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Encyclopedia > Transition metal

In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: Chemistry - the study of interactions of chemical substances with one another and energy based on the structure of atoms, molecules and other kinds of aggregrates Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem), meaning earth[1]) is the science concerned with the reactions, transformations and aggregations of matter, as well as accompanying...

  • More strictly, IUPAC defines a transition metal as "an element whose atom has an incomplete d sub-shell, or which can give rise to cations with an incomplete d sub-shell." By this definition, zinc, cadmium, and mercury are excluded from the transition metals, as they have a d10 configuration. Only a few transient species of these elements that leave ions with a partly filled d subshell have been formed, and mercury(I) only occurs as Hg22+, which does not strictly form a lone ion with a partly filled subshell, and hence these three elements are inconsistent with the latter definition.[1] They do form ions with a 2+ oxidation state, but these retain the 4d10 configuration. Element 112 may also be excluded although its oxidation properties are unlikely to be observed due to its radioactive nature. This definition corresponds to groups 3 to 11 on the periodic table.

The first definition is simple and has traditionally been used. However, many interesting properties of the transition elements as a group are the result of their partly filled d subshells. Periodic trends in the d block (transition metals) are less prevailing than in the rest of the periodic table. Going across a period, the valence doesn't change, so the electron being added to an atom goes to the inner shell, not outer shell, strengthening the shield. [2] D Block is a rap group based in Yonkers, New York. ... For a diagram of the periodic table, see standard periodic table below. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... For a diagram of the periodic table, see standard periodic table below. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ...


The (loosely defined) transition metals are the 40 chemical elements 21 to 30, 39 to 48, 71 to 80, and 103 to 112. The name transition comes from their position in the periodic table of elements. In each of the four periods in which they occur, these elements represent the successive addition of electrons to the d atomic orbitals of the atoms. In this way, the transition metals represent the transition between group 2 elements and group 13 elements. For a diagram of the periodic table, see standard periodic table below. ... In chemistry, an atomic orbital is the region in which an electron may be found around a single atom. ... The alkaline earth metals are the series of elements in Group 2 of the periodic table: beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium and radium (not always considered due to its very short half-life). ... The Boron group is periodic table group 13 (IUPAC style) in the periodic table. ...

Group 3 (III B) 4 (IV B) 5 (V B) 6 (VI B) 7 (VII B) 8 (VIII B) 9 (VIII B) 10 (VIII B) 11 (I B) 12 (II B)
Period 4 Sc 21 Ti 22 V 23 Cr 24 Mn 25 Fe 26 Co 27 Ni 28 Cu 29 Zn 30
Period 5 Y 39 Zr 40 Nb 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 Rh 45 Pd 46 Ag 47 Cd 48
Period 6 Lu 71 Hf 72 Ta 73 W 74 Re 75 Os 76 Ir 77 Pt 78 Au 79 Hg 80
Period 7 Lr 103 Rf 104 Db 105 Sg 106 Bh 107 Hs 108 Mt 109 Ds 110 Rg 111 Uub 112

Contents

A period 4 element is one of the chemical elements in the fourth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... General Name, Symbol, Number scandium, Sc, 21 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 4, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 44. ... General Name, Symbol, Number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... General Name, Symbol, Number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, Symbol, Number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... wikipedia sucks big balls For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number nickel, Ni, 28 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 4, d Appearance lustrous, metallic and silvery with a gold tinge Standard atomic weight 58. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Standard atomic weight 63. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... A period 5 element is one of the chemical elements in the fifth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 88. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... General Name, Symbol, Number niobium, Nb, 41 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 92. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Standard atomic weight [98](0) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass 101. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass 102. ... General Name, Symbol, Number palladium, Pd, 46 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 106. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... A period 6 element is one of the chemical elements in the sixth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements, including the Lanthanides. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lutetium, Lu, 71 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 174. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance grey steel Standard atomic weight 178. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Standard atomic weight 180. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tungsten, W, 74 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 6, d Appearance grayish white, lustrous Standard atomic weight 183. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhenium, Re, 75 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 186. ... General Name, Symbol, Number osmium, Os, 76 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 6, d Appearance silvery, blue cast Standard atomic weight 190. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Standard atomic weight 196. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... A period 7 element is one of the chemical elements in the seventh row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lawrencium, Lr, 103 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g·mol−1 Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 7s2 7p1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 3 Physical properties... General Name, Symbol, Number rutherfordium, Rf, 104 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (261) g/mol Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2 Phase presumably a... General Name, Symbol, Number dubnium, Db, 105 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (262) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2 (guess based on tantalum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 11... General Name, Symbol, Number seaborgium, Sg, 106 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (266) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2 (guess based on tungsten) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12... General Name, Symbol, Number bohrium, Bh, 107 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2 (guess based on rhenium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 13... General Name, Symbol, Number hassium, Hs, 108 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (269) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d6 7s2 (guess based on osmium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 14... General Name, Symbol, Number meitnerium, Mt, 109 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (268) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2 (guess based on iridium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number darmstadtium, Ds, 110 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (281) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1 (guess based on platinum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17... General Name, Symbol, Number roentgenium, Rg, 111 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably yellow or orange metallic Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1 (guess based on gold) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 1... General Name, Symbol, Number ununbium, Uub, 112 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray liquid Atomic mass (285) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 (guess based on mercury) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32...

Properties

Transition elements tend to have high tensile strength, density and melting and boiling points. As with many properties of transition metals, this is due to d orbital electrons' ability to delocalise within the metal lattice. In metallic substances, the more electrons shared between nuclei, the stronger the metal. Tensile strength isthe measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... In chemistry, delocalized electrons are electrons in a molecule that do not belong to a single atom or a covalent bond. ...


There are several common characteristic properties of transition elements:

  • They often form colored compounds.
  • They can have a variety of different oxidation states.
  • At least one of their compounds has an incomplete d-electron subshell.
  • They are often good catalysts.
  • They are silvery-blue at room temperature (except copper and gold).
  • They are solids at room temperature (except mercury).
  • They form complex ions (aqua ions included).
  • They are often paramagnetic.

Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Standard atomic weight 63. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Standard atomic weight 196. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... Synthesis of copper(II)-tetraphenylporphine, a metal complex, from tetraphenylporphine and copper(II) acetate monohydrate. ... Simple Illustration of a paramagnetic probe made up from miniature magnets. ...

Variable oxidation states

As opposed to group 1 and group 2 metals, ions of the transition elements may have multiple stable oxidation states, since they can lose d electrons without a high energetic penalty. Manganese, for example has two 4s electrons and five 3d electrons, which can be removed. Loss of all of these electrons leads to a +7 oxidation state. Osmium and ruthenium compounds are commonly found alone in stable +8 oxidation states, which is among the highest for isolable compounds. General Name, Symbol, Number osmium, Os, 76 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 6, d Appearance silvery, blue cast Standard atomic weight 190. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass 101. ...

This table shows some of the oxidation states found in compounds of the transition-metal elements. A solid circle represents a common oxidation state, and a ring represents a less common (less energetically favourable) oxidation state.
This table shows some of the oxidation states found in compounds of the transition-metal elements.
A solid circle represents a common oxidation state, and a ring represents a less common (less energetically favourable) oxidation state.

Certain patterns in oxidation state emerge across the period of transition elements: Image File history File links Transition_metal_oxidation_states_2. ...

  • The number of oxidation states of each ion increases up to Mn, after which they decrease. Later transition metals have a stronger attraction between protons and electrons (since there are more of each present), which then would require more energy to remove the electrons.
  • When the elements are in lower oxidation states, they can be found as simple ions. However, transition metals in higher oxidation states are usually bonded covalently to electronegative elements like oxygen or fluorine, forming polyatomic ions such as chromate, vanadate, or permanganate.

Other properties with respect to the stability of oxidation states: In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... e- redirects here. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3−). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas coloured yellow A polyatomic ion is a molecule that bears ionic groups, that is, a molecule with a charge. ... A sample of ammonium dichromate Chromates and dichromates are salts of chromic acid and dichromic acid, respectively. ... Vanadium(V) oxide (V2O5), commonly known as vanadium pentoxide, is the most important compound of vanadium. ... The structure of the permanganate anion A permanganate is a chemical compound that contains the permanganate ion (MnO4−). Because manganese is in the +7 oxidation state, the permanganate ion is a strong oxidizer. ...

  • Ions in higher oxidation states tend to make good oxidizing agents, whereas elements in low oxidation states become reducing agents.
  • The 2+ ions across the period start as strong reducing agents and become more stable.
  • The 3+ ions start stable and become more oxidizing across the period.

A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is the element or a compound in a redox (reduction-oxidation) reaction (see electrochemistry) that reduces another species. ... European Union Chemical hazard symbol for oxidizing agents Dangerous goods label for oxidizing agents Oxidizing agent placard An oxidizing agent (also called an oxidant or oxidizer) is A chemical compound that readily transfers oxygen atoms or A substance that gains electrons in a redox chemical reaction. ...

Catalytic activity

Transition metals form good homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysts, for example iron is the catalyst for the Haber process. Vanadium(V) oxide is used for the contact process, nickel is used to make margarine and platinum is used to speed up the manufacture of nitric acid. This is because they are able to form numerous oxidation states, and as such, are able to form new compounds during a reaction providing an alternative route with a lower overall activation energy. Look up Heterogeneous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... The Haber Process (also known as Haber–Bosch process) is the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. ... Vanadium(V) oxide (V2O5), commonly known as vanadium pentoxide, is the most important compound of vanadium. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nickel, Ni, 28 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 4, d Appearance lustrous, metallic and silvery with a gold tinge Standard atomic weight 58. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ...


Colored compounds

From left to right, aqueous solutions of: Co(NO3)2 (red); K2Cr2O7 (orange); K2CrO4 (yellow); NiCl2 (green); CuSO4 (blue); KMnO4 (purple).
From left to right, aqueous solutions of: Co(NO3)2 (red); K2Cr2O7 (orange); K2CrO4 (yellow); NiCl2 (green); CuSO4 (blue); KMnO4 (purple).

We observe color as varying frequencies of electromagnetic radiation in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Different colors result from the changed composition of light after it has been reflected, transmitted or absorbed after hitting a substance. Because of their structure, transition metals form many different colored ions and complexes. Color even varies between the different ions of a single element - MnO4 (Mn in oxidation state 7+) is a purple compound, whereas Mn2+ is pale-pink. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 294 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 404 pixel, file size: 246 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From left to right, aqueous solutions of: cobalt(II) nitrate, Co(NO3)2 (red); potassium dichromate, K2Cr2O7 (orange); potassium chromate, K2CrO4 (yellow); nickel(II) chloride... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 294 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 404 pixel, file size: 246 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From left to right, aqueous solutions of: cobalt(II) nitrate, Co(NO3)2 (red); potassium dichromate, K2Cr2O7 (orange); potassium chromate, K2CrO4 (yellow); nickel(II) chloride... A sample of Co(NO3)2·6H2O Cobalt nitrate is a chemical salt formed from the metal cobalt and the nitrate ion. ... Potassium dichromate, K2Cr2O7 is used in oxidation reactions. ... Potassium Chromate is a yellow chemical indicator used for Identifying concentrations of Chloride ions in a salt solution with Silver nitrate. ... Nickel(II) chloride hexahydrate The chemical compound nickel(II) chloride (often called just nickel chloride) is an inorganic salt of formula NiCl2. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Potassium permanganate is the chemical compound KMnO4. ... The reflection of a bridge in Indianapolis, Indianas Central Canal. ... In physics, absorption is the process by which the energy of a photon is taken up by another entity, for example, by an atom whose valence electrons make a transition between two electronic energy levels. ...


Coordination by ligands can play a part in determining color in a transition compound, due to changes in energy of the d orbitals. Ligands remove degeneracy of the orbitals and split them in to higher and lower energy groups. The energy gap between the lower and higher energy orbitals will determine the color of light that is absorbed, as electromagnetic radiation is only absorbed if it has energy corresponding to that gap. When a ligated ion absorbs light, some of the electrons are promoted to a higher energy orbital. Since different frequency light is absorbed, different colors are observed. In chemistry, a ligand is an atom, ion, or molecule (see also: functional group) that generally donates one or more of its electrons through a coordinate covalent bond to, or shares its electrons through a covalent bond with, one or more central atoms or ions (these ligands act as a... In chemistry, a ligand is an atom, ion, or molecule (see also: functional group) that generally donates one or more of its electrons through a coordinate covalent bond to, or shares its electrons through a covalent bond with, one or more central atoms or ions (these ligands act as a...


The color of a complex depends on:

  • the nature of the metal ion, specifically the number of electrons in the d orbitals
  • the arrangement of the ligands around the metal ion (for example geometric isomers can display different colors)
  • the nature of the ligands surrounding the metal ion. The stronger the ligands then the greater the energy difference between the split high and low 3d groups.

The complex formed by the d block element zinc (though not strictly a transition element) is colorless, because the 3d orbitals are full - no electrons are able to move up to the higher group. In chemistry, geometric isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism and describes the orientation of functional groups at the ends of a bond around which no rotation is possible. ...


See also

The inner transition elements comprise the elements of the f-block of the periodic table. ... The f-block of the periodic table of elements consists of those elements for which, in the atomic ground state, the highest-energy electrons occupy f-orbitals. ... Bioinorganic Chemistry is a specialized field that spans the chemistry of metal-containing molecules. ... Crystal field theory is used to describe the electronic structure of transition metal complexes. ...

References

  1. ^ Cotton, F. Albert; Wilkinson, G.; Murillo, C. A. (1999). Advanced Inorganic Chemistry (6th ed.). New York: Wiley.
  2. ^ http://www.jce.divched.org/Journal/Issues/2005/Nov/abs1660.html

  Results from FactBites:
 
Transition metal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1240 words)
The (loosely defined) transition metals are the 40 chemical elements 21 to 30, 39 to 48, 71 to 80, and 103 to 112.
Later transition metals have a stronger attraction between protons and electrons (since there are more of each present), which then would require more energy to remove the electrons.
Transition metals form good homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysts, for example iron is the catalyst for the Haber process.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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