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Encyclopedia > Transnistria

Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ
Republica Moldovenească Nistreană
Приднестровская Молдавская Республика
Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika
Придністровська Молдавська Республіка
Pridnistrovs'ka Moldavs'ka Respublika

Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic Romania controlled (August 19 1941 - January 29 1944) the whole Transnistrian region between Dniester, Bug rivers and Black Sea coast. ...

Flag of Transnistria Coat of arms of Transnistria
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: Anthem of Transnistria
Location of Transnistria
Capital
(and largest city)
 Tiraspol
46°50′N 29°37′E
Official languages Moldovan, Russian, Ukrainian
Government Semi-presidential
 -  President Igor Smirnov
Independence from Moldova 
 -  Declared September 2, 1990 
 -  Recognition unrecognized 
Area
 -  Total 4,163 km² (172)
1,607 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 2.35
Population
 -  2005 estimate 555,000 (166)
 -  2004 census 555,347 
 -  Density 133 /km² (77)
345 /sq mi
Currency Transnistrian ruble (PRB)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Internet TLD none1
Calling code +373 5
+373 2
1 .ru and .md sometimes used.

Transnistria (also Pridnestrovie) is a de facto independent republic within the internationally recognized borders of Moldova in Eastern Europe. Transnistria declared independence on September 2, 1990 (as the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic) and subsequent to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 has exercised de facto control over most of the Transnistria region, located between the Dniester River and Ukraine. The capital city is Tiraspol. Image File history File links Transnistria_State_Flag. ... Transnistria COA. from the Estonian wiki, apparently from geraldika. ... The Transnistrian flag is a version of the former flag of Moldavian SSR which served as a flag of the whole country until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 with slightly different colors and no hammer and sickle or red star. ... Moldavian SSR coat of arms 1940-1991 The coat of arms of Transnistria is a remodeled version of the former Moldavian SSR coat of arms that was substituted by the internationally-recognized Moldovan government after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... The Anthem of Transnistria is named We sing the praises of Transnistria (Russian:Мы славим тебя, Приднестровье). The music was written by B. A. Aleksandrov, and the lyrics by B. Parmenov, N. Bozhko and V. Pishenko. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Transnistria Categories: Images with unknown source ... This is a list of national capitals of the world in alphabetical order. ... Motto: For the right to live on this land[citation needed] Anthem: Anthem of Transnistria Capital (and largest city) Tiraspol Russian, Ukrainian, Moldovan Government Semi-presidential  - President Igor Smirnov Independence from Moldova   - Declared September 2, 1990   - Recognition unrecognized  Area  - Total 4,163 km² 1,607 sq mi   - Water (%) 2. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... County Transnistria Status Municipality/Capital Mayor Viktor Kostyrko, since 2003 Area 85 km² Population (2005) 159 163 Geographical coordinates 46°51′ N 29°38′ E Web site http://www. ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... The President of Transnistria is the highest elected official of Transnistria, a small country which declared independence from Moldova in 1990. ... Igor Nikolaevich Smirnov (Russian: ), (b. ... September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... Several of the worlds geo-political entities lack general international recognition, but wish to be recognized as sovereign states. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population, using the most recently available official figures. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... 1994 Transnistrian ruble banknote The Transnistrian Ruble is the official currency of Transnistria, an unrecognised break-away republic between Moldova and Ukraine in Eastern Europe. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precison atomic time standard. ... Daylight saving time around the world  DST used  DST no longer used  DST never used Daylight saving time (DST), or summer time in British English, is the convention of advancing clocks so that evenings have more daylight and mornings have less. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precison atomic time standard. ... The following is a list of currently existing Internet Top-level domains (TLDs). ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... .ru is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Russia. ... .md is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Moldova. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... Regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations[1] (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked salmon):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR... By signing its Declaration of Independence on September 2, 1990, Transnistria withdrew from the Moldavian SSR, a republic inside the Soviet Union. ... September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!; Moldovan: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tiraspol Official language Russian, Ukrainian, Moldovan Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until 2 September 1990 n/a n/a Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked n/a in the USSR 4,163 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked n/a in... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The river Dniestr (in Polish and Russian; Nistru in Romanian; Дністер, Dnister in Ukrainian; Tyras in Latin; also known as Dniester) is a river in Eastern Europe. ... County Transnistria Status Municipality/Capital Mayor Viktor Kostyrko, since 2003 Area 85 km² Population (2005) 159 163 Geographical coordinates 46°51′ N 29°38′ E Web site http://www. ...


Transnistria fought a war for independence in 1992 and is seeking recognition as an independent state. Its independence has not been recognized, and its legal status continues to be an issue of contention. It functions as a sovereign country with its own postal system and stamps, police, military, currency, constitution, flag, national anthem, coat of arms, and has its own parliament and government. Combatants Transnistria Russian volunteers Ukrainian volunteers Moldova Casualties 823 Transnistrian fatalities,[1] 90 Cossacks,[2] and an unknown number of other casualties ~1,000 total casualties Official figures: 172 combatants, ~400 civilians [] The War of Transnistria involved armed clashes on a limited scale that broke out between the Transnistrian separatists... Diplomatic recognition is the act in which a states government is formally recognized by another state as being legitimate. ... This is an alphabetical list of countries of the world, including independent states (both those that are internationally recognised and generally unrecognised), inhabited dependent territories and areas of special sovereignty. ... The disputed status of Transnistria arose because of the Transnistrian declaration of independence on Sep. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Transnistria. ... The Transnistrian flag is a version of the former flag of Moldavian SSR which served as a flag of the whole country until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 with slightly different colors and no hammer and sickle or red star. ... The Anthem of Transnistria is named We sing the praises of Transnistria (Russian:Мы славим тебя, Приднестровье). The music was written by B. A. Aleksandrov, and the lyrics by B. Parmenov, N. Bozhko and V. Pishenko. ... Moldavian SSR coat of arms 1940-1991 The coat of arms of Transnistria is a remodeled version of the former Moldavian SSR coat of arms that was substituted by the internationally-recognized Moldovan government after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. ... The Supreme Council of the Transnistrian Moldovan Republic (Russian: Верховный Совет Приднестровской Молдавской Республики, Verkhovny Soviet Pridniestrovskoy Moldavskoy Respubliki) is the parliament of Transnistria. ...

Contents

Names

Most commonly known in English as Transnistria (as it is also called in Romanian, the language of Moldova), its constitutional long name is Pridnestróvskaia Moldávskaia Respública (Moldovan: Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ, Russian: Приднестровская Молдавская Республика, Ukrainian: Придністровська Молдавська Республіка, ПМР). This is abbreviated PMR. Although most commonly known in English as Transnistria, the official name is Pridnestrovie. ...


The short form of this name is Pridnestrovie (transliteration of the Russian "Приднестровье").[1]


Several other names are also in common use. Etymologically, they all come down to similar spelling variants of Transnistria, meaning "beyond the river Dniester", or Pridnestrovie, meaning "by the river Dniester". Although most commonly known in English as Transnistria, the official name is Pridnestrovie. ... The Dniester (Ukrainian: , translit. ... The Dniester (Ukrainian: , translit. ...


Geography

Transnistria is landlocked and borders Bessarabia (for 411 km) to the West and Ukraine (for 405 km) to the East. It is a narrow valley stretched in the North-South direction along the banks of the Dniester River, which forms the natural boundary along the most part of the border with Moldova. Nevertheless, not all PMR territory lies in Transnistria, and some locations on the left bank of the Dniester are controlled by the Moldovan government. Tighina (Bender) and its surrounding area on the river's west bank is controlled by Transnistria, while some villages near Dubăsari on the east bank are under Moldovan control. A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish, Бесарабія in Ukrainian) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... The river Dniestr (in Polish and Russian; Nistru in Romanian; Дністер, Dnister in Ukrainian; Tyras in Latin; also known as Dniester) is a river in Eastern Europe. ... The Dniester (Ukrainian: , translit. ... Tighina or Bender (Russian: ; Moldovan Cyrillic: Тигина) is a city in Transnistria, the breakaway region of Moldova. ... Dubăsari (Russian: Дубоссары / Dubossary) is a town in eastern Moldova with a 2005 population of 49,000. ...


Tiraspol, the capital, is Transnistria's largest city with 159,163 inhabitants.


See also:

This is a list of municipalities, cities, communes and villages in Transnistria. ...

Administrative regions

Transnistria is divided into seven administrative regions (raions). Russian names are listed in parentheses: A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ...

  • Camenca (Каменка, Kamenka)
  • Dubăsari (Дубоссары, Dubossary)
  • Grigoriopol (Григориополь)
  • Rîbniţa (Рыбница, Rybnitsa)
  • Slobozia (Слободзея)
  • Tighina (Бендеры, Bender or Bendery)
  • Tiraspol (Тирасполь)

Administrative Region of Camenca is an administrative region of Transnistria. ... Administrative Region of Dubăsari is an administrative region in Transnistria. ... Administrative Region of Grigoriopol is an administrative region of Transnistria, a country, that has declared itself independent from Moldova. ... The Administrative Region of Rîbniţa (Russian: Rybnitsa) is a subdivision of Transnistria, a country that has declared itself independent from Moldova. ... Administrative Region of Slobozia administrative region of Transnistria, which is an unrecognized country, that has declared itself independent of Moldova. ... Administrative Region of Tighina is an administrative in Transnistria. ... Administrative Region of Tiraspol is an administrative region of Transnistria. ...

Political status

Transnistria is internationally recognised as being a legal part of the Republic of Moldova, although de facto control is exercised by its internationally unrecognised government which declared independence from Moldova as the Pridnestrovskaia Moldavskaia Respublica or Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR), in 1990 with Tiraspol as its declared capital. Prior to unification with Moldova in 1940, Tiraspol was the capital of MASSR, an autonomous republic which existed from 1924 to 1940. The disputed status of Transnistria arose because of the Transnistrian declaration of independence on Sep. ... Moldavian ASSR or Moldovan ASSR (Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic; Romanian: Republica Autonomă Socialistă Sovietică Moldovenească) was an autonomous region of the Ukrainian SSR between 12 October 1924 and 2 August 1940, encompassing Transnistria (now in Moldova) and parts which are now in Ukraine. ...


Although exercising no direct control over the territory, the Moldovan government passed the "Law on Basic Provisions of the Special Legal Status of Localities from the Left Bank of the Dniester" on July 22, 2005, which established an autonomous territorial unit in Transnistria within the Republic of Moldova. The law was passed without any prior consultation with Transnistria, whose government felt that it was a provocation and has since ignored it. There are unsettled border issues between the PMR and Moldova. Some villages from the Dubăsari district, including Cocieri and Doroţcaia which geographically belong to Transnistria, have been under the control of the central government of Moldova after the involvement of local inhabitants on the side of Moldovan forces during the War of Transnistria. These villages along with Varniţa and Copanca, near Tighina, are claimed by the PMR. Tense situations have periodically surfaced due to these territorial disputes, for example in 2005, when Transnistrian forces entered Vasilievca,[2] in 2006 around Varniţa, and in 2007 in Dubăsari-Cocieri area, when a confrontation between Moldovan and Transnistrian forces occurred, however without any casualties. July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Autonomous territorial unit or territorial autonomous unit (moldovan Unitate teritorială autonomă) is a country subdivision term applied to Gagauzia, Moldova. ... The disputed status of Transnistria arose because of the Transnistrian declaration of independence on Sep. ... Administrative Region of Dubăsari is an administrative region in Transnistria. ... Cocieri is a village in the Republic of Moldova, located on the eastern bank of the Dniester River, along with Transnistria. ... DoroÅ£caia is a village from the Republic of Moldova, situated in Transnistria. ... Combatants Transnistria Russian volunteers Ukrainian volunteers Moldova Casualties 823 Transnistrian fatalities,[1] 90 Cossacks,[2] and an unknown number of other casualties ~1,000 total casualties Official figures: 172 combatants, ~400 civilians [] The War of Transnistria involved armed clashes on a limited scale that broke out between the Transnistrian separatists... VarniÅ£a may refer to several villages in Romania: VarniÅ£a, a village in ÅžiÅŸtarovăţ Commune, Arad County VarniÅ£a, a village in Åžirna Commune, Prahova County VarniÅ£a, a village in Răcoasa Commune, Vrancea County and a village in Moldova: VarniÅ£a, a village in Raionul Anenii... Tighina or Bender (Russian: ; Moldovan Cyrillic: Тигина) is a city in Transnistria, the breakaway region of Moldova. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


Internal politics

The Transnistrian parliament building in Tiraspol. In front is a statue of Lenin
The Transnistrian parliament building in Tiraspol. In front is a statue of Lenin
Tiraspol city hall
Tiraspol city hall

Transnistria has a multi-party system and a unicameral parliament named the Supreme Council. Its legislature has 43 members elected by proportional representation.[3] The president is elected to a five year term by popular vote. Politics of Transnistria, a de facto independent region of the Republic of Moldova in Eastern Europe, takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Transnistria is both head of state and head of government. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 462 KB) Апісаньне Tiraspol, Moldova (Transnistria), Transnistria government building Author - Monk (Monkbel), September 5, 2005. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 462 KB) Апісаньне Tiraspol, Moldova (Transnistria), Transnistria government building Author - Monk (Monkbel), September 5, 2005. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... Image File history File linksMetadata Dom_Sovetov_-_the_House_of_Parliament_Tiraspol. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Dom_Sovetov_-_the_House_of_Parliament_Tiraspol. ... It has been suggested that Town Hall be merged into this article or section. ... Politics of Moldova Categories: Politics stubs | Lists of political parties | Transnistrian political parties ... For unicameral alphabets, see the article letter case. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... The Supreme Council of the Transnistrian Moldovan Republic (Russian: Верховный Совет Приднестровской Молдавской Республики, Verkhovny Soviet Pridniestrovskoy Moldavskoy Respubliki) is the parliament of Transnistria. ... This article is about the political process. ...


Igor Smirnov has been the President of Transnistria since the declaration of independence in 1990 and he is currently serving his fourth mandate after being reelected in December 2006. Igor Nikolaevich Smirnov (Russian: ), (b. ... The President of Transnistria is the highest elected official of Transnistria, a small country which declared independence from Moldova in 1990. ... The 2006 presidential election in Transnistria was held on December 10 of that year. ...


In the latest parliamentary election in December 2005, the opposition Renewal movement won an overall majority and its leader Yevgeni Shevchuk became speaker of parliament.[4] Renewal or Renovation (Obnovleniye) is the largest political party in Transnistria. ... Yevgeni Shevchuk Yevgeni Shevchuk (Russian: , Ukrainian: ) (born June 19, 1968 in Rybnitsa, Moldavian SSR, Soviet Union) is an ethnic Ukrainian and a politician from Transnistria, speaker of Transnistrian Supreme Soviet and one of the leaders of opposition party Obnovleniye (Renewal, in Russian). ... It has been suggested that Speakers of the House be merged into this article or section. ...


There is disagreement as to whether elections in Transnistria are free and fair.[5] A list published by the European Union bans travel to the EU of some members of the leadership of Transnistria.[6] The EU imposed this restriction because of what it considers "insufficient cooperation in the Transnistrian conflict settlement process.". Following the resolution of a key dispute, the ban has been lifted on education officials.[7] Politics of Moldova Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in Transnistria ...


No opposition parties or publications are banned. Political candidates in favor of unification with Moldova are allowed to stand in elections,[8] although they rarely achieve more than 5% of the votes from the electorate.[9] Likewise, unionist political parties[10] and newspapers are legally registered and operating freely.[11]


Despite some efforts to enhance the democratic process in recent years election results in the past were considered suspicious, as in 2001 in one region it was reported that Igor Smirnov collected 103.6% of the votes.[12] Nevertheless, some organizations, such as CIS-EMO, have participated and have called them democratic. Igor Nikolaevich Smirnov (Russian: ), (b. ... On October 2002, the Commonwealth of Independent States adopted at a heads of states meeting, the Convention on the Standards of Democratic Elections, Electoral Rights, and Freedoms in the Member States of the Commonwealth of Independent States. ...


Transnistria has acceded to international pressure and has announced that it will introduce the proportional representation vote counting system in its next elections in replacement of its current first past the post system. The move, if honoured, will give minority parties favouring reunification with Moldova a greater number of seats in the parliament. Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... The first-past-the-post electoral system is a voting system for single-member districts, variously called first-past-the-post (FPTP or FPP), winner-take-all, plurality voting, or relative majority. ...


See also:

Politics of Moldova Categories: Politics stubs | Lists of political parties | Transnistrian political parties ...

2006 independence referendum

A referendum was held on 17 September 2006 asking voters: Ballots of the Argentine plebiscite of 1984 on the border treaty with Chile A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

  1. Do you support the course towards the independence of the PMR and subsequent free association with the Russian Federation?
  2. Do you consider it possible to renounce the PMR's independent status and subsequently become part of the Republic of Moldova?

According to the Transnistrian government, 78.6 percent of the registered voters of Transnistria voted in the referendum. 97.1 percent of voters supported the first point, while 2.3 percent did not support it. 3.4 percent of voters supported the second point, while 94.6 percent did not support it.[13][14] Russia's Duma[15] recognized the vote but the OSCE and many countries[16] did not, dismissing the poll as illegitimate.[17] An associated state is used to describe a free relationship between a territory and a larger nation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Duma. ... The 2006 referendum in Transnistria took place in Transnistria on 17 September 2006. ...

The 2006 referendum in Transnistria took place in Transnistria on 17 September 2006. ...

International relations

Ukraine-Transnistria border customs dispute

Main article: Ukraine-Transnistria border customs conflict

On March 3, 2006, Ukraine introduced new customs regulations on its border with Transnistria. Ukraine declared it will only import goods from Transnistria with documents processed by Moldovan customs offices, as part of the implementation of the joint customs protocol between Ukraine and Moldova on December 30, 2005. Transnistria and Russia termed the act an "economic blockade". Moldova announced that it created favorable conditions for registration of Transnistria-based businesses: to obtain a 6-month export license is a half-hour simplified procedure.[citation needed] The Ukraine-Transnistria border customs conflict started on March 3, 2006, when Ukraine imposed new customs regulations on its border with Transnistria: Ukraine declared it will import goods from Transnistria with documents processed by Moldovan customs offices only, as part of the implementation of the joint customs protocol between Ukraine... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Customs duty is a tariff or tax on the import or export of goods. ... December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The United States, the European Union and OSCE approved the Ukrainian move, while Russia saw it as a means of political pressure.


On March 4, Transnistria responded by blocking the Moldovan and Ukrainian transport at the borders of Transnistria. The Transnistrian block was lifted after two weeks. However, the Moldovan/Ukrainian block remains in place, and holds up progress in status settlement negotiations between the sides.[18]


In the months following the regulations, exports from Transnistria nosedived. Transnistria declared a "humaniatarian catastrophe" in the region, while Moldova called it "deliberate misinformation".[19] Cargos of humanitarian aid were sent from Russia and from NGOs in the United States and the European Union in response.[20][21][22]


History

This is the history of Transnistria. ...

Antiquity and Middle Ages

The area where Transnistria is now located has been inhabited by Indo-European tribes for millennia, being a borderland between Dacia and Scythia. The Ancient Greek Miletians founded about 600 BC a colony named Tyras, situated on the mouth of the Dniester river (Tyras). Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now the Aydin Province of Turkey... Tyras, a colony of Miletus, probably founded about 600 BC, situated some 10 m. ... The Dniester (Ukrainian: , translit. ...


Transnistria was home to the South Slavs from the 6th century. In the early Middle Ages, Slavic tribes such as the Tivertsi and the Ulichs[23] populated Transnistria, followed by Turkic nomads such as the Petchenegs[24] and Cumans. An early part of Kievan Rus', after the Mongol invasion of Europe (1241), the territory was briefly under Mongol control, and later under the Crimean Khanate. From the 15th century, northern Transnistria belonged to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.[25][26][27][28][29] Prior to becoming part of the Russian Empire, the largest group living between the Dniester and the Bug rivers was made up of Slavs, primarily Ukrainian peasants.[30] Countries inhabited by South Slavs (in black) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans, the southern Pannonian Plain and the eastern Alps. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Slav, Slavic or Slavonic can refer to: Slavic peoples Slavic languages Slavic mythology Church Slavonic language Old Church Slavonic language Slav, a former Jewish settlement in the Gaza Strip. ... Tivertsi, a. ... The Ulichs (Uglichs) (Уличи, Угличи in Russian) were a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 8th and the 10th century, which inhabited the territories along the Lower Dnieper, Bug River and the Black Sea. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks also known as Besenyők, were a semi-nomadic steppe people of Central Asia that spoke a Turkic language. ... Cumans, also called as Polovtsy, (Russian Половцы, from old Slavic for pale yellowish) was the European name for the Western Kipchaks, a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ... Kievan Rus′ was the early, mostly East Slavic [1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... The Mongol invasions of Europe were centered in their destruction of the Ruthenian states, especially Kiev, under the leadership of Subutai. ... The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and PogoÅ„ in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji KunigaikÅ¡tystÄ—, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo Litewskie) was an... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 April, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq...


Russian Empire

The statue of Alexander Suvorov, founder of modern Tiraspol.
The statue of Alexander Suvorov, founder of modern Tiraspol.

In 1792 the region became part of the Russian Empire as a result of sixth Russo-Turkish War. In that year, the general Alexander Suvorov founded modern Tiraspol as a Russian border fortress.[31][32] Until the Russian Revolution of 1917, the current Transnistria was divided between imperial guberniyas of Podolia, Kherson, and Bessarabia. The territory which now is Transnistria was part of the larger New Russia region, hence it witnessed a strong colonization process, with a multitude of ethnies being settled: lands were given to enserfed peasantry from Russia and Ukraine (see also Nova Serbia), and Jews and Germans were brought to facilitate economic development. Image File history File links Avsuvorov. ... Image File history File links Avsuvorov. ... Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov (Russian: ) (sometimes transliterated as Aleksandr, Aleksander and Suvarov), Count Suvorov of Rymnik, Prince of Italy () (November 24, 1729 – May 18, 1800), was the fourth and last Russian Generalissimo (not counting Stalin). ... The Russo–Turkish War (1787–1792) involved a futile attempt by the Ottoman Empire to regain lands lost to Russia in the course of the previous Russo–Turkish War, 1768–1774. ... Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov (Russian: ) (sometimes transliterated as Aleksandr, Aleksander and Suvarov), Count Suvorov of Rymnik, Prince of Italy () (November 24, 1729 – May 18, 1800), was the fourth and last Russian Generalissimo (not counting Stalin). ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Guberniya (Russian: ) (also gubernia, guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of the Imperial Russia, usually translated as governorate or province. ... Historical arms of Podilia The region of Podolia (also spelt Podilia or Podillya) is a historical region in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine, corresponding to Khmelnytskyi Oblast and Vinnytsia Oblast. ... Kherson (Ukrainian and Russian Херсон) is a city in southern Ukraine, the capital of Kherson Oblast, with 303,900 inhabitants (2004). ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish, Бесарабія in Ukrainian) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Novorossiya (Russian: , literally New Russia) is a historic area now mostly located in southern Ukraine, and partially in southern Russia. ... A Peasant Leaving His Landlord on Yuriev Day, painting by Sergei V. Ivanov. ... Nova Serbia (New Serbia) map Nova Serbia or New Serbia (Serbian: Nova Srbija or Нова Србија) was a territory of Imperial Russia in 1752-1764. ...


Soviet Union

Moldavian ASSR (in orange) and Romania, 1924-1940
Moldavian ASSR (in orange) and Romania, 1924-1940

Transnistria became an autonomous political entity in 1924 with the proclamation of the Moldavian ASSR, which included today's Transnistria as well as an area around the city of Balta in modern-day Ukraine, but nothing from Bessarabia, which at the time was part of Romania. Another reason for the creation of the Moldavian ASSR was the desire of the Soviet Union at the time to eventually incorporate Bessarabia. The Moldavian SSR, which was organised by a decision of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on 2 August 1940, was formed from a part of Bessarabia (taken from Romania on 28 June, following the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact), and a part of the Moldavian ASSR which is roughly equivalent to present-day Transnistria. In 1941, after Axis forces invaded the Soviet Union in the course of the Second World War, they defeated the Soviet troops in the region and occupied it. By March 1943, a total of 185,000 Ukrainian and Romanian Jews had been deported and the majority died or was murdered under Romanian and German occupation of Transnistria. The Soviet Union regained the area in 1944, and the Soviet colonisation of the region was resumed. Moldavian ASSR (Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Republic; Romanian: Republica Autonomă Socialistă Sovietică Moldovenească) was an autonomous region of the Ukrainian SSR between 12 October 1924 and 2 August 1940, encompassing Transnistria (now in Moldova) and parts which are now in Ukraine. ... State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ... Image File history File links Romania_MASSR_1920. ... Image File history File links Romania_MASSR_1920. ... Moldavian ASSR (Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Republic; Romanian: Republica Autonomă Socialistă Sovietică Moldovenească) was an autonomous region of the Ukrainian SSR between 12 October 1924 and 2 August 1940, encompassing Transnistria (now in Moldova) and parts which are now in Ukraine. ... old jewish cemetery in Balta, 2005 Balta (Ukrainian: ) is a small town (pop. ... Moldavian ASSR (Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Republic; Romanian: Republica Autonomă Socialistă Sovietică Moldovenească) was an autonomous region of the Ukrainian SSR between 12 October 1924 and 2 August 1940, encompassing Transnistria (now in Moldova) and parts which are now in Ukraine. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish, Бесарабія in Ukrainian) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... The Supreme Soviet (Верховный Совет, Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... The June 1940 Soviet Ultimatum was issued by the Soviet Union to Romania, regarding the Soviet territorial requests. ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Soviet Union,1 Poland (from January 1945) Germany,1 Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia Commanders Aleksei Antonov, Azi Aslanov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky, Pavel Rotmistrov, Semyon Timoshenko, Fyodor Tolbukhin, Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Nikolai Vatutin... Romania controlled (August 19 1941 - January 29 1944) the whole Transnistrian region between Dniester, Bug rivers and Black Sea coast. ...


Secession to the present

Mikhail Gorbachev's policy of perestroika in the Soviet Union allowed political liberalisation at a regional level in 1980s. On 2 September 1990, the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed as a Soviet republic by the "Second Congress of the Peoples' Representatives of Transnistria". On 22 December 1990, Mikhail Gorbachev, the leader of USSR, signed a decree that declared the decisions of this congress legally void. Nevertheless, neither the USSR, nor Moldova, a Soviet Socialist Republic at the time, took any significant practical action, hence the new authorities in Transnistria slowly got control over the region. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: , Michail Sergeevič Gorbačëv), IPA: , surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; born March 2, 1931) is a Russian politician. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!; Moldovan: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tiraspol Official language Russian, Ukrainian, Moldovan Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until 2 September 1990 n/a n/a Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked n/a in the USSR 4,163 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked n/a in... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ...


The War of Transnistria followed armed clashes on a limited scale which broke out between Transnistrian separatists and Moldova as early as November 1990 at Dubăsari. On 2 March 1992, Moldova began concerted military action against Transnistria. Throughout 1992 the fighting intensified until a ceasefire was signed on 21 July 1992 which has held ever since. The war left more than one thousand dead, many more wounded, and an estimated 100,000 refugees. Combatants Transnistria Russian volunteers Ukrainian volunteers Moldova Casualties 823 Transnistrian fatalities,[1] 90 Cossacks,[2] and an unknown number of other casualties ~1,000 total casualties Official figures: 172 combatants, ~400 civilians [] The War of Transnistria involved armed clashes on a limited scale that broke out between the Transnistrian separatists... Dubăsari (Russian: Дубоссары / Dubossary) is a town in eastern Moldova with a 2005 population of 49,000. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


The OSCE is trying to facilitate a negotiated settlement. Under OSCE auspices, on 8 May 1997, the Moldovan President Petru Lucinschi and the Transnistrian president Igor Smirnov, signed the "Memorandum on the principles of normalizations of the relations between the Republic of Moldova and Transnistria", also known as the "Primakov Memorandum", sustaining the establishment of legal and state relations, although the memorandum's provisions had diverging legal and political interpretations in Chişinău and Tiraspol. May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Petru Chiril Lucinschi (Russian: Пётр Кириллович Лучинский, Ukrainian: Петро Кирилович Лучинський)(born 1940) was Moldovas second president from 1996 until his defeat after parliamentary elections in 2001. ... Igor Nikolaevich Smirnov (Russian: ), (b. ... County ChiÅŸinău Status Municipality Mayor Veaceslav Iordan, since 2007 Area 635 km² Population (2004) 647,513 [1] Density 1114 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Founded in 1436 Dialing code +373 22 Web site http://www. ... County Transnistria Status Municipality/Capital Mayor Viktor Kostyrko, since 2003 Area 85 km² Population (2005) 159 163 Geographical coordinates 46°51′ N 29°38′ E Web site http://www. ...


In November 2003, Dmitry Kozak, a counselor of the Russian president Vladimir Putin, proposed a memorandum on the creation of an asymmetric federal Moldovan state, with Moldova holding a majority and Transnistria being a minority part of the federation.[33] Known as "the Kozak memorandum", it did not coincide with the Transnistrian position, which sought equal status between Transnistria and Moldova, but Transnistria nevertheless agreed to sign it. Vladimir Voronin was initially supportive of the plan, but refused to sign it after Russia had endorsed the Transnistrian demand to maintain a Russian military presence for the next 20 years as a guarantee for the intended federation, as well as due to pressure from the OSCE and US.[34] The refusal by the Moldovan side resulted in the sudden and long-term cooling of relations between Moldova and Russia, and halted further progress in the settlement negotiations. 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dmitry Kozak Dmitry Nikolayevich Kozak (Russian: Дмитрий Николаевич Козáк) (b. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the incumbent President of Russia. ... Asymmetric federalism is a form of federalism where different constituent states possess different powers. ... The Kozak Memorandum was a 2003 proposal aimed at a final settlement of relations between Moldova and Transnistria. ... Vladimir Nicolae Voronin (born May 25, 1941) is the current President of the Republic of Moldova. ...


Population

Ethnicity map, based on data released by Transnistrian authorities
Ethnicity map, based on data released by Transnistrian authorities

At the census of 1989, the population was 679,000. At the time of the 2004 census, the population was 555,347."[35][36] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1102x1600, 165 KB) from the Transnistrian official site http://tdsu. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1102x1600, 165 KB) from the Transnistrian official site http://tdsu. ... Distribution of major ethnic groups in the Moldavian SSR, 1989 The 1989 Census in Transnistria was organized by the authorities of the MSSR in the final days of its existence as a Soviet republic. ... Ethnicity map, made by the Transnistrian officals, according to the 2004 census The 2004 Census in Transnistria was organized by Transnistria at roughly the same time that Moldova held its own census which Transnistria refused to participate in out of principle and deference to its September 2, 1990 Declaration of...


Recently, there has been a substantial emigration due to economic hardships and uncertain political situation.[citation needed] A large part of the population is past the age of retirement. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Immigration. ...


64.2% of the population are Slavs (30.4% ethnic Russians and 28.8% Ukrainians, with 5% among minorities of Bulgarians, Belorusians and Poles), making up an absolute majority. Ethnic Moldovans compose the single largest minority with 31.9%. Smaller numbers of Germans, Jews, Gagauz and others make up the rest, totaling 3.9%. The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Russians (Russian: ) are an East Slavic ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries. ... Belarusians in traditional dress Belarusians or Belarusans (Belarusian: , previously also spelt Belarussians, Byelorussians and Belorussians) are an ethnic group of East Slavs who are the majority population of Belarus, also being minorities in neighboring Poland (especially former Bialystok province), Russia, Lithuania and Ukraine. ... The Gagauz are a minority Turkic people in southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and southwestern Ukraine (in Budjak) that numbers around 250,000. ...


Moldova does not include demographic statistics from Transnistria as part of Moldova's overall statistical publications.[37]


See also:

A demographic history of Transnistria shows that Transnistria has been home to numerous ethnic groups, in varying proportions, over time. ... Ethnicity map, made by the Transnistrian officals, according to the 2004 census The 2004 Census in Transnistria was organized by Transnistria at roughly the same time that Moldova held its own census which Transnistria refused to participate in out of principle and deference to its September 2, 1990 Declaration of...

Religion

Most Transnistrians are Orthodox Christians and the government has supported restoration and new construction of orthodox churches. Transnistria has freedom of religion and 114 religious beliefs and congregations are officially registered. However, as of 2005, registration hurdles were encountered by some minor religious groups, notably, the Jehovah's Witnesses.[38] The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself: as the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ...


Economy

The Transnistrian ruble shows Alexander Suvorov, founder of modern Tiraspol.
The Transnistrian ruble shows Alexander Suvorov, founder of modern Tiraspol.

Transnistria has a mixed economy. Following a large scale privatization process, most of the companies in Transnistria are now privately owned. The economy bases on a mix of heavy industry (steel production), electricity production and manufacturing (textile production), which together accounts about 80% of the total industrial output.[39] File links The following pages link to this file: Transnistrian ruble Categories: Currency images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Transnistrian ruble Categories: Currency images ... 1994 Transnistrian ruble banknote The Transnistrian Ruble is the official currency of Transnistria, an unrecognised break-away republic between Moldova and Ukraine in Eastern Europe. ... Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov (Russian: ) (sometimes transliterated as Aleksandr, Aleksander and Suvarov), Count Suvorov of Rymnik, Prince of Italy () (November 24, 1729 – May 18, 1800), was the fourth and last Russian Generalissimo (not counting Stalin). ... County Transnistria Status Municipality/Capital Mayor Viktor Kostyrko, since 2003 Area 85 km² Population (2005) 159 163 Geographical coordinates 46°51′ N 29°38′ E Web site http://www. ... A mixed economy is an economy that has a mix of economic systems. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning compared to light industry. ... Manufacturing, a branch of industry which accounts for about one-quarter of the worlds economic activity, is the application of tools and a processing medium to the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale. ...


Transnistria has its own central bank, which issues Transnistrian currency, the Transnistrian ruble. It is convertible at a freely floating exchange rate.[40] 1994 Transnistrian ruble banknote The Transnistrian Ruble is the official currency of Transnistria, an unrecognised break-away republic between Moldova and Ukraine in Eastern Europe. ...


History of the economic development

After World War II, Transnistria was heavily industrialised, to the point that in 1990, it was responsible for 40% of Moldova's GDP and 90% of its electricity[41] despite the fact that it accounted for only 17% of Moldova's. population. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Transnistria wanted to return to a "Brezhnev-style planned economy",[42] however, several years later, it decided to head toward a market economy. MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... It has been suggested that Free market be merged into this article or section. ...


Current situation

Macroeconomics

In 2005, the GDP of Transnistria was about $517.5 million and the GDP per capita was $844. The GDP increased 11.8% and inflation rate was 10.8%.[43] However, in the first half of 2006 Transnistrian economy decreased 11.5% compared with the same period of 2005.[44] The industrial production decreased even 32.8%.[45]


Transnistria's government budget for 2007 is US$246 million, with an estimated deficit of approximately US$100 million[46] which the government plans to cover with income from privatizations.[47]


Transnistria has debt of $1.2 billion (two thirds of which are with Russia), which is per capita approximately 6 times higher than in Moldova (without Transnistria).[48]


External trade

In 2005, Transnistria's trade export was $579.7 million and import $855.6 million. The trade deficit reached $275.9 million.[43] In the first half of 2006 Transnistrian export decreased 49.0% and import decreased 15.9%.[45] Over 50% of export goes to the CIS, mainly to Russia. The main exports are steel, cognac and wine, textile and mineral products. The CIS accounts for over 60% of the imports, while the share of the EU is about 23%. The main imports are non-precious metals, food products and electricity.[39] Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Member states 11 member states 1 associate member Working language Russian Executive Secretary Vladimir Rushailo Formation December 21, 1991 Official website http://cis. ...


Economic sectors

The leading industry is steel, due to the MMZ steel factory (part of the Russian Metalloinvest holding) in Rîbniţa (Rybnitsa), which accounts for about 50% of the budget revenue of Transnistria. The largest company in the textile industry is Tirotex, which claimed to be the second largest textile company in Europe.[49] The energy sector is dominated by the Russian companies. The largest power company Moldavskaya GRES (Cuchurgan power station), which is located in Dnestrovsk, is owned by Inter RAO UES, the joint subsidiary of RAO UES and Rosenergoatom,[50] and the gas transmission and distribution company Tiraspoltransgas is probably controlled by Gazprom, although Gazprom has not confirmed the ownership officially. The banking sector of Transnistria consists 8 commercial banks, including Gazprombank. The oldest alcohol producer Kvint, located in Tiraspol, produces and exports brandy, wines and vodka. Metalloinvest Management Company LLC (Russian: ) is a leading Russian mining and metallurgy company specializing in the manufacture of steel. ... RîbniÅ£a (Russian: Rybnitsa) is the seat of the Administrative Region of RîbniÅ£a of Transnistria, a country that has declared itself independent from Moldova. ... Tirotex is a Transnistrian textile company producing clothing and other textile products. ... Moldavskaya GRES (also: Cuchurgan power station) is a large power station located in Dnestrovsk, Transnistria, on the shores of Lake Cuchurgan bordering Ukraine. ... Dnestrovsk (Russian: ДНЕСТРОВСК) is a town in Eastern Transnistria, near the border with Ukraine. ... The Unified Energy System (UES) is Russias state electric power monopoly. ... Rosenergoatom is a Russian nuclear energy producer under the Federal Atomic Energy Agency (Rosatom). ... The Tiraspol-based headquarters of Tiraspoltransgas. ... Gazprom (LSE: OGZD; Russian: , sometimes transcribed as Gasprom) is the largest Russian company and the biggest extractor of natural gas in the world. ... A branch of Gazprombank in Rybnitsa, northern Transnistria. ... Kvint (short for: Kon’iaki, vina i napitki Tiraspol’ia) is a wine- and cognac distillery based in Tiraspol, the capital of Transnistria. ...


Human rights

The human rights record of Transnistria has been criticised by several governments and international organizations. The 2007 Freedom in the World report, published by the US-based Freedom House, described Transnistria as a "non-free" territory, having an equally bad situation in both political rights and civil liberties.[51] Image File history File links Information_icon. ... Human rights of Transnistria have been under severe criticism from abroad. ... Map reflecting the findings of Freedom Houses 2007 survey, concerning the state of world freedom in 2006, which is widely used by researchers and correlates highly with other measures of democracy[1]. Free  Partly Free  Not Free Countries highlighted in blue are designated Electoral Democracies in Freedom Houses... This map reflects the findings of Freedom Houses 2006 survey Freedom in the World, concerning the state of world freedom in 2005. ...


The United States State Department stated that the right of Transnistrians to change their government was restricted; however, in December 2005 the opposition party Renewal won Transnistria's parliamentary elections and took control of parliament. The State Department also claims that authorities harass and detain persons suspected of being critical of the government, and reported one such example during 2006.[...] and also that authorities harass independent media and opposition lawmakers, restrict freedom of association and of religion, and discriminate against Romanian speakers, although to a lesser extent than in previous years.[...]U.S. Department of State referring to year 2006 The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ...


According to OSCE, the media climate in Transnistria is restrictive and the authorities continue a long-standing campaign to silence independent opposition voices and groups.[52] The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ...


Public education for ethnic Moldovans in the Moldovan language is taught in Moldovan Cyrillic, but in July 2005, under an OSCE-negotiated formula, Transnistrian authorities allowed Latin script schools in the region. In the summer of 2004, four schools were closed for failure to register locally. The schools have since reopened. Moldovan is the official name for the Romanian language in the Republic of Moldova and in the territory of Transnistria. ... The Moldovan alphabet is a Cyrillic alphabet derived from the Russian alphabet and developed for the Romanian / Moldovan language in the Soviet Union in the 1930s. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world, the standard script of the English language and most of the languages of western and central Europe, and of those areas settled by Europeans. ... The Moldovan schools in Transnistria became an issue of contention in 2004 in the context of the disputed status of Transnistria, a region claimed equally by Moldova and by Transnistria itself which declared independence on September 2, 1990. ...


Ilie Ilaşcu was convicted in 1993 of killing two Transnistrian officials and initially sentenced to death by Transnistria's Supreme Court. Three other members of his group were sentenced to terms of 12 to 15 years’ imprisonment, and confiscation of their property. Ilaşcu was released in 2001, but two of the original four remain imprisoned until June 2007. In 1999, Transnistria banned the death penalty for all crimes. The maximum sentence for any crime is now 25 years in prison.[53] Ilie IlaÅŸcu (born 30 July 1952) is a Moldovan and Romanian politician, famous for being sentenced to death by the separatist Transnistrian government. ... Ilie IlaÅŸcu (born 30 July 1952) is a Moldovan and Romanian politician, famous for being sentenced to death by the separatist Transnistrian government. ...


The OSCE mission to Moldova has urged local authorities in the Transnistrian city of Rybnitsa to return a confiscated building to the Moldovan Latin-script school located in the city. The unfinished building was nearing completion in 2004, when Transnistria took control of it during that year's school crisis.[54]


According to the Moldavian and Romanian presses, in February 2007, Transnistrian authorities destroyed and profaned the Dragalina cemetery in Tighina (also known as The Romanian cemetery), thus violating the Geneva Convention[55]. The Transnistrian authorities did not exhume the bodies; they only removed the crosses and leveled the terrain with bulldozers. According to the Romanian edition of Deutsche Welle, the Transnistrian authorities announced that the crosses would be smashed up with explosives, mixed with asphalt, and used to repair the roads of the city. However, according to PMR News, the authorities in Transnistria are to re-bury the exhumed soldiers outside of the city and they have taken steps to ensure that the identities of exhumed soldiers are not lost. 319 identified Romanian and 14 unidentified soldiers, as well as 13 Soviet prisoners were buried at this cemetery.[56] The Geneva Conventions consist of treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ... This article is about the German international broadcaster. ...


See also:

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Historically, anti-Romanian discimination has been present in the policies of countries bordering Romania towards the Romanian-speaking population or minorities residing in these countries. ... The Moldovan schools in Transnistria became an issue of contention in 2004 in the context of the disputed status of Transnistria, a region claimed equally by Moldova and by Transnistria itself which declared independence on September 2, 1990. ... // Transnistria has 2 main newspapers, one controlled by separatist authorities and the other by Tiraspol city soviet. ...

Crime

Main article: Crime in Transnistria

Crime in Transnistria covers actual incidents in Transnistria as well as allegations of potential criminal activity for which the level of evidence varies and may in some cases not exist. ...

Arms control and disarmament

Following the collapse of the former Soviet Union the Russian 14th Army left behind 40,000 tonnes of weapony and ammunition. In the subsequent years there were concerns that the Transnistrian Authorities may try to sell these stocks internationally and intense pressure was applied to have have these removed by the Russian Federation.


In 2000 and 2001, the Russian Federation withdrew by rail 141 self-propelled artillery and other armoured vehicles and destroyed locally 108 T-64 tanks and 139 other pieces of military equipment limited by the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE). During 2002 and 2003 Russian military officials destroyed a further 51 armoured vehicles, all of which were types not limited by the CFE Treaty. The OSCE also observed and verified the withdrawal of 11 trains with military equipment and 37 trains loaded with more than 22,000 tons of ammunition. However, no further withdrawal activities have taken place since March 2004 and a further 20,000 tons of ammunition, as well as some remaining military equipment are still to be removed. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ...


In the Autumn od 2006 the Transnistria leadership agreed to an OSCE inspectorate examine the munitions and further access agreed moving forward. The onus of responsibility rests on the Russian Federation to remove the remainder of the supplies.


Analysts have expressed concern regarding potential threats posed by this large deposit of weapons, and the potential of their unauthorized sale. Nevertheless, this view has been challenged by other experts and organizations, as well as by the government of the PMR. Oxford scholar Mark Almond stated that accusations of state-sponsored weapons smuggling in the PMR appear to be groundless and politically motivated, rather than based on any verified facts.[57] Foreign experts working on behalf of the United Nations confirm that there is currently transparency and good levels of co-operation with Transnistria in the field of weapons control.[58] Recent weapons inspections permitted by Transnistria and conducted by the OSCE reflect this transparency and co-operation[59][60] The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. ... Jon Mark & Johnny Almond Mark–Almond was an English band of the late 1960s and early 1970s, who worked in the territory between rock and jazz. ...


The OSCE and European Union officials state that there is no evidence that Transnistria has ever, at any time in the past, trafficked arms or nuclear material.[61] The latest research published by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) indicates that Transnistria is not involved in arms production or trafficking.[58] The United Nations says that the evidence for the illicit production and trafficking of weapons into and from Transnistria has in the past been exaggerated, and affirms that although the trafficking of light weapons is likely to have occurred before 2001 (the last year when export data showed US$ 900,000 worth of ‘weapons, munitions, their parts and accessories’ exported from Transnistria. However, it is also possible that these exports included old weapons from former Soviet stocks, withdrawal of Russian ammunition or the export of weapon parts, rather than newly produced goods),[58] and there is no reliable evidence that this still occurs. The report also states that the same holds true for the production of such weapons, which is likely to have been carried out in the 1990s primarily to equip the local forces but which are no longer produced. These findings echo previous declarations by Transnistria that it is not involved in the manufacture or export of weapons.[62] The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ...


The situation has been summed up by OSCE mission spokesman Claus Neukirch who cautioned: "There is often talk about sale of armaments from Transnistria, but there is no convincing evidence."[63]


Antisemitic incidents

Since 2001, there have been three isolated antisemitic incidents in Transnistria.

  • 14-15 April 2001 During the night, three neo-Nazi skinheads placed a homemade pipe bomb near one of the synagogue windows in Tiraspol. The building was damaged, but the guard was not hurt.[64] Transnistria charged the three perpetrators with illegal weapons possession and with inciting ethnic hatred, and sentenced them to prison for their involvement. One is currently serving a six year sentence, while two others received three years each.[65]
  • 13-30 March 2004 Over 70 tombstones in the Jewish cemetery of Tiraspol were vandalized[66] Although unnamed community leaders were initially reported as claiming that the authorities had not helped clean up anti-Semitic graffiti painted on the tombstones,[67] this was later shown to be untrue when the local rabbi provided photos of Tiraspol's authorities assisting in the restoration effort.[68]
  • 4 May 2004 Vandals failed in an attempt to set fire to the synagogue in Tiraspol, placing a Molotov Cocktail and flammable liquid near its door.[67] No damage was done, and passers-by extinguished the fire. Transnistria's authorities believed the same neo-Nazi group to be behind the attempt, and announced initiation of investigations.[69]

A Nazi skinhead from Germany Nazi skinheads are a far right subculture that developed in the United Kingdom around the late 1970s. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... A synagogue (from Ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; Hebrew: ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ... Molotov cocktail is the generic name for a variety of crude incendiary weapons. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ...

Deadly explosions

  • In July 2006, a bomb killed eight in a Tiraspol minibus.[70]
  • In August 2006, a grenade explosion in a Tiraspol trolleybus killed two and injured ten.[71]

Volkswagen minibus A minibus is a motor vehicle that is designed to carry fewer people than a full-size bus. ... Å koda 14 Tr trolleybus in Vilnius, Lithuania. ...

References

  1. ^ Pridnestrovie.net: "Pridnestrovie" vs "Transnistria" Pridnestrovie.net. Retrieved 2006, 12-26
  2. ^ Moldova AZI, Transnistrian Militia Withdrew Its Posts from Vasilievca, accessed 2006-10-18
  3. ^ PMR Supreme Council (Parliament of Transnistria's official website)
  4. ^ BHHRG: Transnistria 2006: Is Regime Change Underway?
  5. ^ (Some) international observers call elections free, democratic Pridnestrovie.net. Retrieved 2006, 12-27
  6. ^ Council Decision 2006/96/CFSP of 14 February 2006 implementing Common Position 2004/179/CFSP concerning restrictive measures against the leadership of the Transnistrian region of the Republic of Moldova European Union Law- Official Journal. Feb 2, 2006. Retrieved 2006, 12-27
  7. ^ European Union extends sanctions against Transnistrian leaders for one year more Moldpres. Feb 20, 2007. Retrieved 2007, 2-22
  8. ^ In Transdniester, presidential candidates disagree on common state with Moldova Tiraspol Times. Dec. 3, 2006. Retrieved 2007, 2-19
  9. ^ Transdnestr Central Election Commission announces final results on presidential election Regnum News Agency. Dec 13, 2006. Retrieved 2007, 2-19
  10. ^ Transnistria: New Social Democratic party wants union with Moldova Tiraspol Times. Feb. 6, 2007. Retrieved 2007, 2-19
  11. ^ Man and His Rights (in Russian)
  12. ^ US Department of State, Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Moldova - 2003
  13. ^ Landslide win for independence vote in Pridnestrovie's referendum Tiraspol Times. Sep. 18, 2006. Retrieved 2006, 12-27
  14. ^ Ustimenko, Irina. PMR CEC Announces Final Referendum Results Olvia Press. Sep. 25, 2006. Retrieved 2006, 12-27(Russian)
  15. ^ Ryan, Karen. Russia's parliament recognizes PMR's independence referendum Tiraspol Times. Oct. 11, 2006. Retrieved 2006, 12-27
  16. ^ Ukraine Calls Transnistrian Referendum Illegitimate Conflict.md from Infotag. Sep. 20, 2006. Retrieved: 2006, 12-25
  17. ^ Trans-Dniester backs Russia union BBC. Sep. 18, 2006. Retrieved: 2006, 12-27
  18. ^ Olvia Press: "Valeri Litskai: A situation based on pressure and threats cannot be considered favorable for the revival of contacts"
  19. ^ http://politicom.moldova.org/stiri/eng/11365/
  20. ^ Compassion Med International (USA): Aid delivery to Transnistria, fall 2006
  21. ^ Europe helps PMR; aid shipment on its way
  22. ^ Pridnestrovie per-capita GDP up 17.3% despite economic warfare
  23. ^ The Laurentian Codex of the Primary Chronicle ([1]) contains the following lines (translated): Ulichi, Tivertsy lived along the Dniester; a lot of them settled on the Danube; settled along the Dniester down to the sea, their cities can be found unto this day.
  24. ^ Porphyrogenitus, Constantine. De Administrando Imperio ca. 950. Retrieved 2006, 12-27
  25. ^ George Reichersdorf: "Moldaviæ quæ olim Daciæ pers, chorographia, Georgio a Reichersdorf Transilvano auctore", Viennæ 1541.
  26. ^ Bronovius and Georg Werner: "Transylvania, Moldavia and Chersonesus Tauricæ'". Published by Arnold Mylius, Cologne, 1595.
  27. ^ Antonio Bonfini (1434 - 1503): "Rerum Ungaricarum decades quatuor cum dimidia"
  28. ^ Giovanni Botero (1540-1617): "Relazioni universali", Venice, 1591
  29. ^ Giovanni Antonio Magini (1555-1617): "Geographie universae", Venice, 1596.
  30. ^ Andrew Wilson: "The Ukrainians: Engaging the Eastern Diaspora" (Westview Press, 1998)
  31. ^ Averko, Michael. Russia's Stance on Disputed Territories: Just How "Hypocritical" is it? The American Journal of Russian and Slavic Studies. Retrieved 2006, 12-27
  32. ^ About Transdnistrea World Window NGO. Retrieved 2006, 12-27
  33. ^ http://isd.georgetown.edu/smith_ac_moldova.pdf
  34. ^ Netherlands Institute of International Relations - The OSCE Moldova and Russian diplomacy 2003 page - 109
  35. ^ Official data from 2004 census and comparison with the 1989 census, by Olvia Press
  36. ^ Pridnestrovie.net: "2004 Census: PMR urban, multilingual, multicultural" from http://www.pridnestrovie.net retrieved 2006, 2-24
  37. ^ [2]
  38. ^ http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2005/51569.htm
  39. ^ a b Transnistria, Center for Economic Polices of IDIS “Viitorul”
  40. ^ Pridnestrovie's own currency, Pridnestrovie.net
  41. ^ John Mackinlay and Peter Cross (editors), Regional Peacekeepers: The Paradox of Russian Peacekeeping, United Nations University Press, 2003, ISBN 92-808-1079-0 p. 135
  42. ^ John B. Dunlop, "Will a Large-Scale Migration of Russians to the Russian Republic Take Place over the Current Decade?", in International Migration Review, Vol. 27, No. 3. (Autumn, 1993), pp. 605-629, citing Russian Radio, September 21, 1992 in Russia and CIS Today, WPS, September 21, 1992, p. 976/16.
  43. ^ a b СОЦИАЛЬНО-ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОЕ РАЗВИТИЕ ПРИДНЕСТРОВСКОЙ МОЛДАВСКОЙ РЕСПУБЛИКИ 2005, statistical service of the Ministry of Economy, Tiraspol 2006
  44. ^ СОЦИАЛЬНО-ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОЕ РАЗВИТИЕ ПРИДНЕСТРОВСКОЙ МОЛДАВСКОЙ РЕСПУБЛИКИ 2006 statistical service of the Ministry of Economy, Tiraspol 2006
  45. ^ a b Основные направления денежно-кредитной политики ПРБ на 2007 год, Transnistrian Republican Bank 2006
  46. ^ Transnistrian parliament adopts region's budget for 2007
  47. ^ Privatization will solve the budget problem PMR News, February 21, 2007
  48. ^ Democracy in Secessionism: Transnistria and Abkhazia’s Domestic Policies, by Nicu Popescu, International Policy Fellowship Program 2005/2006
  49. ^ Tirotex official website
  50. ^ Annual Report of Inter RAO UES
  51. ^ Freedom House, http://www.freedomhouse.org/uploads/press_release/fiw07_charts.pdf 2007 "Freedom in the World" report]
  52. ^ OSCE - Media in Transdniestria
  53. ^ [PMR Criminal Code, reform as of 6 July 1999]
  54. ^ Ribnitsa's authorities must return the confiscated school building, says OSCE Mission Head
  55. ^ The Geneva Convention requirs that the "dead are honorably interred, if possible according to the rites of the religion to which they belonged, that their graves are respected, grouped if possible according to the nationality of the deceased, properly maintained and marked so that they may always be found."
  56. ^ (English)Ziua:Tyraspol officials bulldoze Romanian soldiers' remains
    Ziua:immages with the cemetery
    (Romanian)Deutsche Welle article: Soldiers Cemetery profaned by the separatist regime
    (Russian)PRM News [3]
    Slate article: What are the rights of dead people?
  57. ^ Mark Almond: Kafka and the Arms Smugglers
  58. ^ a b c UNDP: 2006 Small arms and light weapons survey of Moldova, SEESAC 1 July 2007, ISBN 86-7728-014-6
  59. ^ UN Report clears Transdniester of weapons smuggling; Praises transparency and co-operation Tiraspol Times. Oct 16, 2006. Retrieved 2007, 2-21
  60. ^ Confidence-building visit: OSCE delegation inspects Kolbasna military depots Tiraspol Times. Nov 13, 2006. Retrieved 2007, 2-21
  61. ^ RFE/RL: Western Diplomats Say Reports Of Smuggling From Transdniester Likely Exaggerated
  62. ^ PMR doesn't make weapons, experts admit
  63. ^ Dumitru Lazur, “Tiraspol rockets for Chechens”, Jurnal de Chisinau, Chisinau (Moldova), 28 May 2004
  64. ^ Anti-Semitic Incidents - April 2001 Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Apr. 1, 2001.
  65. ^ Tiraspol Skinheads Sentenced For Synagogue Bombings, Cemetery Desecration Union of Councils for Jews in the Former Soviet Union. Jun. 4, 2003. Retrieved 2007, 2-25
  66. ^ Mass Vandalism of Tiraspol Jewish Cemetery Union of Councils for Jews in the Former Soviet Union. Apr. 22, 2004. Retrieved 2006, 12-24
  67. ^ a b Briefs: Synagogue in FSU Hit with Arson Jewish Journal. May 14, 2004. Retrieved 2006, 12-24
  68. ^ Jewish communities support Pridnestrovie's independence Tiraspol Times. Jul. 8, 2006. Retrieved 2007, 2-25
  69. ^ Report on Global Anti-Semitism U.S. Department of State. Jan. 5, 2005. Retrieved 2006, 12-24
  70. ^ Trans-Dniester blast kills eight BBC
  71. ^ Grenade exploded in Tiraspol trolley bus

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External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Transnistria
  • Profile of Trans-Dniester from the BBC
  • OSCE Mission to Moldova OSCE
  • Transdniester Conflict Was Long In The Making Radio Free Europe
  • "Places that don't exist: Transnistria" - BBC video documentary.

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion...

Transnistrian sources

  • Pridnestrovie.net (Official English site)
  • VisitPMR.com (Official tourist information)
  • Website of the Transnistrian Parliament (Supreme Council) (Official site)
  • The Tiraspol Times & Weekly Review (English language news from Transnistria)

Moldovan sources

  • Moldova Azi: News from Moldova
  • Moldova.org non-governmental country portal
  • Transnistria.md
Subdivisions of Moldova Flag of Moldova
Raions: Anenii Noi | Basarabeasca | Briceni | Cahul | Cantemir | Călăraşi | Căuşeni | Cimişlia | Criuleni | Donduşeni | Drochia | Dubăsari | Edineţ | Faleşti | Floreşti | Glodeni | Hînceşti | Ialoveni | Leova | Nisporeni | Ocniţa | Orhei | Rezina | Rîşcani | Sîngerei | Soroca | Străşeni | Şoldăneşti | Ştefan Vodă | Taraclia | Teleneşti | Ungheni
Municipalities: Chişinău | Bălţi | Bender | Comrat | Tiraspol
Autonomous regions: Găgăuzia | Stînga Nistrului (disputed)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Transnistria TMR / Pridnestrovie Moldova Republic PMR (572 words)
Transnistria - or Pridnestrovie as it is called locally - is a country in South Eastern Europe.
Transnistria maintains friendly relations with other countries in the area and, under the auspices of the OSCE, an active involvement in settlement talks with Moldova over its territorial claim.
Transnistria: Although "Transnistria" is the name most commonly used to describe Pridnestrovie in English, the name is wrong on two counts: It is not from our language, and it doesn't describe the territory of our country accurately.
Transnistria travel guide - Wikitravel (1758 words)
Transnistria (official name Transnistrian Moldovan Republic; in Russian Pridnestrovie or Pridnestrovskaia Moldavskaia Respublika) is a part of Moldova that declared its independence in 1990, entailing a civil war that lasted until 1992.
Moldovan in Transnistria is spelled using the Cyrillic alphabet, although some people insist on spelling it with the Latin alphabet, which is a matter of dispute.The most common language used in shops, bars and taxis is Russian which practically everyone understands, Moldovan and Ukrainian are understood and spoken too but to a lesser extent.
Transnistria does not have its own international passenger airport (it has a military or freight airport), so the best way is to fly to Chisinau in Moldova and travel from there.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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