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Encyclopedia > Transliteration of Russian into English

There exist many possible systems for transliterating the Cyrillic alphabet of the Russian language to English or the Latin alphabet. Such transliteration is necessary for writing Russian names and other words in English text. It is also essential for the input of Russian text into computer by users who either do not have the keyboard or word processor set up for input of Cyrillic, or else they are not capable of typing rapidly on the distinct Cyrillic keyboard. In the latter case, they would type using a system of transliteration on the QWERTY keyboard and then use an automated tool to convert the text into Cyrillic. The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Russian (Russian: русский язык, russkij jazyk, ▶(?)) is the most widely spoken language of Europe and the most widespread of the Slavic languages. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Typing is the process of inputting text into a device, such as a typewriter, computer, or a calculator, by pressing keys on a keyboard. ... The QWERTY Layout QWERTY (pronounced kwerty or Q-werty) is the most common modern-day keyboard layout on most English language computer and typewriter keyboards. ...


Standard Cyrillic-to-English transliteration systems include:

  • The United Nations-recommended romanization system (1987), based on GOST. Used in the Russian Federation and increasingly in international cartographic products.
  • GOST 16876-71 (1983), from the Main Administration of Geodesy and Cartography of the former Soviet Union. Russian abbreviation of GOsudarstvenny STandart, "the State Standard".
  • ISO 9:1995, from the International Organization for Standardization.
  • America Library Association & Library of Congress (ALA-LC) Romanization tables for Slavic alphabets (1997), used in North American libraries.
  • BGN/PCGN 1947 transliteration system (United States Board on Geographic Names & Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use).

Note that the transliteration to other languages can be different (for instance: Russian "Воронин" = English "Voronin" = French "Voronine", Горбачёв = Gorbachev = Gorbatchev, etc.). This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The international standard ISO 9 establishes a system for the transliteration into Latin characters of Cyrillic characters constituting the alphabets of Slavic and non-Slavic languages. ...


Conventional transcription of Russian names

The following table describes a method to derive the most common informal transcriptions of Russian names into the Latin alphabet, suitable for English-speakers. It is similar to BGN/PCGN transliteration, with several exceptions. Transcription is the conversion into written, typewritten or printed form, of a written source—such as the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica articles of which are transcribed into the Wikipedia—or spoken language source, such as the proceedings of a court hearing. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Transliteration in a narrow sense is a mapping from one system of writing into another. ...

Russian letter or letter combination English transliteration Special provision Examples
А (а) A (a) None Аник = Anik
Поганкино = Pogankino
Б (б) B (b) None Болотин = Bolotin
Колбасин = Kolbasin
В (в) V (v) None Воронин = Voronin
Привалин = Privalin
Г (г) G (g) None Галкин = Galkin
Луговой = Lugovoy
H (h) When it is a commonly accepted convention Петергоф = Peterhof
Д (д) D (d) None Дровяное = Drovyanoye
Подгорск = Podgorsk
Е (е) Ye (ye)
  1. In the beginning of words;
  2. after vowels;
  3. after ь;
  4. after ъ.
  1. Ельцин = Yeltsin
  2. Раздольное = Razdolnoye
  3. Юрьев = Yuryev (ь omitted — see ь below);
  4. Подъездной = Podyezdnoy
E (e) All other cases Белкин = Belkin
Ё (ё) Yo (yo) None Ёлкино = Yolkino
Озёрск = Ozyorsk
E (e) When it is a commonly accepted convention Горбачёв = Gorbachev
Ж (ж) Zh (zh) None Жиров = Zhirov
Приволжское = Privolzhskoye
З (з) Z (z) None Зорин = Zorin
Обозов = Obozov
И (и) I (i) Except in an –ий ending (see below) Иркутск = Irkutsk
Владивосток = Vladivostok
Й (й) Y (y) Except in –ый and –ий endings (see below) Йошкар-Ола = Yoshkar-Ola
Буйск = Buysk
I (i) When it is a commonly accepted convention Край = Krai
Байкал = Baikal
J (j) When it is a commonly accepted convention [Insert an example]
К (к) K (k) None Киров = Kirov
Галкин = Galkin
Л (л) L (l) None Лапинск = Lapinsk
Комсомольск = Komsomolsk
М (м) M (m) None Мичурин = Michurin
Колыма = Kolyma
Н (н) N (n) None Нальчик = Nalchik
Савино = Savino
О (о) O (o) None Оха = Okha
Грозный = Grozny
П (п) P (p) None Петроград = Petrograd
Ставрополь = Stavropol
Р (р) R (r) None Родниковое = Rodnikovoye
Высокогорск = Vysokogorsk
С (с) S (s) None Ступино = Stupino
Бирск = Birsk
Т (т) T (t) None Тавричанка = Tavrichanka
Ростов = Rostov
У (у) U (u) None Улетайск = Uletaysk
Шушенское = Shushenskoye
Ф (ф) F (f) None Фёдоровка = Fyodorovka
Корфу = Korfu
Ph (ph) When it is a commonly accepted convention Иосиф Сталин = Joseph Stalin
Х (х) Kh (kh) None Хабаровск = Khabarovsk
Оха = Okha
Ц (ц) Ts (ts) None Царское = Tsarskoye
Зарецкий = Zaretsky
Ч (ч) Ch (ch) None Черемшаны = Cheremshany
Зареченск = Zarechensk
Tch (tch) When it is a commonly accepted convention Чайковский = Tchaikovsky
Ш (ш) Sh (sh) None Шадрин = Shadrin
Моршанск = Morshansk
Щ (щ) Shch (shch) None Щукино = Shchukino
Рощинский = Roshchinsky
Sch (sch) When it is a commonly accepted convention Хрущёв = Khruschev
ъ (твёрдый знак) Omitted When followed by a vowel Подъярский = Podyarsky
" When it is a commonly accepted convention [Insert an example]
Ы (ы) Y (y) Except in an –ый ending (see below) Ыттык-Кёль = Yttyk-Kyol
Давыдов = Davydov
ь (мягкий знак) Omitted
  1. When followed by an iotated vowel;
  2. at the end of words;
  3. before a consonant.
  1. Усолье = Usolye
  2. Выхухоль = Vykhukhol
  3. Дальнегорск = Dalnegorsk
y When followed by a non-iotated vowel Ильинский = Ilyinsky
' When it is a commonly accepted convention Русь = Rus'
Э (э) E (e) None Элиста = Elista
Тетраэдральный = Tetraedralny
Ю (ю) Yu (yu) None Юрмала = Yurmala
Козючинск = Kozyuchinsk
Я (я) Ya (ya) None Ярославль = Yaroslavl
Бурянск = Buryansk
Кс (кс) x In names like Alexander and Alexey (sometimes) Александр = Alexander
Алексей = Alexey
Ks (ks) In all other cases Ксинск = Ksinsk
Моксинский = Moksinsky
–ый endings y None Красный = Krasny
iy When it is a commonly accepted convention [Insert an example]
–ий endings y –iy is also acceptable Синий = Siny (Siniy)
iy –y is also acceptable Великий = Velikiy (Veliky)
i When it is a commonly accepted convention Юрий = Yuri

Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-07-18, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Iotation is a form of palatalisation which occurs in Slavic languages. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-07-20, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ...

See also

The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... The Early Cyrillic alphabet was a writing system developed in Bulgaria during the 10th century A.D. for the writing of Old Church Slavonic. ... Volapuk encoding (Russian: кодировка воляпюк (or волапюк, kodirovka volapyuk)) is a slang term for rendering the letters of the Cyrillic alphabet by the Latin ones. ... Graphic designers sometimes employ faux Cyrillic typography to give a Slavic feel to English text, by replacing Latin letters with Cyrillic letters resembling them. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Transliteration - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (865 words)
Transliteration attempts to be lossless, so that an informed reader should be able to reconstruct the original spelling of unknown transliterated words.
One instance of transliteration is the use of an English computer keyboard to type in a language that uses a different alphabet, such as in Russian.
Transliteration from English letters is particularly important for users who are only familiar with the English keyboard layout, and hence could not type quickly in a different alphabet even if their software would actually support a keyboard layout for another language.
Russian alphabet - definition of Russian alphabet in Encyclopedia (891 words)
The modern Russian alphabet is a variant of the Cyrillic alphabet.
It was introduced into Kievan Rus at the time of its conversion to Christianity (988), or, if certain archaelogical finds are correctly dated, at a slightly earlier date.
Although it is usually stated that the letters labelled "fallen into disuse by the XVIII century" above were eliminated in the typographical reform of 1708, reality is somewhat more complex.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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