu (25%), Copenhagen (33%) and Groningen (50%). A number of other cities, including London, Paris, New York, Sydney, Bogotá, Chicago and San Francisco are creating networks of bicycle lanes and bicycle paths, but the value of such devices for utility cycling is highly controversial. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cycling is a recreation, a transport across land. ... Location of Oulu in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Finland Province Oulu Province Region Northern Ostrobothnia Sub-region Oulu sub-region Charter 1605 Government  - City manager Matti Pennanen Area  - City 449. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province Groningen Area (2006)  - Municipality 83. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... For other uses, see Bogotá (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article or section should include material from Cycle path debate Segregated cycle facilities may consist of a separate road, track, path or lane that is designated for use by cyclists and from which motorised traffic is generally excluded. ... This article or section should include material from Cycle path debate Segregated cycle facilities may consist of a separate road, track, path or lane that is designated for use by cyclists and from which motorised traffic is generally excluded. ... Ugandan bicycle taxi or bodaboda Cargo-bicycle and Trike for rent Bremen. ...


There is also a growing movement of drivers who practice ways to increase their MPG and save fuel through driving techniques. They are often referred to as hypermilers. Hypermilers have broken records of fuel efficiency, averaging 109 miles per gallon driving a Prius. In non-hybrid vehicles these techniques are also beneficial. Hypermiler Wanye Gerdes can get 59 MPG in a Honda Accord and 30 MPG in an Acura MDX.[5] Hypermilers are drivers who exceed EPA estimated mileage on their vehicles by modifying their driving habits. ... Prius may refer to: Hitachi Flora Prius, a personal computer. ... The Honda Accord is an automobile manufactured by Honda since 1976, debuting as a compact hatchback and evolving into a intermediate vehicle. ... The Acura MDX (Honda MDX in Japan and Australia) is a mid-size luxury crossover SUV produced by the Japanese automaker Acura since the 2001 model year. ...


Research

Transport research facilities are mainly attached to universities or are steered by the state. In most countries (not in France and Spain) one can see now how laboratories are brought into PPP-operation, where industry takes over part of the share. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to the patterns of everyday speech. ...


Some major research centres in Europe:

The European Commission supports the co-operation and collaboration amongst the transport laboratories by funding projects like EXTR@Web and Intransnet. Especially the transition from planned economy to achieving a stable position on the market will be a challenge for laboratories in the new member states. Another EU-project etra.ccis coping with those problems. Originally established by the British Government in 1933, since privatisation in 1996 the Transport Research Laboratory (TRL) in Crowthorne Berkshire is a private laboratory involved in all areas of road transport and environmental impact research, including vehicle crash tests. ...


USA:

The National Transportation Research Center is a facility located in Knoxville, Tennessee dedicated to improving transportation systems as regards efficiency, effects on the environment, and safety. ...

See also

This article is part
of the Transport series
Modes...

Animal-powered
Aviation
Human-powered
Ship
Rail
Road Transport title, both photos from sxc. ... Mode of transport is a general term for the different kinds of transportation of people or cargo: Car Truck Ship Aircraft ... (Non-human) animal-powered transport is a broad category of the human use of non-human animals (also known as beasts of burden) for the movement of people and goods. ... Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft. ... Human-powered transport is transport of person(s) and/or goods powered by human muscle. ... A container ship // Water transport redirects here. ... railroads redirects here. ... Disruptions in organized traffic flow can create delays lasting hours. ...

See also...
Topics | Portal
This box: view  talk  edit
Main lists: List of basic transport topics and List of transport topics

This is a list of transport related topics. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... This is a list of transport related topics. ... This article is about transported goods. ... Inca-era terraces on Taquile are used to grow traditional Andean staples, such as quinua and potatoes, alongside wheat, a European import. ... Cost overrun is defined as excess of actual cost over budget. ... Emission standards are requirements that set specific limits to the amount of pollutants that can be released into the environment. ... Contents // Categories: Transportation | Stub ... A megaproject is a very large investment project. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A sealed pack of diced pork from Tesco. ... Bangkok Skytrain. ... A share taxi is a mode of transport that falls between private transport and conventional bus transport, with a fixed route, but the convenience of stopping anywhere to pick or drop passengers, etc. ... Damaged package The Panama canal. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... For specific countries see Taxicabs around the world. ... The engineering of this roundabout in Bristol, England, attempts to make traffic flow free-moving Transport engineering (alternatively transportation engineering) is the science of safe and efficient movement of people and goods (transport). ... Transportation forecasting is the process of estimating the number of vehicles or travelers that will use a specific transportation facility in the future. ... Sustainable transport, also commonly referred to as Sustainable Transportation or Sustainable Mobility, has no widely accepted definition. ... Contents   Overviews   Academia   Topics   Basic topics   Tables   Glossaries   Portals   Categories See Lists of topics: ReferencesYO YO whas up!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! See: Lists of topics: Art and culture More territories: Bouvet Island â€¢ French Southern Territories â€¢ Heard Island and McDonald Islands â€¢ South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands â€¢ Antarctic territorial claims List of geography... Transshipment is the shipment of goods to an intermediate destination, and then from there to yet another destination. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ FAI.org
  2. ^ Virtual Vault, an online exhibition of Canadian historical art at Library and Archives Canada
  3. ^ http://www.eesi.org/programs/cleanBus/PHEVS/plugin2.about.htm
  4. ^ http://www.eesi.org/programs/cleanBus/PHEVS/plugin2.about.htm
  5. ^ Gaffney, Dennis. "This Guy Can Get 59 MPG in a Plain Old Accord. Beat That, Punk.", Mother Jones, 2007-01-01. Retrieved on 2007-04-20. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Look up transport, transportation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • EU Transport in figures, Eurostat
  • "Transportation and Maps" in Virtual Vault, an online exhibition of Canadian historical art at Library and Archives Canada

  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Transport - Encyclopedia Article (806 words)
Transport, or transportation (as it is called in the United States), is the movement of people and goods from one place to another.
The growth in transport would be impossible without communication, which is vital for advanced transportation systems, from railroads which want to run trains in two directions on a single track, to air traffic control which requires knowing the location of aircraft in the sky.
Transport is a "derived demand," in that transport is unnecessary but for the activities pursued at the ends of trips.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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