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Encyclopedia > Transmitter
Antenna tower of Crystal Palace transmitter, London
Antenna tower of Crystal Palace transmitter, London

A transmitter is an electronic device which, usually with the aid of an antenna, propagates an electromagnetic signal such as radio, television, or other telecommunications. In other applications signals can also be transmitted using an analog 0/4-20 mA current loop signal. Download high resolution version (517x1601, 58 KB)Crystal Palace mast taken by C Ford, march 04. ... Download high resolution version (517x1601, 58 KB)Crystal Palace mast taken by C Ford, march 04. ... The Crystal Palace Transmitter is a telecommunications tower in the Crystal Palace area in the London Borough of Bromley, England (grid reference TQ339712). ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... A yagi antenna Most simply, an antenna is an electronic component designed to send or receive radio waves. ... Electromagnetic waves can be imagined as a self-propagating transverse oscillating wave of electric and magnetic fields. ... In telecommunication, signalling (or signaling) has the following meanings: The use of signals for controlling communications. ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... A current loop describes two different electrical signalling schemes. ...

Contents

Transmitter types

WDET-FM transmitter
WDET-FM transmitter

In radio electronics and broadcasting, a transmitter usually has a power supply, an oscillator, a modulator, and amplifiers for audio frequency (AF) and radio frequency (RF). The modulator is the device which piggybacks (or modulates) the signal information onto the carrier frequency, which is then broadcast. Sometimes a device (for example, a cell phone) contains both a transmitter and a radio receiver, with the combined unit referred to as a transceiver. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 650 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (924 × 852 pixels, file size: 572 KB, MIME type: image/png) WDET-FM transmitter, Creative Commons, LuckyLouie 18:48, 5 November 2007 (UTC) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 650 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (924 × 852 pixels, file size: 572 KB, MIME type: image/png) WDET-FM transmitter, Creative Commons, LuckyLouie 18:48, 5 November 2007 (UTC) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at... WDET-FM is the NPR-affiliated radio station of Wayne State University in Detroit, at 101. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... An electronic power supply, often referred to somewhat incorrectly as an AC adaptor, is an electronic device that produces direct current of a particular voltage and current from a source of electricity such as a battery or wall-socket power. ... Cross coupled LC oscillator with output on top An electronic oscillator is an electronic circuit that produces a repetitive electronic signal, often a sine wave or a square wave. ... For the musical use of modulation, see modulation (music). ... For the British rock band of the same name, see Amplifier (band). ... This article is about audible acoustic waves. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Radio waves. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Radio waves. ... Motorola T2288 mobile phone A mobile phone is a portable electronic device which behaves as a normal telephone whilst being able to move over a wide area (compare cordless phone which acts as a telephone only within a limited range). ... For the device which is a tuner (radio) and a amplifier and/or loudspeaker, see receiver (home stereo). ... A transceiver is a device that has both a transmitter and a receiver which are combined in to one. ...


In amateur radio, a transmitter can be a separate piece of electronic gear or a subset of a transceiver, and often referred to using an abbreviated form; "XMTR". [1] Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is both a hobby and a service that uses various types of radio communications equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. ...


In industrial process control, a "transmitter" is any device which converts measurements from a sensor into a signal to be received, usually sent via wires, by some display or control device located a distance away. Typically in process control applications the "transmitter" will output an analog 4-20 mA current loop or digital protocol to represent a measured variable within a range. For example, a pressure transmitter might use 4 mA as a representation for 50 psig of pressure and 20 mA as 1000 psig of pressure and any value in between proportionately ranged between 50 and 1000 psig. (A 0-4 mA signal indicates a system error.) Older technology transmitters used pneumatic pressure typically ranged between 3 to 15 psig (20 to 100 kPa) to represent a process variable. Process control is a statistics and engineering discipline that deals with architectures, mechanisms, and algorithms for controlling the output of a specific process. ... For other uses, see Ampere (disambiguation). ... A current loop describes two different electrical signalling schemes. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... A pressure gauge reading in PSI (red scale) and kPa (black scale) The pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in2) is a non-SI unit of pressure based on avoirdupois units. ... For other uses, see Pascal. ...


Generally and in communication and information processing, a transmitter is any object (source) which sends information to an observer (receiver). When used in this more general sense, vocal cords may also be considered an example of a "transmitter". For the Bobby Womack album, see Communication (1972 album). ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... In information theory, a signal is the sequence of states of a communications channel that encodes a message. ... A sender was a circuit in a 20th century electromechanical telephone exchange which sent telephone numbers and other information to another exchange. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ...


Radio transmitters

Further information: Radio transmitter design

INDIAN STORE INDIAN STORE: Radio Radio transmitter design is a complex topic which can be broken down into a series of smaller topics. ...

History

In the early days of radio engineering, radio frequency energy was generated using arcs or mechanical alternators (of which a rare example survives at the SAQ transmitter in Grimeton, Sweden). In the 1920s electronic transmitters, based on vacuum tubes, began to be used. Alexanderson Alternator in the Grimeton VLF transmitter. ... VLF transmitter Grimeton The Grimeton VLF transmitter is a VLF transmission facility near Grimeton close to Varberg in Sweden. ... Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ...


Power output

In broadcasting, and telecommunication, the part which contains the oscillator, modulator, and sometimes audio processor, is called the exciter. Confusingly, the high-power amplifier which the exciter then feeds into is often called the "transmitter" by broadcast engineers. The final output is given as transmitter power output (TPO), although this is not what most stations are rated by. Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... Copy of the original phone of Alexander Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the assisted transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... Audio signal processing, sometimes referred to as audio processing, is the processing of a representation of auditory signals, or sound. ... Broadcast engineering is the field of electrical engineering, and now to some extent radio and television broadcasting. ... Transmitter power output (TPO) is the actual amount of power (in watts) of RF energy that a transmitter produces at its output. ...


Effective radiated power (ERP) is used when calculating station coverage, even for most non-broadcast stations. It is the TPO, minus any attenuation or radiated loss in the line to the antenna, multiplied by the gain (magnification) which the antenna provides toward the horizon. This is important, because the electric utility bill for the transmitter would be enormous otherwise, as would the cost of a transmitter. For most large stations in the VHF- and UHF-range, the transmitter power is no more than 20% of the ERP. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A calculation is a deliberate process for transforming one or more inputs into one or more results. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Electromagnetic radiation or EM radiation is a combination (cross product) of oscillating electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to each other, moving through space as a wave, effectively transporting energy and momentum. ... In electronics, gain is usually taken as the mean ratio of the signal output of a system to the signal input of the system. ... Magnification is the process of enlarging something only in appearance, not physical size. ... Horizon. ... The article on electrical energy is located elsewhere. ... In economics, utility is a measure of the relative happiness or satisfaction (gratification) gained. ... Billing may mean: The process of sending accounts to customers for goods or services is called billing. ...


For VLF, LF, MF and HF the ERP is typically not determined separately. In most cases the transmission power found in lists of transmitters is the value for the output of the transmitter. This is only correct for omnidirectional aerials with a length of a quarter wavelength or shorter. For other aerial types there are gain factors, which can reach values until 50 for shortwave directional beams in the direction of maximum beam intensity.


Since some authors take account of gain factors of aerials of transmitters for frequencies below 30 MHz and others not, there are often discrepancies of the values of transmitted powers.


Power supply

Transmitters are sometimes fed from a higher voltage level of the power supply grid than necessary in order to improve security of supply. For example, the Allouis, Konstantynow and Roumoules transmitters are fed from the high-voltage network (110 kV in Alouis and Konstantynow, 150 kV in Roumoules) even though a power supply from the medium-voltage level of the power grid (about 20 kV) would be able to deliver enough power. [2][3] This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ... The Warsaw radio mast in Konstantynów The Warsaw radio mast a few months after collapse Warsaw Radio Mast from far away The Warsaw radio mast was the tallest structure ever built; however, it existed only from 1973 to 1991. ... The Transmitter Roumoules is the broadcasting facility for long-, medium and shortwave of RMC near Roumoules, France. ...


Cooling of final stages

Low-power transmitters do not require special cooling equipment. Modern transmitters can be incredibly efficient, with efficiencies exceeding 98 percent. However, a broadcast transmitter with a megawatt power stage transferring 98% of that into the antenna can also be viewed as a 20 kilowatt electric heater.


For medium-power transmitters, up to a few hundred watts, air cooling with fans is used. At power levels over a few kilowatts, the output stage is cooled by a forced liquid cooling system analogous to an automobile cooling system. Since the coolant directly touches the high-voltage anodes of the tubes, only distilled, deionised water or a special dielectric coolant can be used in the cooling circuit. This high-purity coolant is in turn cooled by a heat exchanger, where the second cooling circuit can use water of ordinary quality because it is not in contact with energized parts. Very-high-power tubes of small physical size may use evaporative cooling by water in contact with the anode. The production of steam allows a high heat flow in a small space. Diagram of a zinc anode in a galvanic cell. ... Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ...


Protection equipment

The high voltages used in high power transmitters (up to 40 kV) require extensive protection equipment. Also, transmitters are exposed to damage from lightning. Transmitters may be damaged if operated without an antenna, so protection circuits must detect the loss of the antenna and switch off the transmitter immediately. Tube-based transmitters must have power applied in the proper sequence, with the filament voltage applied before the anode voltage, otherwise the tubes can be damaged. The output stage must be monitored for standing waves, which indicate that generated power is not being radiated but instead is being reflected back into the transmitter. Not to be confused with lighting. ... In telecommunication, standing wave ratio (SWR) is the ratio of the amplitude of a partial standing wave at an antinode (maximum) to the amplitude at an adjacent node (minimum). ...


Lightning protection is required between the transmitter and antenna. This consists of spark gaps and gas-filled surge arresters to limit the voltage that appears on the transmitter terminals. The control instrument that measures the voltage standing-wave ratio switches the transmitter off briefly if a higher voltage standing-wave ratio is detected after a lightning strike, as the reflections are probably due to lightning damage. If this does not succeed after several attempts, the antenna may be damaged and the transmitter should remain switched off. In some transmitting plants UV detectors are fitted in critical places, to switch off the transmitter if an arc is detected. The operating voltages, modulation factor, frequency and other transmitter parameters are monitored for protection and diagnostic purposes, and may be displayed locally and/or at a remote control room. A spark plug. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... A 3000 volt electricity arc between two nails Electricity arcs between the power rail and electrical pickup shoe on a London Underground train An electric arc can melt calcium oxide An electric arc is an electrical breakdown of a gas which produces an ongoing plasma discharge, resulting from a current...


Building

A commercial transmitter site will usually have a control building to shelter the transmitter components and control devices. This is usually a purely functional building, which may contain apparatus for both radio and television transmitters. To reduce transmission line loss the transmitter building is usually immediately adjacent to the antenna for VHF and UHF sites, but for lower frequencies it may be desirable to have a distance of a few score or several hundred metres between the building and the antenna. Some transmitting towers have enclosures built into the tower to house radio relay link transmitters or other, relatively low-power transmitters. Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. ... This article is about the radio frequency. ...


Legal and regulatory aspects

Since radio waves go over borders, international agreements control radio transmissions. In European countries like Germany often the national Post Office is the regulating authority. In the United States broadcast and industrial transmitters are regulated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). In Canada technical aspects of broadcast and radio transmitters are controlled by Industry Canada, but broadcast content is regulated separately by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC). In Australia transmitters, spectrum, and content are controlled by the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA). The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) helps managing the radio-frequency spectrum internationally. FCC redirects here. ... The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC, in French Conseil de la radiodiffusion et des télécommunications canadiennes) was established in 1968 by the Canadian Parliament to replace the Board of Broadcast Governors. ... Australian Communications and Media Authority is an Australian government agency whose main roles are to regulate broadcasting, radiocommunications and telecommunications, and to respresent Australian interests in international communications matters. ... The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; French: Union internationale des télécommunications, Spanish: Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ...


Planning

As in any costly project, the planning of a high power transmitter site requires great care. This begins with the location. A minimum distance, which depends on the transmitter frequency, transmitter power, and the design of the transmitting antennas, is required to protect people from the radio frequency energy. Antenna towers are often very tall and therefore flight paths must be evaluated. Sufficient electric power must be available for high power transmitters. Transmitters for long and medium wave require good grounding and soil of high electrical conductivity. Locations at the sea or in river valleys are ideal, but the flood danger must be considered. Transmitters for UHF are best on high mountains to improve the range (see radio propagation). The antenna pattern must be considered because it is costly to change the pattern of a long-wave or medium-wave antenna. This article is about the radio frequency. ... Radio propagation is a term used to explain how radio waves behave when they are transmitted, or are propagated from one point on the Earth to another. ...

Antenna tower
Antenna tower

Transmitting antennas for long and medium wave are usually implemented as a mast radiator. Similar antennas with smaller dimensions are used also for short wave transmitters, if these send in the round spray enterprise. For arranging radiation at free standing steel towers fastened planar arrays are used. Radio towers for UHF and TV transmitter can be implemented in principle as grounded constructions. Towers may be steel lattice masts or reinforced concrete towers with antennas mounted at the top. Some transmitting towers for UHF have high-altitude operating rooms and/or facilities such as restaurants and observation platforms, which are accessible by elevator. Such towers are usually called TV tower. For microwaves one uses frequently parabolic antennas. These can be set up for applications of radio relay links on transmitting towers for FM to special platforms. For the program passing on of television satellites and the funkkontakt to space vehicles large parabolic antennas with diameters of 3 to 100 meters are necessary. These plants, which can be used if necessary also as radio telescope, are established on free standing constructions, whereby there are also numerous special designs, like the radio telescope in Arecibo. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A typical mast radiator Base feed: mast is fed from Aerial Tuning Unit on right via conductor to top of brown ceramic insulator. ...


Just as important as the planning of the construction and location of the transmitter is how its output fits in with existing transmissions. Two transmitters cannot broadcast on the same frequency in the same area as this would cause co-channel interference. For a good example of how the channel planners have dovetailed different transmitters' outputs see Crystal Palace UHF TV channel allocations. This reference also provides a good example of a grouped transmitter, in this case an A group. That is, all of its output is within the bottom third of the UK UHF television broadcast band. The other two groups (B and C/D) utilise the middle and top third of the band, see graph. By replicating this grouping across the country (using different groups for adjacent transmitters), co-channel interference can be minimised, and in addition, those in marginal reception areas can use more efficient grouped receiving antennas. Unfortunately, in the UK, this carefully planned system has had to be compromised with the advent of digital broadcasting which (during the changeover period at least) requires yet more channel space, and consequently the additional digital broadcast channels cannot always be fitted within the transmitter's existing group. Thus many UK transmitters have become "wideband" with the consequent need for replacement of receiving antennas (see external links). Once the Digital Switch Over (DSO) occurs the plan is that most transmitters will revert to their original groups, source Ofcom July 2007.


Further complication arises when adjacent transmitters have to transmit on the same frequency and under these circumstances the broadcast radiation patterns are attenuated in the relevant direction(s). A good example of this is Waltham which broadcasts digital MUXES 5 & 6 on the same frequencies as Sandy Heath, another transmitter 50 miles SSE of it. Thus Waltham's transmitter array does not broadcast these two channels in the direction of Sandy Heath and vice versa. All of the above provides a perfect case study in transmission frequency planning. The Waltham transmitting station is a broadcasting and telecommunications facility at Waltham-on-the-Wolds, 5 miles (8 km) north-east of Melton Mowbray, Leicestershire, UK. It comprises a 315 metre high (1033 ft) guyed steel tubular mast. ...


Where a particular service needs to have wide coverage, this is usually achieved by using multiple transmitters at different locations. Usually, these transmitters will operate at different frequencies to avoid interference where coverage overlaps. Examples include national broadcasting networks and cellular networks. In the latter, frequency switching is automatically done by the receiver as necessary, in the former, manual retuning is more common (though the Radio Data System is an example of automatic frequency switching in broadcast networks). Another system for extending coverage using multiple transmitters is quasi-synchronous transmission, but this is rarely used nowadays. The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Radio Data System, or RDS, is a standard from the European Broadcasting Union for sending small amounts of digital information using conventional FM radio broadcasts. ... In radio broadcasting, quasi-synchronous transmission is a method of achieving wider area coverage using multiple transmitters but without needing multiple frequencies. ...


Main and relay (repeater) transmitters

Transmitting stations are usually either classified as main stations or relay stations (also known as repeaters or translators). A Radio Repeater is a combination of a radio receiver and a radio transmitter that receives a weak or low-level signal and retransmits it at a higher level or higher power, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. ... In broadcasting, a translator is an FM radio station or a TV station which acts as a full-duplex repeater. ...


Main stations are defined as those that generate their own modulated output signal from a baseband (unmodulated) input. Usually main stations operate at high power and cover large areas. For the musical use of modulation, see modulation (music). ... Baseband is an adjective that describes signals and systems whose range of frequencies is measured from 0 to a maximum bandwidth or highest signal frequency; it is sometimes used as a noun for a band of frequencies starting at 0. ...


Relay stations take an already modulated input signal (usually by direct reception of a parent station (off-air)) and simply shift (translate) its frequency before rebroadcasting. Usually relay stations operate at medium or low power, and are used to fill in pockets of poor reception within, or at the fringe of, the service area of a parent main station.


Note that a main station may also take its input signal directly off-air from another station, however this signal would be fully demodulated to baseband first, processed, and then remodulated for transmission. Baseband is an adjective that describes signals and systems whose range of frequencies is measured from 0 to a maximum bandwidth or highest signal frequency; it is sometimes used as a noun for a band of frequencies starting at 0. ...


Transmitters in culture

Some cities in Europe, like Mühlacker, Ismaning, Langenberg, Kalundborg, Hoerby and Allouis became famous as sites of powerful transmitters. Some transmitting towers like the radio tower Berlin or the TV tower Stuttgart became landmarks of cities. Many transmitting plants have very high radio towers that are masterpieces of engineering. Mühlacker Mühlacker is a town with ca. ... Ismaning is a town near Munich with 14,638 inhabitants. ... Langenberg is a part of Velbert. ... Kalundborg is a city in Kalundborg municipality in Denmark and the site of its municipal council . ... Allouis is a village and commune of the Cher département in central France. ... Masts of the Rugby VLF transmitter in England Radio masts and towers are, typically, tall structures designed to support antennas (also known as aerials in the UK) for telecommunications and broadcasting, including television. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... For other uses, see Stuttgart (disambiguation). ...


Having the tallest building in the world, the nation, the state/province/prefecture, city, etc., has often been considered something to brag about. Often, builders of high-rise buildings have used transmitter antennas to lay claim to having the tallest building. A historic example was the "tallest building" feud between the Chrysler Building and the Empire State Building in New York, New York. The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, located on the east side of Manhattan at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue. ... The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, New York at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Some towers have an observation deck accessible to tourists. An example is the Ostankino Tower in Moscow, which was completed in 1967 on the 50th anniversary of the October Revolution to demonstrate the technical abilities of the Soviet Union. As very tall radio towers of any construction type are prominent landmarks, requiring careful planning and construction, and high-power transmitters especially in the long- and mediumwave ranges can be received over long distances, such facilities were often mentioned in propaganda. Other examples were the Deutschlandsender Herzberg/Elster and the Warsaw Radio Mast. Vertical panorama of Ostankino Television Tower The Ostankino tower seen from the grounds at All-Russia Exhibition Centre. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... The Deutschlandsender Herzberg/Elster was a 500 kilowatt long-wave transmitter at Herzberg/Elster, which was in service from 1939 to 1945. ... The Warsaw radio mast in Konstantynów The Warsaw radio mast a few months after collapse Warsaw Radio Mast from far away The Warsaw radio mast was the tallest structure ever built; however, it existed only from 1973 to 1991. ...


Records

  • Tallest radio mast
    • 1974-1991: Konstantynow for 2000 kilowatt longwave transmitter, 646.38 metres (2120 ft 8 in)
    • 1963-1974 and since 1991: KVLY Tower, 2,063 ft (628.8 m)

The Warsaw radio mast in Konstantynów The Warsaw radio mast a few months after collapse Warsaw Radio Mast from far away The Warsaw radio mast was the tallest structure ever built; however, it existed only from 1973 to 1991. ... KVLY-TV mast seen close-up The KVLY-TV mast (formerly the KTHI-TV mast) is a television transmitting mast in Traill County, North Dakota, USA, used by Fargo station KVLY channel 11. ... Taldom transmitter is a large facility for longwave and shortwave broadcasting near Taldom, Russia. ... Bolshakovo (Russian: ; until 1938—Groß Skaisgirren, from 1938 to 1946—Kreuzingen) is a settlement located in the southern part of Slavsky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, 90 km from Kaliningrad. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Panorama of Chamonix valley Chamonix-Mont-Blanc or, more commonly, Chamonix is a town and commune in eastern France, in the Haute-Savoie département, at the foot of Mont Blanc. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.kent-engineers.com/abbreviations.htm
  2. ^ http://perso.orange.fr/monte-carlo-radiodiffusion/anglais/olan.htm
  3. ^ http://perso.orange.fr/tvignaud/am/allouis/allouis4.htm

See also

In the following there are lists of famous transmission sites. ... INDIAN STORE INDIAN STORE: Radio Radio transmitter design is a complex topic which can be broken down into a series of smaller topics. ...

External links

Look up Transmitter in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

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