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Encyclopedia > Transpiration

Transpiration is the evaporation of excess water from aerial parts and of plants, especially leaves but also stems, flowers and fruits. Transpiration is a side effect of the plant needing to open its stomata in order to obtain carbon dioxide gas from the air for photosynthesis. Transpiration also cools plants and enables mass flow of mineral nutrients from roots to shoots. Mass flow is caused by the decrease in hydrostatic (water) pressure in the upper parts of the plants due to the diffusion of water out of stomata into the atmosphere. Water is absorbed at the roots by osmosis, and any dissolved mineral nutrients travel with it through the xylem. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... “Foliage” redirects here. ... Stem showing internode and nodes plus leaf petiole and new stem rising from node. ... A Phalaenopsis flower Rudbeckia fulgida A flower, (<Old French flo(u)r<Latin florem<flos), also known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This is not about surgically created bowel openings; see stoma (medicine) In botany, a stoma (also stomate; plural stomata) is a tiny opening or pore, found mostly on the undersurface of a plant leaf, and used for gas exchange. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms, and is in a gaseous state in the atmosphere of the Earth. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Mass flow is the movement of substances at equal rates or as a single body. ... Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements that are necessary for plant growth. ... Primary and secondary roots in a cotton plant In vascular plants, the root is that organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (compare with stem). ... In botany, the shoot is one of two primary sections of a plant; the other is the root. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Stoma of a leaf under a microscope. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[3] Earths atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earths gravity. ... Osmosis is the net movement of water across a partially permeable membrane from a region of high solvent potential to an area of low solvent potential, up a solute concentration gradient. ... In vascular plants, xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in plants, phloem being the other one. ...


The rate of transpiration is directly related to whether the stomata are open or closed. The amount of water lost by a plant depends on its size, along with the surrounding light intensity, temperature, humidity, wind speed, and soil water supply. The reason that an increase in temperature will cause an increase in transpiration rate is because an increase in temperature will cause more water to evaporate from the cell walls. This will increase the water potential gradient between the leaf interior and the outside air causing water to leave the leaf more quickly, thereby increasing the rate of transpiration. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Technically, soil forms the pedosphere: the interface between the lithosphere (rocky part of the planet) and the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


A fully grown tree may lose several hundred gallons (a few cubic meters) of water through its leaves on a hot, dry day. About 90% of the water that enters a plant's roots is used for this process. The transpiration ratio is the ratio of the mass of water transpired to the mass of dry matter produced; the transpiration ratio of crops tends to fall between 200 and 1000 (i.e., crop plants transpire 200 to 1000 kg of water for every kg of dry matter produced) (Martin, Leonard & Stamp 1976, p. 81). The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ... A crop is any plant that is grown in significant quantities to be harvested as food, livestock fodder, or for another economic purpose. ...


Transpiration rate can be measured by a potometer. There are two kinds: mass potometers, which measure transpiration, and bubble potometers, which measure water uptake. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Desert plants and conifers have specially adapted structures, such as thick cuticles, reduced leaf areas, sunken stomata and hairs to reduce transpiration and conserve water. Many cacti conduct photosynthesis in succulent stems, rather than leaves, so the surface area of the shoot is very low. Many desert plants have a special type of photosynthesis, termed Crassulacean acid metabolism or CAM photosynthesis in which the stomata are closed during the day and open at night when transpiration will be lower. This article is about arid terrain. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales &#8224; Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales &#8224; Voltziales &#8224; The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Genera See Taxonomy of the Cactaceae A cactus (plural cacti, cactuses or cactus) is any member of the succulent plant family Cactaceae, native to the Americas. ... Succulent plants, or succulents, are plants that store water in their enlarged fleshy leaves, stems, or roots. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) is a carbon fixation pathway in some photosynthetic plants. ...


References

  • A description of transpiration, including a short animation illustrating the process
  • Martin, J.; W. Leonard & D. Stamp (1976), Principles of Field Crop Production (Third Edition), New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., ISBN 0-02-376720-0

  Results from FactBites:
 
transpiration - HighBeam Encyclopedia (469 words)
Transpiration functions to effect the ascent of sap from the roots to the leaves (thus supplying the food-manufacturing cells with water needed for photosynthesis) and to provide the moisture necessary for the diffusion of carbon dioxide into and oxygen out of these cells.
Transpiration efficiency, specific leaf weight, and mineral concentration in peanut and pearl millet.
Transpiration in upper Amazonia floodplain and upland forests in response to drought-breaking rains.
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