FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Translation Lookaside Buffer

A Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB) is a cache in a CPU that is used to improve the speed of virtual address translation. A TLB has a fixed number of entries containing parts of the page table which translate virtual addresses into physical addresses. It is typically a content-addressable memory (CAM), in which the search key is the virtual address and the search result is a physical address. If the CAM search yields a match, the translation is known very quickly, and the physical address is used to access memory. If the virtual address is not in the TLB, the translation proceeds via the page table, which takes longer to complete. It takes significantly longer if the translation tables are swapped out into secondary storage, which a few systems allow. Look up cache in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor (actual size: 12×6. ... Virtual address In computer terminology a virtual address is an address not identifying a logical interface or device, but to a virtual (not physical) entity. ... Relationship between pages addressed by virtual addresses and the frames in physical memory, within a simple address space scheme. ... In computer science, a physical address is the address presented to a computers main memory in a virtual memory system, in contrast to the virtual address which is the address generated by the CPU. Virtual addresses are translated into physical addresses by a memory management unit (abbreviated MMU). ... Content-addressable memory (CAM) is a special type of computer memory used in certain very high speed searching applications. ... Relationship between pages addressed by virtual addresses and the frames in physical memory, within a simple address space scheme. ...


The TLB references physical memory addresses in its table. It may reside between the CPU and the CPU cache or between the CPU cache and primary storage memory. This depends on whether the cache uses physical or virtual addressing. If the cache is virtually addressed, requests are sent directly from the CPU to the cache, which then accesses the TLB as necessary. If the cache is physically addressed, the CPU does a TLB lookup on every memory operation, and the resulting physical address is sent to the cache. There are pros and cons to both implementations. Diagram of a CPU memory cache A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Physical memory. ...


A common optimization for physically addressed caches is to perform the TLB lookup in parallel with the cache access. The low-order bits of any virtual address (e.g., in a virtual memory system having 4KB pages, the lower 12 bits of the virtual address) do not change in the virtual-to-physical translation. During a cache access, two steps are performed: an index is used to find an entry in the cache's data store, and then the tags for the cache line found are compared. If the cache is structured in such a way that it can be indexed using only the bits that do not change in translation, the cache can perform its "index" operation while the TLB translates the upper bits of the address. Then, the translated address from the TLB is passed to the cache. The cache performs a tag comparison to determine if this access was a hit or miss. See the address translation section in the cache article for more details about virtual addressing as it pertains to caches and TLBs. It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Diagram of a CPU memory cache A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. ...


Miss

When a TLB miss occurs, two schemes are commonly found in modern architectures. With hardware TLB management, the CPU itself walks the page tables to see if there is a valid page table entry for the specified virtual address. If an entry exists, it is brought into the TLB and the TLB access is retried; this time the access will hit, and the program can proceed normally. If the CPU finds no valid entry for the virtual address in the page tables, it raises a page fault exception, which the operating system must handle. Handling page faults usually involves bringing the requested data into physical memory, setting up a page table entry to map the faulting virtual address to the correct physical address, and restarting the program; see the page fault article for more details. With software-managed TLBs, a TLB miss generates a "TLB miss" exception, and the operating system must walk the page tables and perform the translation in software. The operating system then loads the translation into the TLB and restarts the program from the instruction that caused the TLB miss. Like with hardware TLB management, if the OS finds no valid translation in the page tables, a page fault has occured, and the OS must handle it accordingly. Relationship between pages addressed by virtual addresses and the frames in physical memory, within a simple address space scheme. ... In computer storage technology, a page fault is an interrupt (or exception) to the software raised by the hardware, when a program accesses a page that is not mapped in physical memory. ... Exception handling is a programming language construct or computer hardware mechanism designed to handle the occurrence of some condition that changes the normal flow of execution. ... An operating system (OS) is a computer program that manages the hardware and software resources of a computer. ... In computer storage technology, a page fault is an interrupt (or exception) to the software raised by the hardware, when a program accesses a page that is not mapped in physical memory. ...


Typical statistics

Size: 8 - 4,096 entries
Hit time: 0.5 - 1 clock cycle
Miss penalty: 10 - 30 clock cycles
Miss rate: 0.01% - 1%

If a TLB hit takes 1 clock cycle, a miss takes 30 clock cycles, and the miss rate is 1%, the effective memory cycle rate is an average of 1 * 0.99 + 30 * 0.01 = 1.29 clock cycles per memory access.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Method and system for maintaining translation lookaside buffer coherency in a multiprocessor data processing system - ... (5387 words)
The method for maintaining translation lookaside buffer coherency in a multiprocessor computer system according to claim 4, further including the step of suspending execution of instructions within each of said plurality of processors until such time as coherency is achieved with respect to all pending read and write operations within said system memory.
The system for maintaining translation lookaside buffer coherency in a multiprocessor computer system according to claim 11, further including means for suspending execution of instructions within each of said plurality of processors until such time as coherency is achieved with respect to all in pending read and write operations within said system memory.
The system for maintaining translation lookaside buffer coherency in a multiprocessor computer system according to claim 12, further including means for purging all instructions within each of said plurality of processors in response to achievement of coherency with respect to all pending read and write operations within said system memory.
Buffer (763 words)
Riparian buffer zones - Riparian Buffer Zones (sometimes called riparian buffer areas) are a type of headwater, riparian zone, or riparian strips which interacts with both slope runoff and stream/river water and are usually independent of the surrounding land use.
Riparian buffer zones are used to lessen the impacts of surrounding land use on the stream.
Buffer overflow - In computer security and programming, a buffer overflow is an anomalous condition where a process attempts to store more data in a buffer than there is memory allocated for it, causing the extra data to overwrite adjacent memory locations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m