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Encyclopedia > Transistor
Assorted discrete transistors

A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. The transistor is the fundamental building block of the circuitry in computers, cellular phones, and all other modern electronic devices. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 786 Ã— 600 pixelsFull resolution (1293 Ã— 987 pixel, file size: 302 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 786 Ã— 600 pixelsFull resolution (1293 Ã— 987 pixel, file size: 302 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Semiconductor devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide. ... This article is about the machine. ... Cellular redirects here. ... Electronics is the study and use of electrical devices that operate by controlling the flow of electrons or other electrically charged particles in devices such as thermionic valves and semiconductors. ...

Because of its fast response and accuracy, the transistor is used in a wide variety of digital and analog functions, including amplification, switching, voltage regulation, signal modulation, and oscillators. Transistors may be packaged individually or as part of an integrated circuit, some with over a billion transistors in a very small area. For other uses, see Digital (disambiguation). ... An analog or analogue signal is any time continuous signal where some time varying feature of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity. ... The term amplifier as used in this article can mean either a circuit (or stage) using a single active device or a complete system such as a packaged audio hi-fi amplifier. ... Electrical switches. ... Electronic symbol for Voltage regulator A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. ... In telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying a periodic waveform, i. ... Oscillation is the periodic variation, typically in time, of some measure as seen, for example, in a swinging pendulum. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... Gordon Moores original graph from 1965 Growth of transistor counts for Intel processors (dots) and Moores Law (upper line=18 months; lower line=24 months) For the observation regarding information retrieval, see Mooers Law. ...

An electrical signal can be amplified by using a device that allows a small current or voltage to control the flow of a much larger current. Transistors are the basic devices providing control of this kind. Modern transistors are divided into two main categories: bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and field effect transistors (FETs). Application of current in BJTs and voltage in FETs between the input and common terminals increases the conductivity between the common and output terminals, thereby controlling current flow between them. The transistor characteristics depend on their type. A bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a type of transistor. ... Large power N-channel field effect transistor The field-effect transistor (FET) is a transistor that relies on an electric field to control the shape and hence the conductivity of a channel in a semiconductor material. ... Not to be confused with electrical conductance, a measure of an objects or circuits ability to conduct an electric current between two points, which is dependent on the electrical conductivity and the geometric dimensions of the conducting object. ...

The term "transistor" originally referred to the point contact type, which saw very limited commercial application, being replaced by the much more practical bipolar junction types in the early 1950s. Today's most widely used schematic symbol, like the term "transistor", originally referred to these long-obsolete devices.[1] For a short time in the early 1960s, some manufacturers and publishers of electronics magazines started to replace these with symbols that more accurately depicted the different construction of the bipolar transistor, but this idea was soon abandoned. A point-contact transistor was the first type of transistor ever constructed. ... A bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a type of transistor. ... ...

In analog circuits, transistors are used in amplifiers, (direct current amplifiers, audio amplifiers, radio frequency amplifiers), and linear regulated power supplies. Transistors are also used in digital circuits where they function as electronic switches, but rarely as discrete devices, almost always being incorporated in monolithic Integrated Circuits. Digital circuits include logic gates, random access memory (RAM), microprocessors, and digital signal processors (DSPs). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Analog electronics. ... The term amplifier as used in this article can mean either a circuit (or stage) using a single active device or a complete system such as a packaged audio hi-fi amplifier. ... In electronics, a linear regulator is a voltage regulator based on an active device (such as a bipolar junction transistor, field effect transistor or vacuum tube) operating in its linear region (in contrast, a switching regulator is based on a transistor forced to act as an on/off switch) or... Digital circuits are electric circuits based on a number of discrete voltage levels. ... A discrete device is an electronic component with just one circuit element. ... An integrated circuit (IC) is a thin chip consisting of at least two interconnected semiconductor devices, mainly transistors, as well as passive components like resistors. ... A logic gate performs a logical operation on one or more logic inputs and produces a single logic output. ... RAM redirects here. ... A microprocessor is a programmable digital electronic component that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single semiconducting integrated circuit (IC). ... A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor designed specifically for digital signal processing, generally in real-time. ...

## Importance

The transistor is considered by many to be the greatest invention of the twentieth century.[2] It is the key active component in practically all modern electronics. Its importance in today's society rests on its ability to be mass produced using a highly automated process (fabrication) that achieves vanishingly low per-transistor costs. This article is about the engineering discipline. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... NASAs Glenn Research Center cleanroom. ...

Although billions of individual (known as discrete) transistors are still used, the vast majority produced are in integrated circuits (often abbreviated as IC and also called microchips or simply chips) along with diodes, resistors, capacitors and other electronic components to produce complete electronic circuits. A logic gate consists of about twenty transistors whereas an advanced microprocessor, as of 2006, can use as many as 1.7 billion transistors (MOSFETs) [1]. Assorted discrete transistors Through-hole transistors (tape measure marked in centimetres) Discrete transistors are transistors that are individually packaged. ... An integrated circuit (IC) is a thin chip consisting of at least two interconnected semiconductor devices, mainly transistors, as well as passive components like resistors. ... Closeup of the image below, showing the square shaped semiconductor crystal various semiconductor diodes, below a bridge rectifier Structure of a vacuum tube diode In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal component, almost always one that has electrical properties which vary depending on the direction of flow of charge... An ideal resistor is a component with an electrical resistance that remains constant regardless of the applied voltage or current flowing through the device. ... Various types of capacitors A capacitor is a device that stores energy in the electric field created between a pair of conductors on which equal but opposite electric charges have been placed. ... Objects used in tandem with electricity. ... A logic gate performs a logical operation on one or more logic inputs and produces a single logic output. ... The metalâ€“oxideâ€“semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is by far the most common field-effect transistor in both digital and analog circuits. ...

The transistor's low cost, flexibility and reliability have made it a universal device for non-mechanical tasks, such as digital computing. Transistorized circuits have replaced electromechanical devices for the control of appliances and machinery as well. It is often easier and cheaper to use a standard microcontroller and write a computer program to carry out a control function than to design an equivalent mechanical control function. In engineering, electromechanics combines electromagnetism and mechanics. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with embedded microprocessor. ... A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer. ...

Because of the low cost of transistors and hence digital computers, there is a trend to digitize information. With digital computers offering the ability to quickly find, sort and process digital information, more and more effort has been put into making information digital. As a result, today, much media data is delivered in digital form, finally being converted and presented in analog form to the user. Areas influenced by the Digital Revolution include television, radio, and newspapers. Digitizing, or digitization, is the process of turning an analog signal into a digital representation of that signal. ... For other uses, see Digital (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

## Advantages of transistors over vacuum tubes

Prior to the development of transistors, vacuum (electron) tubes (or in the UK thermionic valves or just valves) were the main active components in electronic equipment. The key advantages that have allowed transistors to replace their vacuum tube predecessors in most applications are: Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ...

• Small size and minimal weight, allowing the development of miniaturized electronic devices.
• Highly automated manufacturing processes, resulting in low per-unit cost.
• Lower possible operating voltages, making transistors suitable for small, battery-powered applications.
• No warm-up period required after power application.
• Lower power dissipation and generally greater energy efficiency.
• Higher reliability and greater physical ruggedness.
• Extremely long life. Some transistorized devices produced more than 30 years ago are still in service.
• Complementary devices available, facilitating the design of complementary-symmetry circuits, something not possible with vacuum tubes.
• Though in most transistors the junctions have different doping levels and geometry, some allow bidirectional current
• Ability to control very large currents, as much as several hundred amperes.
• Insensitivity to mechanical shock and vibration, thus avoiding the problem of microphonics in audio applications.
• More sensitive than the hot and macroscopic tubes

Microphonics are noises in a loudspeaker caused by mechanical shock or vibration of the electronic components. ...

• Silicon transistors do not operate at voltages higher than about 1 kV, SiC go to 3 kV.
• The electron mobility is higher in a vacuum, so that high power, high frequency operation is easier in tubes.

This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

## History

Main article: Transistor history
A replica of the first transistor

The first three patents for the field-effect transistor principle were registered in Germany in 1928 by physicist Julius Edgar Lilienfeld, but Lilienfeld published no research articles about his devices, and they were ignored by industry. In 1934 German physicist Dr. Oskar Heil patented another field-effect transistor. There is no direct evidence that these devices were built, but later work in the 1990s show that one of Lilienfeld's designs worked as described and gave substantial gain. Legal papers from the Bell Labs patent show that Shockley and Pearson had built operational versions from Lilienfeld's patents, yet they never referenced this work in any of their later research papers or historical articles. The Other Transistor, R. G. Arns // The first three patents for the field-effect transistor principle were registered in Germany in 1928 by physicist Julius Edgar Lilienfeld, but Lilienfeld published no research articles about his devices, and they were ignored by industry. ... Image File history File links Replica-of-first-transistor. ... Image File history File links Replica-of-first-transistor. ... Julius Edgar Lilienfeld (18 April 1881 â€“ 28 August 1963) was born in Lemberg in Austria-Hungary (now called Lviv in Ukraine). ... Oskar Heil is sometimes mentioned as an inventor of an early transistor-like device. ...

Bell Telephone Laboratories needed a generic name for the new invention: "Semiconductor Triode", "Solid Triode", "Surface States Triode", "Crystal Triode" and "Iotatron" were all considered, but "transistor," coined by John R. Pierce, won an internal ballot. The rationale for the name is described in the following extract from the company's Technical Memorandum calling for votes: Bell Telephone Laboratories or Bell Labs was originally the research and development arm of the United States Bell System, and was the premier corporate facility of its type, developing a range of revolutionary technologies from telephone switches to specialized coverings for telephone cables, to the transistor. ... John Robinson Pierce (March 27, 1910 - April 2, 2002), was an American engineer and author. ...

Transistor. This is an abbreviated combination of the words "transconductance" or "transfer", and "varistor". The device logically belongs in the varistor family, and has the transconductance or transfer impedance of a device having gain, so that this combination is descriptive. Transconductance, also known as mutual conductance, is a property of certain electronic components. ... A varistor is an electronic component with a significant non-ohmic current-voltage characteristic. ...

Bell Telephone Laboratories — Technical Memorandum (May 28, 1948)

Pierce recalled the naming somewhat differently:

The way I provided the name, was to think of what the device did. And at that time, it was supposed to be the dual of the vacuum tube. The vacuum tube had transconductance, so the transistor would have 'transresistance.' And the name should fit in with the names of other devices, such as varistor and thermistor. And. . . I suggested the name 'transistor.'

John R. Pierce, interviewed for PBS show "Transistorized!"

Bell immediately put the point-contact transistor into limited production at Western Electric in Allentown, Pennsylvania. Prototypes of all-transistor AM radio receivers were demonstrated, but were really only laboratory curiosities. However, in 1950 Shockley developed a radically different type of solid-state amplifier which became known as the Bipolar Junction "transistor". Although it works on a completely different principle to the point-contact "transistor", this is the device which is most commonly referred to as a "transistor" today. These were also licensed to a number of other electronics companies, including Texas Instruments, who produced a limited run of transistor radios as a sales tool. Early transistors were chemically unstable and only suitable for low-power, low-frequency applications, but as transistor design developed, these problems were slowly overcome. Company Masthead Logo Logo until circa 1969, also current logo on company web site Logo 1969â€“1983 Hi Dan! Western Electric (sometimes abbreviated WE and WECo) was an American electrical engineering company, the manufacturing arm of AT&T from 1881 to 1995. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic Semper Tyrannis Pennsylvanias location in the United States Allentowns location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Lehigh Founded 1762 Government  - Mayor Ed Pawlowski Area  - City  18. ... A bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a type of transistor. ... A point-contact transistor was the first type of transistor ever constructed. ... Texas Instruments (NYSE: TXN), better known in the electronics industry (and popularly) as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, USA, renowned for developing and commercializing semiconductor and computer technology. ... Regency TR-1. ...

There are numerous claimants to the title of the first company to produce practical transistor radios. Texas Instruments had demonstrated all-transistor AM radios as early as 1952, but their performance was well below that of equivalent battery tube models. A workable all-transistor radio was demonstrated in August 1953 at the Düsseldorf Radio Fair by the German firm Intermetall. It was built with four of Intermetall's hand-made transistors, based upon the 1948 invention of Herbert Mataré and Heinrich Welker [3]. However, as with the early Texas units (and others) only prototypes were ever built; it was never put into commercial production. Texas Instruments (NYSE: TXN), better known in the electronics industry (and popularly) as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, USA, renowned for developing and commercializing semiconductor and computer technology. ... Regency TR-1. ... The title of this article contains the character Ã¼. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Duesseldorf. ...

The production of the first commercially successful transistor radio is often incorrectly attributed to Sony (originally Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo). However the Regency TR-1, made by the Regency Division of I.D.E.A. (Industrial Development Engineering Associates) of Indianapolis, Indiana, was the first practical transistor radio made in any significant numbers. The TR-1 was announced on October 18, 1954 and put on sale in November 1954 for \$49.95 (the equivalent of about \$361 in year-2005 dollars) and sold about 150,000 units. Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of \$66. ... The Regency TR-4 shown here is similar in appearance to the original Regency TR-1 model, but the TR-1 has a gold tuning knob and lettering. ...

The TR-1 used four Texas NPN transistors and had to be powered by a 22.5 Volt battery, since the only way to get adequate radio frequency performance out of early transistors was to run them close to their collector-to-emitter breakdown voltage. This made the TR-1 very expensive to run, and it was far more popular for its novelty or status value than its actual performance, rather in the fashion of the first MP3 players. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Radio waves. ... A digital audio player (DAP) is a device that stores, organizes and plays digital music files. ...

Still, aside from its indifferent performance, the TR-1 was a very advanced product for its time, using printed circuit boards, and what were then considered micro-miniature components. Part of a 1983 Sinclair ZX Spectrum computer board. ...

Masaru Ibuka, co-founder of the Japanese firm Sony, was visiting the USA when Bell Labs announced the availability of manufacturing licenses, including detailed instructions on how to manufacture junction transistors. Ibuka obtained special permission from the Japanese Ministry of Finance to pay the \$50,000 license fee, and in 1955 the company introduced their own five-transistor "pocket" radio, the TR-55, under the new brand name Sony. (The term "pocket" was a matter of some interpretation, as Sony allegedly had special shirts made with oversized pockets for their salesmen) This product was soon followed by more ambitious designs, but it is generally regarded as marking the commencement of Sony's growth into a manufacturing superpower. Masaru Ibuka, co-founder of Sony Masaru Ibuka (äº•æ·±å¤§ Ibuka Masaru, April 11, 1908 in NikkÅ City, Japan â€“ December 19, 1997 in Tokyo) was a Japanese electronics industrialist. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of \$66. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of \$66. ...

The TR-55 was quite similar to the Regency TR-1 in many ways, being powered by the same sort of 22.5Volt battery, and was not much more practical. Very few were sold in the USA. It was not until 1957 that Sony produced their ground-breaking "TR-7" 7-transistor portable, a much more advanced design that ran on three ordinary flashlight cells and could compete favorably with vacuum tube portables. However, by this time similar designs were being produced in most industrialized countries.

Over the next two decades, transistors gradually replaced the earlier vacuum tubes in most applications and later made possible many new devices such as integrated circuits and personal computers. Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ...

Shockley, Bardeen and Brattain were honored with the Nobel Prize in Physics "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect". Bardeen would go on to win a second Nobel in physics, one of only two people to receive more than one in the same discipline, for his work on the exploration of superconductivity. Hannes AlfvÃ©n (1908â€“1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. ...

The commercial uses of germanium transistors were limited by their sensitivity to temperature and humidity. Silicon, a semiconductor with crystal structure identical to germanium, looked promising but attempts over several years to make useful transistors were unsuccessful. In early 1954, M. Tanenbaum et al. (Jl. of Applied Physics, 26, 686 (1955)) at Bell Labs made a high performance silicon transistor using npn junctions produced by growth rate fluctuations during crystal growing. A few months later, working independently at Texas Instruments, G. Teal (unpublished) made similar devices using sequential doping.

While these devices had much superior temperature and environmental properties compared to gemanium transistors, the doping processes were difficult to control. That problem was solved by Tanenbaum and Fuller (Bell Sys. Tech. Jl., 35, 1 (1956)) using gas diffusion techniques to produce npn silicon transistors. The resulting diffused base silicon transistor was the subject of the second Bell Labs symposium. The diffusion process was easy to control, quickly adopted by the semiconductor industry and was the basis for the later invention of the integrated circuit initiating the "silicon age".

The first Gallium-Arsenide Schottky-gate field-effect transistor (MESFET) was made by Carver Mead and reported in 1966.[3] Professor Carver Andress Mead (born 1 May 1934, in Bakersfield, California) is a prominent U.S. computer scientist. ...

## Types

 PNP P-channel NPN N-channel BJT JFET
BJT and JFET symbols

Transistors are categorized by: Image File history File links BJT_PNP_symbol. ... Image File history File links JFET_P-Channel_Labelled. ... Image File history File links BJT_NPN_symbol. ... Image File history File links JFET_N-Channel_Labelled. ...

• Semiconductor material : germanium, silicon, gallium arsenide, silicon carbide, etc.
• Structure: BJT, JFET, IGFET (MOSFET), IGBT, "other types"
• Polarity: NPN, PNP (BJTs); N-channel, P-channel (FETs)
• Maximum power rating: low, medium, high
• Maximum operating frequency: low, medium, high, radio frequency (RF), microwave (The maximum effective frequency of a transistor is denoted by the term fT, an abbreviation for "frequency of transition". The frequency of transition is the frequency at which the transistor yields unity gain).
• Application: switch, general purpose, audio, high voltage, super-beta, matched pair
• Physical packaging: through hole metal, through hole plastic, surface mount, ball grid array, power modules

### Bipolar junction transistor

The bipolar junction transistor (BJT) was the first type of transistor to be mass-produced. Bipolar transistors are so named because they conduct by using both majority and minority carriers. The three terminals of the BJT are named emitter, base and collector. Two p-n junctions exist inside a BJT: the base/emitter junction and base/collector junction. "The [BJT] is useful in amplifiers because the currents at the emitter and collector are controllable by the relatively small base current."[4] In an NPN transistor operating in the active region, the emitter-base junction is forward biased, and electrons are injected into the base region. Because the base is narrow, most of these electrons will diffuse into the reverse-biased base-collector junction and be swept into the collector; perhaps one-hundredth of the electrons will recombine in the base, which is the dominant mechanism in the base current. By controlling the number of electrons that can leave the base, the number of electrons entering the collector can be controlled.[4] A bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a type of transistor. ... A p-n junction is formed by combining N-type and P-type semiconductors together in very close contact. ...

Unlike the FET, the BJT is a low–input-impedance device. As the base–emitter voltage (Vbe) is increased the base–emitter current and hence the collector–emitter current (Ice) increase exponentially ($I_{ce} propto K^{V_{be}}$, where K is a constant). Because of this exponential relationship, the BJT has a higher transconductance than the FET. Transconductance, also known as mutual conductance, is a property of certain electronic components. ...

Bipolar transistors can be made to conduct by light, since absorption of photons in the base region generates a photocurrent that acts as a base current; the collector current is approximately beta times the photocurrent. Devices designed for this purpose have a transparent window in the package and are called phototransistors. The fact that traditional transistors (these days called â€œBipolar Junction Transistorsâ€ or BJTs) are photosensitive has been known ever since they were invented. ...

### Field-effect transistor

The field-effect transistor (FET), sometimes called a unipolar transistor, uses either electrons in the case of the N-channel FET, or holes for P-channel FET, for conduction. The four terminals of the FET are named source, gate, drain, and body (substrate). On most FETs, the body is connected to the source inside the package, and this will be assumed for the following description. Large power N-channel field effect transistor The field-effect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor that relies on an electric field to control the shape and hence the conductivity of a channel in a semiconductor material. ...

In FETs, the drain-to-source current flows via a conducting channel that connects the drain region to the source region. The channels conductivity is varied by the electric field that is produced when a voltage is applied between the gate and source terminals; hence the current flowing between the drain and source is controlled by the voltage applied between the gate and source. As the gate/source voltage (Vgs) is increased, the drain/source current (Ids) increases at a roughly exponential rate ($I_{ds} propto V^2_{gs}$).

To turn on a transistor it has to be charged like a capacitor. One polarity of charge is responsible for conduction, the other serves for charge neutrality. In the BJT, both types of charge carriers come close together and so the capacitance is high, therefore only low voltages are needed to produce a given amount of charge. In a FET both types of charges are separated by the dielectric and additionally the Debye length, thus reducing the capacity and increasing the voltage needed for switching. Above zero Kelvin, the exponential curve is convoluted with the hard turn on of the BJT and the parabolic turn on of the FET. In plasma physics, the Debye length, named after the Dutch physical chemist Peter Debye, is the scale over which mobile charge carriers (e. ...

For low noise at narrow bandwidth the higher input resistance of the FET is advantageous. Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower cutoff frequencies of, for example, a filter, a communication channel, or a signal spectrum, and is typically measured in hertz. ...

FETs are divided into two families: junction FET (JFET) and insulated gate FET (IGFET). The IGFET is more commonly known as metal–oxide–semiconductor FET (MOSFET), from their original construction as a layer of metal (the gate), a layer of oxide (the insulation), and a layer of semiconductor. Unlike IGFETs, the JFET gate forms a PN diode with the channel which lies between the source and drain. Functionally, this makes the N-channel JFET the solid state equivalent of the vacuum tube triode which, similarly, forms a diode between its grid and cathode. Also, both devices operate in the depletion mode, they both have a high input impedance, and they both conduct current under the control of an input voltage. It has been suggested that Uses of jfet be merged into this article or section. ... The metalâ€“oxideâ€“semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is by far the most common field-effect transistor in both digital and analog circuits. ... Closeup of the image below, showing the square shaped semiconductor crystal various semiconductor diodes, below a bridge rectifier Structure of a vacuum tube diode In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal component, almost always one that has electrical properties which vary depending on the direction of flow of charge... Simplified diagram of a triode. ... Look up grid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Diagram of a copper cathode in a Daniells cell. ...

Metal–semiconductor FETs (MESFETs) are JFETs in which the reverse biased PN junction is replaced by a metal–semiconductor Schottky-junction. These, and the HEMTs (high electron mobility transistors, or HFETs), in which a two-dimensional electron gas with very high carrier mobility is used for charge transport, are especially suitable for use at very high frequencies (microwave frequencies; several GHz). A p-n junction is formed by combining N-type and P-type semiconductors together in very close contact. ... Walter H. Schottky (July 23, 1886, ZÃ¼rich, Switzerland - March 4, 1976, Pretzfeld, West Germany) was a German physicist who invented the screen-grid vacuum tube in 1915 and the tetrode in 1919 while working at Siemens. ...

Unlike bipolar transistors, FETs do not inherently amplify a photocurrent. Nevertheless, there are ways to use them, especially JFETs, as light-sensitive devices, by exploiting the photocurrents in channel–gate or channel–body junctions.

FETs are further divided into depletion-mode and enhancement-mode types, depending on whether the channel is turned on or off with zero gate-to-source voltage. For enhancement mode, the channel is off at zero bias, and a gate potential can "enhance" the conduction. For depletion mode, the channel is on at zero bias, and a gate potential (of the opposite polarity) can "deplete" the channel, reducing conduction. For either mode, a more positive gate voltage corresponds to a higher current for N-channel devices and a lower current for P-channel devices. Nearly all JFETs are depletion-mode as the diode junctions would forward bias and conduct if they were enhancement mode devices; most IGFETs are enhancement-mode types.

### Other transistor types

• Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor
• Alloy junction transistor
• Tetrode transistor
• Pentode transistor
• Spacistor
• Surface barrier transistor
• Micro alloy transistor
• Micro alloy diffused transistor
• Drift-field transistor
• Unijunction transistors can be used as simple pulse generators. They comprise a main body of either P-type or N-type semiconductor with ohmic contacts at each end (terminals Base1 and Base2). A junction with the opposite semiconductor type is formed at a point along the length of the body for the third terminal (Emitter).
• Dual gate FETs have a single channel with two gates in cascode; a configuration that is optimized for high frequency amplifiers, mixers, and oscillators.
• Darlington transistors are two BJTs connected together to provide a high current gain equal to the product of the current gains of the two transistors.
• Insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) use a medium power IGFET, similarly connected to a power BJT, to give a high input impedance. Power diodes are often connected between certain terminals depending on specific use. IGBTs are particularly suitable for heavy-duty industrial applications. The Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) 5SNA2400E170100 illustrates just how far power semiconductor technology has advanced. Intended for three-phase power supplies, this device houses three NPN IGBTs in a case measuring 38 by 140 by 190 mm and weighing 1.5 kg. Each IGBT is rated at 1,700 volts and can handle 2,400 amperes.
• Single-electron transistors (SET) consist of a gate island between two tunnelling junctions. The tunnelling current is controlled by a voltage applied to the gate through a capacitor. [4][5]
• Nanofluidic transistor Control the movement of ions through sub-microscopic, water-filled channels. Nanofluidic transistor, the basis of future chemical processors
• Trigate transistors (Prototype by Intel)
• Avalanche transistor
• Ballistic transistor
• Spin transistor Magnetically-sensitive
• Thin film transistor Used in LCD display.
• Floating-gate transistor Used for non-volatile storage.
• Photo transistor React to light
• Inverted-T field effect transistor
• Ion sensitive field effect transistor To measure ion concentrations in solution.
• FinFET The source/drain region forms fins on the silicon surface.
• FREDFET Fast-Reverse Epitaxal Diode Field-Effect Transistor
• EOSFET Electrolyte-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (Neurochip)
• OFET Organic Field-Effect Transistor, in which the semiconductor is an organic compound
• DNAFET Deoxyribonucleic acid field-effect transistor

The Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) is an improvement of the bipolar junction transistor (BJT) that can handle signals of very high frequencies up to several hundred GHz. ... The alloy junction transistor, or alloy transistor, was an early type of bipolar junction transistor, developed at General Electric and RCA in 1951 as an improvement over the earlier grown junction transistor. ... A tetrode transistor is any transistor having four active terminals. ... A pentode transistor is any transistor having five active terminals. ... The spacistor[1] was a type of transistor developed in the 1950s as an improvement over the point-contact transistor and the later alloy junction transistor. ... The surface barrier transistor was a type of transistor developed by Philco in 1953 as an improvement over the alloy junction transistor and earlier point-contact transistor. ... The alloy junction transistor, or alloy transistor, was an early type of bipolar junction transistor, developed at General Electric and RCA in 1951 as an improvement over the earlier grown junction transistor. ... The alloy junction transistor, or alloy transistor, was an early type of bipolar junction transistor, developed at General Electric and RCA in 1951 as an improvement over the earlier grown junction transistor. ... The drift-field transistor, also called the drift transistor or graded base transistor, is a type of high-speed bipolar junction transistor having a doping-engineered electric field in the base to reduce the charge carrier base transit time. ... A Unijunction transistor (UJT) is an electronic semiconductor device. ... A cascode is an arrangement of electronic active devices that combines two amplifier stages for increased output resistance and avoiding the Miller effect, resulting in high gain with increased bandwidth. ... Circuit diagram of Darlington configuration In electronics, the Darlington transistor is a semiconductor device which combines two bipolar transistors in tandem (often called a Darlington pair) in a single device so that the current amplified by the first is amplified further by the second transistor. ... A power IGBT The Insulated (or sometimes called Isolated) Gate Bipolar Transistor combines the simple gate drive characteristics of the MOSFET with the high current and low saturation voltage capability of bipolar transistors by combining an isolated gate FET for the control input, and a bipolar power transistor as a... A power IGBT The Insulated (or sometimes called Isolated) Gate Bipolar Transistor combines the simple gate drive characteristics of the MOSFET with the high current and low saturation voltage capability of bipolar transistors by combining an isolated gate FET for the control input, and a bipolar power transistor as a... ABB, formerly Asea Brown Boveri, is a multinational corporation headquartered in ZÃ¼rich, Switzerland, operating mainly in the power and automation technology areas. ... In physics, a Coulomb blockade, named after Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, is the increased resistance at small bias voltages of an electronic device comprising at least one low-capacitance tunnel junction. ... From the 1950s onward, flat/planar transistors have been used, where the gates lay flat across the substrate. ... An Avalanche Transistor is a bipolar junction transistor designed for operation in the region of its collector-current/collector-to-emitter voltage characteristics beyond the collector to emitter breakdown voltage, called avalanche breakdown region . ... A ballistic transistor is a high-speed electronic switching device through which electrons flow unimpeded, without being slowed down by collisions with atoms as they are in a conventional transistor. ... The magnetically-sensitive transistor (also known as the spin transistor or spintronic transistor--named for spintronics, the technology which this development spawned), originally developed in the 1990s and currently still being developed, is an improved design on the common transistor invented in the 1940s. ... A thin film transistor (TFT) is special kind of field effect transistor made by depositing thin films for the metallic contacts, semiconductor active layer, and dielectric layer. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Floating_Gate_MOSFET. (Discuss) A cross-section of a floating-gate transistor The floating-gate transistor is a kind of transistor that is commonly used for non-volatile storage such as flash, EPROM and EEPROM memory. ... A photodiode is an electronic component and a type of photodetector. ... The inverted-T field effect transistor (ITFET) is a type of field effect transistor invented by Leo Mathew at Freescale Semiconductor. ... An ISFET is an Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor; When the ion concentration (or pH) changes, less current will flow through the transistor. ... A FinFET transistor is a MOSFET double-gate transistor built on an SOI substrate where the gate is placed on two, three, or four sides of the channel or wrapped around the channel, forming a double gate structure. ... A FREDFET (sometimes, FredFET) is a Fast-Reverse Epitaxal Diode Field-Effect Transistor or . ... An EOSFET or electrolyte-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor is a FET, like a MOSFET, but with the metal replaced by electrolyte solution for the detection of neuronal activity. ... A neurochip is a chip (integrated circuit/microprocessor) that is designed for the interaction with neuronal cells. ... An Organic Field-Effect Transistor (OFET) is a class of thin film transistors based on organic semiconductors. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

## Semiconductor material

The first BJTs were made from germanium (Ge) and some high power types still are. Silicon (Si) types currently predominate but certain advanced microwave and high performance versions now employ the compound semiconductor material gallium arsenide (GaAs) and the semiconductor alloy silicon germanium (SiGe). Single element semiconductor material (Ge and Si) is described as elemental. General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a chemical compound composed of gallium and arsenic. ... SiGe is the alloy of silicon and germanium. ... SiGe stands for Silicon-Germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor and is an integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing technology. ...

Rough parameters for the most common semiconductor materials used to make transistors are given in the table below; it must be noted that these parameters will vary with temperature, electric field, impurity level, strain and various other factors:

Semiconductor material characteristics
Semiconductor
material
Junction forward
voltage
V @ 25 °C
Electron mobility
m²/Vs @ 25 °C
Hole mobility
m²/Vs @ 25 °C
Max. junction temp.
°C
Ge 0.27 0.39 0.19 70 to 100
Si 0.71 0.14 0.05 150 to 200
GaAs 1.03 0.85 0.05 150 to 200
Al-Si junction 0.3 150 to 200

The junction forward voltage is the voltage applied to the emitter-base junction of a BJT in order to make the base conduct a specified current. The current increases exponentially as the junction forward voltage is increased. The values given in the table are typical for a current of 1 mA (the same values apply to semiconductor diodes). The lower the junction forward voltage the better, as this means that less power is required to "drive" the transistor. The junction forward voltage for a given current decreases with temperature. For a typical silicon junction the change is approximately −2.1 mV/°C.

The density of mobile carriers in the channel of a MOSFET is a function of the electric field forming the channel and of various other phenomena such as the impurity level in the channel. Some impurities, called dopants, are introduced deliberately in making a MOSFET, to control the MOSFET electrical behavior.

The electron mobility and hole mobility columns show the average speed that electrons and holes diffuse through the semiconductor material with an electric field of 1 volt per meter applied across the material. In general, the higher the electron mobility the faster the transistor. The table indicates that Ge is a better material than Si in this respect. However, Ge has four major shortcomings compared to silicon and gallium arsenide: This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In physics, electron mobility (or simply, mobility), is used to describe the relation between drift velocity of electrons or holes in a solid material or electrons/ions in a gas, and an applied electric field. ... In physics, the space surrounding an electric charge or in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field has a property called an electric field. ...

• its maximum temperature is limited
• it has relatively high leakage current
• it cannot withstand high voltages
• it is less suitable for fabricating integrated circuits

Because the electron mobility is higher than the hole mobility for all semiconductor materials, a given bipolar NPN transistor tends to be faster than an equivalent PNP transistor type. GaAs has the highest electron mobility of the three semiconductors. It is for this reason that GaAs is used in high frequency applications. A relatively recent FET development, the high electron mobility transistor (HEMT), has a heterostructure (junction between different semiconductor materials) of aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs)-gallium arsenide (GaAs) which has double the electron mobility of a GaAs-metal barrier junction. Because of their high speed and low noise, HEMTs are used in satellite receivers working at frequencies around 12 GHz. Reverse leakage current in the semiconductor is the current flowing from the semiconductor when we reverse bias that device. ... A bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a type of transistor. ... A bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a type of transistor. ... HEMT stands for High Electron Mobility Transistor, and is also called heterostructure FET (HFET). ... A heterojunction is a semiconductor diode junction which is composed of alternating layers of semiconductor material. ...

Max. junction temperature values represent a cross section taken from various manufacturers' data sheets. This temperature should not be exceeded or the transistor may be damaged.

Al-Si junction refers to the high-speed (aluminum-silicon) semiconductor-metal barrier diode, commonly known as a Schottky diode. This is included in the table because some silicon power IGFETs have a parasitic reverse Schottky diode formed between the source and drain as part of the fabrication process. This diode can be a nuisance, but sometimes it is used in the circuit. Schottky diode schematic symbol The Schottky diode (named after German physicist Walter H. Schottky; also known as hot carrier diode) is a semiconductor diode with a low forward voltage drop and a very fast switching action. ...

## Packaging

Through-hole transistors (tape measure marked in centimetres)

Transistors come in many different packages (chip carriers) (see images). The two main categories are through-hole (or leaded), and surface-mount, also known as surface mount device (SMD). The ball grid array (BGA) is the latest surface mount package (currently only for large transistor arrays). It has solder "balls" on the underside in place of leads. Because they are smaller and have shorter interconnections, SMDs have better high frequency characteristics but lower power rating. a photo with a few types of transistors, taken from the German wikipedia, by de:Benutzer:Honina. ... a photo with a few types of transistors, taken from the German wikipedia, by de:Benutzer:Honina. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... A through-hole component, also spelled thru-hole, is an Electronic component that has pins designed to be inserted into holes and soldered to pads on a printed board. ... Surface-mount components on a flash drives circuit board Surface mount technology (SMT) is a method for constructing electronic circuits in which the components (SMC, or Surface Mounted Components) are mounted directly onto the surface of printed circuit boards (PCBs). ... For the Bulgarian Go Association, see Bulgarian Go Association. ...

Transistor packages are made of glass, metal, ceramic or plastic. The package often dictates the power rating and frequency characteristics. Power transistors have large packages that can be clamped to heat sinks for enhanced cooling. Additionally, most power transistors have the collector or drain physically connected to the metal can/metal plate. At the other extreme, some surface-mount microwave transistors are as small as grains of sand. This article is about the substance or device. ...

Often a given transistor type is available in different packages. Transistor packages are mainly standardized, but the assignment of a transistor's functions to the terminals is not: different transistor types can assign different functions to the package's terminals. Even for the same transistor type the terminal assignment can vary (normally indicated by a suffix letter to the part number- i.e. BC212L and BC212K).

## Usage

For a basic guide to operation of transistors, see How a Transistor Works. This article is intended for those not deeply familiar with electronics and as such necessarily omits detail. ...

In the early days of transistor circuit design, the bipolar junction transistor, or BJT, was the most commonly used transistor. Even after MOSFETs became available, the BJT remained the transistor of choice for digital and analog circuits because of their ease of manufacture and speed. However, desirable properties of MOSFETs, such as their utility in low-power devices, have made them the ubiquitous choice for use in digital circuits and a very common choice for use in analog circuits. A bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a type of transistor. ... The metalâ€“oxideâ€“semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is by far the most common field-effect transistor in both digital and analog circuits. ...

BJT used as an electronic switch, in grounded-emitter configuration
Amplifier circuit, standard common-emitter configuration

Image File history File links Transistor_as_switch. ... Image File history File links Transistor_as_switch. ... Image File history File links Common_emitter_amplifier. ... Image File history File links Common_emitter_amplifier. ...

### Switches

Transistors are commonly used as electronic switches, for both high power applications including switched-mode power supplies and low power applications such as logic gates. A switched-mode power supply, or SMPS, is an electronic power supply unit (PSU) that incorporates a switching regulator - an internal control circuit that switches the load current rapidly on and off in order to stabilise the output voltage. ... A logic gate is an arrangement of electronically-controlled switches used to calculate operations in Boolean algebra. ...

### Amplifiers

From mobile phones to televisions, vast numbers of products include amplifiers for sound reproduction, radio transmission, and signal processing. The first discrete transistor audio amplifiers barely supplied a few hundred milliwatts, but power and audio fidelity gradually increased as better transistors became available and amplifier architecture evolved. For the British rock band of the same name, see Amplifier (band). ... Sound reproduction is the electrical or mechanical re-creation and/or amplification of sound, often as music. ... Antenna tower of Crystal Palace transmitter, London A transmitter is an electronic device which, usually with the aid of an antenna, propagates an electromagnetic signal such as radio, television, or other telecommunications. ... Signal processing is the processing, amplification and interpretation of signals, and deals with the analysis and manipulation of signals. ...

Transistors are commonly used in modern musical instrument amplifiers, in which circuits up to a few hundred watts are common and relatively cheap. Transistors have largely replaced valves (electron tubes) in instrument amplifiers. Some musical instrument amplifier manufacturers mix transistors and vacuum tubes in the same circuit, to utilize the inherent benefits of both devices. For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ...

### Computers

The "first generation" of electronic computers used vacuum tubes, which generated large amounts of heat, were bulky, and were unreliable. The development of the transistor was key to computer miniaturization and reliability. The "second generation" of computers, through the late 1950s and 1960s featured boards filled with individual transistors and magnetic memory cores. Subsequently, transistors, other components, and their necessary wiring were integrated into a single, mass-manufactured component: the integrated circuit. The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... A 16Ã—16 cm area core memory plane of 128Ã—128 bits, i. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ...

A wide range of transistors has been available since the 1960s and manufacturers continually introduce improved types. A few examples from the main families are noted below. Unless otherwise stated, all types are made from silicon semiconductor. Complementary pairs are shown as NPN/PNP or N/P channel. Links go to manufacturer datasheets, which are in PDF format. (On some datasheets the accuracy of the stated transistor category is a matter of debate.) The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ...

• 2N3904/2N3906, BC182/BC212 and BC546/BC556: Ubiquitous, BJT, general-purpose, low-power, complementary pairs. They have plastic cases and cost roughly ten cents U.S. in small quantities, making them popular with hobbyists.
• AF107: Germanium, 0.5 watt, 250 MHz PNP BJT.
• BFP183: Low power, 8 GHz microwave NPN BJT.
• LM394: "supermatch pair", with two NPN BJTs on a single substrate.
• 2N2219A/2N2905A: BJT, general purpose, medium power, complementary pair. With metal cases they are rated at about one watt.
• 2N3055/MJ2955: For years, the venerable NPN 2N3055 has been the "standard" power transistor. Its complement, the PNP MJ2955 arrived later. These 1 MHz, 15 A, 60 V, 115 W BJTs are used in audio power amplifiers, power supplies, and control.
• 2SC3281/2SA1302: Made by Toshiba, these BJTs have low-distortion characteristics and are used in high-power audio amplifiers. They have been widely counterfeited[6].
• BU508: NPN, 1500 V power BJT. Designed for television horizontal deflection, its high voltage capability also makes it suitable for use in ignition systems.
• MJ11012/MJ11015: 30 A, 120 V, 200 W, high power Darlington complementary pair BJTs. Used in audio amplifiers, control, and power switching.
• 2N5457/2N5460: JFET (depletion mode), general purpose, low power, complementary pair.
• BSP296/BSP171: IGFET (enhancement mode), medium power, near complementary pair. Used for logic level conversion and driving power transistors in amplifiers.
• IRF3710/IRF5210: IGFET (enhancement mode), 40 A, 100 V, 200 W, near complementary pair. For high-power amplifiers and power switches, especially in automobiles.

The AF107 is the European name for an early (circa 1960) Germanium based (A) bipolar junction transistor of PNP polarity intended for high frequency use (F). ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... It has been suggested that Uses of jfet be merged into this article or section. ... The MOSFET, or Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor, is by far the most common field effect transistor in both digital and analog circuits (The Metal in the name is an anachronism from early chips where gates were metal; modern chips use polysilicon gates, but are still called MOSFETs). ... The MOSFET, or Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor, is by far the most common field effect transistor in both digital and analog circuits (The Metal in the name is an anachronism from early chips where gates were metal; modern chips use polysilicon gates, but are still called MOSFETs). ...

 Electronics Portal

Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_ksim. ... Various components An electronic component is a basic electronic element usually packaged in a discrete form with two or more connecting leads or metallic pads. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity is in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator, and can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Transconductance, also known as mutual conductance, is a property of certain electronic components. ... Transconductance, also known as mutual conductance, is a property of certain electronic components. ... It has been suggested that VHSIC be merged into this article or section. ... Transistor count is the most common measure of chip complexity. ... Gordon Moores original graph from 1965 Growth of transistor counts for Intel processors (dots) and Moores Law (upper line=18 months; lower line=24 months) For the observation regarding information retrieval, see Mooers Law. ...

## References

1. ^ Ralph S. Carson, Principles of Applied Electronics, McGraw–Hill 1961.
2. ^ Dennis F. Herrick (2003). Media Management in the Age of Giants: Business Dynamics of Journalism. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0813816998.
3. ^ C. A. Mead (Feb. 1966). "Schottky barrier gate field effect transistor". Proceedings of the IEEE 54 (2): 307–308.
4. ^ a b Streetman, Ben (1992). Solid State Electronic Devices. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 301–305. ISBN 0-13-822023-9.

chickens Professor Carver Andress Mead (born 1 May 1934, in Bakersfield, California) is a prominent U.S. computer scientist. ... Ben G. Streetman has been Dean of the College of Engineering at the University of Texas at Austin since 1996. ...

## Books

• Amos S W & James M R (1999). Principles of Transistor Circuits. Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-4427-3.
• Horowitz, Paul & Hill, Winfield (1989). The Art of Electronics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-37095-7.
• Riordan, Michael & Hoddeson, Lillian (1998). Crystal Fire. W.W Norton & Company Limited. ISBN 0-393-31851-6.  The invention of the transistor & the birth of the information age
• Warnes, Lionel (1998). Analogue and Digital Electronics. Macmillan Press Ltd. ISBN 0-333-65820-5.

Paul Horowitz (born 1942) is a U.S. physicist and electrical engineer, known primarily for his work in electronics design, as well as for his role in the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (see SETI). ...

## Other

• Robert G. Arns (October 1998). "The other transistor: early history of the metal-oxide-semiconducor field-effect transistor". Engineering Science and Education Journal 7 (5): 233-240. ISSN 0963-7346.
• Armand Van Dormael. "The French Transistor". Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE Conference on the History of Electronics, Bletchley Park, June 2004.
• "Herbert F. Mataré, An Inventor of the Transistor has his moment", The New York Times, 24 February 2003.
• Michael Riordan (November 2005). "How Europe Missed the Transistor". IEEE Spectrum 42 (11): 52–57. ISSN 0018-9235.
• C. D. Renmore (1980). Silicon Chips and You.
• Wiley-IEEE Press. Complete Guide to Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Edition.

ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ...

Results from FactBites:

 transistor. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (586 words) The transistor action is such that if the electric potentials on the segments are properly determined, a small current between the base and emitter connections results in a large current between the emitter and collector connections, thus producing current amplification. The metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is a variant in which a single gate is separated from the channel by a layer of metal oxide, which acts as an insulator, or dielectric. Although discrete transistors are still used significantly, the vast majority of transistors are built as parts of integrated circuits.
 Transistor (599 words) The transistor was invented at Bell Laboratories in December... A transistor is a small electronic device that can cause changes in a large electrical output signal by small changes in a small input signal. Transistors are either NPN or PNP in the configuration of the layers.
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