FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Transhumanism" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Transhumanism
Posthuman Future, an illustration by Michael Gibbs for The Chronicle of Higher Education's look at how biotechnology will change the human experience, has become one of the secular icons representing transhumanism.

Transhumanism (sometimes symbolized by >H or H+[1]) is an international intellectual and cultural movement supporting the use of new sciences and technologies to enhance human mental and physical abilities and aptitudes, and ameliorate what it regards as undesirable and unnecessary aspects of the human condition, such as stupidity, suffering, disease, aging and involuntary death. Transhumanist thinkers study the possibilities and consequences of developing and using human enhancement techniques and other emerging technologies for these purposes. Possible dangers, as well as benefits, of powerful new technologies that might radically change the conditions of human life are also of concern to the transhumanist movement.[2] Image File history File links Posthuman_Future. ... Image File history File links Posthuman_Future. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... For other uses, see Human nature (disambiguation). ... American cultural icons. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... The human brain controls the central nervous system (CNS), by way of the cranial nerves and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and regulates virtually all human activity. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... Look up ability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Ability - the quality of person of being able to perform; A quality that permits or facilitates achievement or accomplishment. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Meliorism is the idea in metaphysical thinking that progress is a real concept leading to an improvement of the world. ... For other uses, see Human condition (disambiguation). ... “Stupid” redirects here. ... Suffering is any aversive (not necessarily unwanted) experience and the corresponding negative emotion. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Ageing or aging is the process of getting older. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation), Dead (disambiguation), Death (band) or Deceased (band). ... Human enhancement describes any attempt, whether temporary or permanent, to overcome the current limitations of human cognitive and physical abilities, whether through natural or artificial means. ... A termite cathedral mound produced by a termite colony: a classic example of emergence. ...


Although the first known use of the term "transhumanism" dates from 1957, the contemporary meaning is a product of the 1980s, when a group of scientists, artists, and futurists based in the United States began to organize what has since grown into the transhumanist movement. Transhumanist thinkers postulate that human beings will eventually be transformed into beings with such greatly expanded abilities as to merit the label "posthuman".[2] Future studies reflects on how today’s changes (or the lack thereof) become tomorrow’s reality. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Transhuman is a term that refers to an intermediary form between the human and the posthuman. ... Posthuman Future by Michael Gibbs A posthuman or post-human is a hypothetical future being whose capabilities so radically exceed those of present humans as to be no longer human by current standards. ...


Transhumanist foresight of a profoundly transformed future humanity has attracted many supporters and critics from a wide range of perspectives. Transhumanism has been described by one outspoken opponent as the world's most dangerous idea,[3] while a proponent counters that it is the "movement that epitomizes the most daring, courageous, imaginative, and idealistic aspirations of humanity".[4] In futures studies, especially in Europe, the term foresight has become common as of 2005, embracing activities of critical thinking concerning long-term developments, debate and effort to create wider participation in decisions, shaping the future, especially by influencing public policy and strategic decisions (European Commission Foresight Website 2005; FOREN... For other uses, see Future (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

In his 2005 article A History of Transhumanist Thought, transhumanist philosopher Nick Bostrom locates transhumanism's roots in Renaissance humanism and the Enlightenment. For example, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola called on people to "sculpt their own statue", René Descartes considered human amelioration one of the fruits of his approach to science, and the Marquis de Condorcet speculated about the use of medical science to extend the human life span. In the 20th century, a direct and influential precursor to transhumanist concepts was geneticist J.B.S. Haldane's 1923 essay Daedalus: Science and the Future, which predicted that great benefits would come from applications of genetics and other advanced sciences to human biology.[2] Biologist Julian Huxley, brother of author Aldous Huxley (a childhood friend of Haldane's), appears to have been the first to use the actual word "transhumanism". Writing in 1957, he defined transhumanism as "man remaining man, but transcending himself, by realizing new possibilities of and for his human nature".[5] This definition differs substantially from the one commonly in use since the 1980s. Nick Bostrom (Boström in the original Swedish) is a philosopher at the University of Oxford, and known for his work on the anthropic principle. ... Renaissance humanism (often designated simply as humanism) was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... Pico della Mirandola. ... Descartes redirects here. ... “Condorcet” redirects here. ... John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (November 5, 1892 - December 1, 1964), who normally used J.B.S. as a first name, was a geneticist born in Scotland and educated at Eton and Oxford University. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Sir Julian Sorell Huxley, FRS (June 22, 1887 – February 14, 1975) was a English biologist, author, Humanist and internationalist, known for his popularisations of science in books and lectures. ... Aldous Leonard Huxley (July 26, 1894 – November 22, 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. ... For other uses, see Human nature (disambiguation). ...


Computer scientist Marvin Minsky wrote on relationships between human and artificial intelligence beginning in the 1960s.[6] Over the succeeding decades, this field continued to generate influential thinkers, such as Hans Moravec and Raymond Kurzweil, who oscillated between the technical arena and futuristic speculations in the transhumanist vein.[7][8] The coalescence of an identifiable transhumanist movement began in the last decades of the 20th century. In 1966, FM-2030 (formerly F.M. Esfandiary), a futurist who taught "new concepts of the Human" at the The New School in New York City, began to identify people who adopt technologies, lifestyles and world views transitional to "posthumanity" as "transhuman" (short for "transitory human").[9] In 1972, Robert Ettinger contributed to the conceptualization of "transhumanity" in his book Man into Superman.[10] FM-2030 published the Upwingers Manifesto in 1973 to stimulate transhumanly conscious activism.[11] Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Marvin Lee Minsky (born August 9, 1927), sometimes affectionately known as Old Man Minsky, is an American cognitive scientist in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), co-founder of MITs AI laboratory, and author of several texts on AI and philosophy. ... AI redirects here. ... Hans Moravec (born November 30, 1948 in Austria) is a research professor at the Robotics Institute (Carnegie Mellon) of Carnegie Mellon University. ... Raymond Kurzweil (pronounced: ) (born February 12, 1948) is a pioneer in the fields of optical character recognition (OCR), text-to-speech synthesis, speech recognition technology, and electronic keyboard instruments. ... FM-2030, futurist who laid the groundwork for transhumanist theory FM-2030 was a name adopted by the transhumanist philosopher and futurist Fereydun M. Esfandiary (October 15, 1930–July 8, 2000), who professed a deep nostalgia for the future. ... The New School is an institution of higher learning in New York City, located around Greenwich Village in Lower Manhattan. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... A posthuman is a hypothetical future being whose basic capacities so radically exceed those of present humans as to be no longer human by our current standards. ... Transhuman is a term that refers to an intermediary form between the human and the posthuman. ... Robert Chester Wilson Ettinger (born December 4, 1918) is known as the father of cryonics due to the impact of his 1962 book THE PROSPECT OF IMMORTALITY. He founded the Cryonics Institute and the related Immortalist Society and until 2003 served as their President. ...


The first self-described transhumanists met formally in the early 1980s at the University of California, Los Angeles, which became the main center of transhumanist thought. Here, FM-2030 lectured on his "third way" futurist ideology. At the EZTV Media venue frequented by transhumanists and other futurists, Natasha Vita-More presented Breaking Away, her 1980 experimental film with the theme of humans breaking away from their biological limitations and the earth's gravity as they head into space.[12][13] FM-2030 and Vita-More soon began holding gatherings for transhumanists in Los Angeles, which included students from FM-2030's courses and audiences from Vita-More's artistic productions. In 1982, Vita-More authored the Transhumanist Arts Statement, and, six years later, produced the cable TV show TransCentury Update on transhumanity, a program which reached over 100,000 viewers.[14] The University of California, Los Angeles (generally known as UCLA) is a public research university located in Los Angeles, California, United States. ... Third way can refer to: The Third Way, an economic and political idea that positions itself between democratic socialism and laissez-faire capitalism, combining the ordoliberal social market with neo-liberalism. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Natasha Vita-More (born Nancie Clark) is an influential transhumanist theorist and futurist. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ...


In 1986, Eric Drexler published Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology,[15] which discussed the prospects for nanotechnology and molecular assemblers, and founded the Foresight Institute. As the first non-profit organization to research, advocate for, and perform cryonics, the Southern California offices of the Alcor Life Extension Foundation became a center for futurists. In 1988, during the rise of cyberculture, philosopher Max More founded the Extropy Institute and, in 1990, was the main contributor to a formal transhumanist doctrine, which took the form of the Principles of Extropy.[16] In 1990, he laid the foundation of modern transhumanism by giving it a new definition:[17] K. Eric Drexler in 2001. ... Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology Engines of Creation (ISBN 0-385-19973-2) is a seminal molecular nanotechnology book written by K. Eric Drexler in 1986. ... Nanotechnology refers broadly to a field of applied science and technology whose unifying theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale, normally 1 to 100 nanometres, and the fabrication of devices within that size range. ... A molecular assembler is a molecular machine capable of assembling other molecules given instructions, energy, and a supply of smaller building block molecules to work from. ... This article reads like an advertisement, and therefore is not neutral in tone. ... Not to be confused with cryogenics. ... This bigfoot Dewar is custom-designed to contain four wholebody patients and six neuropatients immersed in liquid nitrogen at −196 degrees Celsius. ... Cyberculture is a frequently and flexibly used term lacking an explicit meaning. ... Max More (born January 1964, Bristol, England formerly known as Max OConnor) is a philosopher and futurist who writes, speaks, and consults on advanced decision making and foresight methods for handling the impact of emerging technologies. ... Extropianism, also reffered to as extropy, is a transhumanist philosophy characterized by a set of principles regarding extropy, defined by Dr. Max More in The Principles of Extropy. ...

Transhumanism is a class of philosophies that seek to guide us towards a posthuman condition. Transhumanism shares many elements of humanism, including a respect for reason and science, a commitment to progress, and a valuing of human (or transhuman) existence in this life. […] Transhumanism differs from humanism in recognizing and anticipating the radical alterations in the nature and possibilities of our lives resulting from various sciences and technologies […].

In 1998, philosophers Nick Bostrom and David Pearce founded the World Transhumanist Association (WTA), an international non-governnmental organization working toward the recognition of transhumanism as a legitimate subject of scientific inquiry and public policy.[18] In 1999, the WTA drafted and adopted The Transhumanist Declaration.[19] The Transhumanist FAQ, prepared by the WTA, gave two formal definitions for transhumanism:[20] Nick Bostrom (Boström in the original Swedish) is a philosopher at the University of Oxford, and known for his work on the anthropic principle. ... David Pearce is a British philosopher who promotes the abolition of suffering in all sentient life. ... The World Transhumanist Association is an international non-profit membership organisation which advocates the ethical use of technology to enhance human capacities. ... A model of scientific inquiry has two functions, first, to provide a descriptive account of how scientific inquiry is carried out in practice, second, to provide an explanatory account of why scientific inquiry succeeds as well as it appears to do in arriving at genuine knowledge of its objects. ... Public policy is a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a problem. ...

  1. The intellectual and cultural movement that affirms the possibility and desirability of fundamentally improving the human condition through applied reason, especially by developing and making widely available technologies to eliminate aging and to greatly enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities.
  2. The study of the ramifications, promises, and potential dangers of technologies that will enable us to overcome fundamental human limitations, and the related study of the ethical matters involved in developing and using such technologies.

A number of similar definitions have been collected by Anders Sandberg, an academic and prominent transhumanist. The term "transhumanism" is often used as a synonym for "human enhancement".[21] Transhumanism is sometimes erroneously referred to as "posthumanism", especially in North America. However, posthumanists in the humanities and the arts are critical of transhumanism, in part, because many transhumanist thinkers claim it to be a philosophical descendant of Enlightenment humanism, which incorporates and extends many of its values, such as the grand narratives of reason, liberty and progress.[22][23] Anders Sandberg (b. ... Human enhancement describes any attempt, whether temporary or permanent, to overcome the current limitations of human cognitive and physical abilities, whether through natural or artificial means. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Humanities (disambiguation). ... The Arts is a broad subdivision of culture, comprised of many expressive disciplines. ... In critical theory, and particularly postmodernism, a metanarrative is a grand overarching account, or all-encompassing story, which is thought to give order to the historical record. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Liberty (disambiguation). ... Historical progress has been a main object of philosophy of history. ...


In contrast to the Extropy Institute,[24] WTA officials considered that social forces could undermine their futurist visions and needed to be addressed.[25] A particular concern is the equal access to human enhancement technologies across classes and borders.[26] In 2006, a political struggle within the transhumanist movement between the libertarian right and the liberal left resulted in a more centre-leftward positioning of the WTA under its former executive director James Hughes.[27][26] For other meanings of this term, see Futurists (disambiguation). ... Libertarianism is a political philosophy that holds that individuals should be allowed complete freedom of action as long as they do not infringe on the freedom of others. ... Modern liberalism in the United States is a form of liberalism that began in the United States in the last years of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century. ... In politics, the term centre-left is commonly used to describe and denote political parties or organisations that stretch from the centre to the left or are moderately left-wing, as opposed to extreme left wing beliefs such as communism. ... James Hughes Ph. ...


In 2006, the board of directors of the Extropy Institute ceased operations of the organization, stating that its mission was "essentially completed".[24] This left the World Transhumanist Association as the leading international transhumanist organization.


Theory and practice

While many transhumanist theorists and advocates seek to apply reason, science and technology for the purposes of reducing poverty, disease, disability, and malnutrition around the globe, transhumanism is distinctive in its particular focus on the applications of technologies to the improvement of human bodies at the individual level. Many transhumanists actively assess the potential for future technologies and innovative social systems to improve the quality of all life, while seeking to make the material reality of the human condition fulfill the promise of legal and political equality by eliminating congenital mental and physical barriers. For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Biocentrism is the belief that all life, or even the whole universe living or otherwise taken as a whole, is equally valuable and humanity is not the center of existence. ... A congenital disorder is any medical condition that is present at birth. ...


Transhumanist philosophers argue that there not only exists a perfectionist ethical imperative for humans to strive for progress and improvement of the human condition but that it is possible and desirable for humanity to enter a post-evolutionary phase of existence, in which humans are in control of their own evolution. In such a phase, natural evolution would be replaced with deliberate change. Thomas Hurka, a neo-Aristotelean, in his aptly titled book, Perfectionism, provides an introductory answer to what is perfectionism: “This moral theory starts from an account of the good life, or the intrinsically desirable life. ... Posthuman Future by Michael Gibbs A posthuman or post-human is a hypothetical future being whose capabilities so radically exceed those of present humans as to be no longer human by current standards. ... Participant evolution is a process of deliberately redesigning the human body and brain using technological means, with the goal of removing biological limitations. ...


To this end, transhumanists engage in interdisciplinary approaches to understanding and evaluating possibilities for overcoming biological limitations. They draw on future studies and various fields of ethics such as bioethics, infoethics, nanoethics, neuroethics, roboethics, and technoethics mainly but not exclusively from a philosophically (non-speciesist) secular humanist, socially progressive, politically and economically liberal perspective. Unlike many philosophers, social critics, and activists who place a moral value on preservation of natural systems, transhumanists see the very concept of the specifically "natural" as problematically nebulous at best, and an obstacle to progress at worst.[28] In keeping with this, many prominent transhumanist advocates refer to transhumanism's critics on the political right and left jointly as "bioconservatives" or "bioluddites", the latter term alluding to the 19th century anti-industrialisation social movement that opposed the replacement of human manual labourers by machines.[29] Interdisciplinary work is that which integrates concepts across different disciplines. ... Futures studies researches the medium-term to long-term future of societies and of the physical world, mechanisms of change, and the driving forces of change. ... Bioethics is the ethics of biological science and medicine. ... Information ethics is the field that investigates the ethical issues arising from the development and application of information technologies. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Neuroethics is most commonly understood to be the bioethics subcategory concerned with neuroscience and neurotechnology. ... Roboethics is the ethics applied to robotics. ... Ethics of technology is a subfield of ethics addressing the ethical questions specific to the Technology Age. ... Speciesism involves assigning different values or rights to beings on the basis of their species membership. ... ... Social progressivism is the view that as time progresses, society should disgregard morality in place of political correctness. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... “Natural” redirects here. ... Appeal to nature is a simplified type of naturalistic fallacy in argument form. ... Techno-progressivism, technoprogressivism, or tech-progressivism (a portmanteau word combining technology-focused and progressivism), is a stance of active support for technological development and social progress. ... The term Luddite is a political/historical term relating to a political movement during the Industrial Revolution; currently it is primarily used as a pejorative, describing those perceived as being uncompromisingly or unnecessarily opposed to technological innovations. ... The Luddites were a social movement of English textile artisans in the early nineteenth century who protested — often by destroying textile machines — against the changes produced by the Industrial Revolution, which they felt threatened their livelihood. ...

Converging Technologies, a 2002 report exploring the potential for synergy among nano-, bio-, info- and cogno-technologies, has become a landmark in near-future technological speculation.

While some transhumanists take an abstract and theoretical approach to the perceived benefits of emerging technologies, others have offered specific proposals for modifications to the human body, including heritable ones. Transhumanists are often concerned with methods of enhancing the human nervous system. Though some propose modification of the peripheral nervous system, the brain is considered the common denominator of personhood and is thus a primary focus of transhumanist ambitions.[30] Image File history File links Converging_technologies. ... Image File history File links Converging_technologies. ... The Human Nervous System. ... The Peripheral nervous system resides or extends outside the CNS central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) to serve the limbs and organs. ... The human brain controls the central nervous system (CNS), by way of the cranial nerves and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and regulates virtually all human activity. ...


More generally, transhumanists support the emergence and convergence of technologies such as nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science (NBIC), and hypothetical future technologies such as simulated reality, artificial intelligence, mind uploading, and cryonics. They believe that humans can and should use these technologies to become more than human.[31] They therefore support the recognition and/or protection of cognitive liberty, morphological freedom, and procreative liberty as civil liberties, so as to guarantee individuals the choice of using human enhancement technologies on themselves and their children, and progressively become transhuman and ultimately posthuman, which is seen as the climax of participant evolution.[32] Some speculate that human enhancement techniques and other emerging technologies may facilitate such a transformation by the midpoint of the 21st century.[33] A termite cathedral mound produced by a termite colony: a classic example of emergence. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Nanotechnology refers broadly to a field of applied science and technology whose unifying theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale, normally 1 to 100 nanometres, and the fabrication of devices within that size range. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... NBIC is an acronym for the convergence of Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Information technology and Cognitive science. ... Simulated reality is the idea that reality could be simulated — often computer-simulated — to a degree indistinguishable from true reality. ... AI redirects here. ... In transhumanism and science fiction, mind uploading (also occasionally referred to by other terms such as mind downloading, mind transfer, whole brain emulation, whole body emulation, or electronic transcendence) refers to the hypothetical transfer of a human mind to an artificial substrate, such as a computer simulation. ... Not to be confused with cryogenics. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cognitive liberty is the freedom to be the absolute sovereign of one’s own consciousness. ... Morphological freedom is, according to neuroscientist Anders Sandberg, an extension of one’s right to one’s body, not just self-ownership but also the right to modify oneself according to one’s desires. ... Procreative liberty is a term refering to the freedom to decide whether or not to have children as well as the freedom to control ones reproductive capacity. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... Human enhancement technologies (HET) are technologies that can be used not simply for treating illness and disability, but also for enhancing human capacities and characteristics. ... Transhuman is a term that refers to an intermediary form between the human and the posthuman. ... Posthuman Future by Michael Gibbs A posthuman or post-human is a hypothetical future being whose capabilities so radically exceed those of present humans as to be no longer human by current standards. ... Participant evolution is a process of deliberately redesigning the human body and brain using technological means, with the goal of removing biological limitations. ... 20XX redirects here. ...


A 2002 report, Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance, commissioned by the National Science Foundation and US Department of Commerce, contains descriptions and commentaries on the state of NBIC science and technology by major contributors to these fields. The report discusses potential uses of these technologies in implementing transhumanist goals of enhanced performance and health, and ongoing work on planned applications of human enhancement technologies in the military and in the rationalization of the human-machine interface in industry.[34] Cover of 2002 report. ... The logo of the National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. ... The United States Department of Commerce is a Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth. ... Performance improvement is the concept of measuring the output of a particular process or procedure, then modifying the process or procedure in order to increase the output, increase efficiency, or increase the effectiveness of the process or procedure. ... Human-Machine Interface (HMI) is a term that refers to the layer that separates a human that is operating a machine from the machine itself. ...


While international discussion of the converging technologies and NBIC concepts includes strong criticism of their transhumanist orientation and alleged science fictional character,[35][36][37] research on brain and body alteration technologies has accelerated under the sponsorship of the US Department of Defense, which is interested in the battlefield advantages they would provide to the supersoldiers of the United States and its allies.[38] Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the Amalgam Comics character, see Super-Soldier. ...


Some theorists, such as Raymond Kurzweil, think that the pace of technological innovation is accelerating and that the next 50 years may yield not only radical technological advances but possibly a technological singularity, which may fundamentally change the nature of human beings.[33] Transhumanists who foresee this massive technological change generally maintain that it is desirable. However, some are also concerned with the possible dangers of extremely rapid technological change and propose options for ensuring that advanced technology is used responsibly. For example, Bostrom has written extensively on existential risks to humanity's future welfare, including risks that could be created by emerging technologies.[39] Raymond Kurzweil (pronounced: ) (born February 12, 1948) is a pioneer in the fields of optical character recognition (OCR), text-to-speech synthesis, speech recognition technology, and electronic keyboard instruments. ... For other uses, see Innovation (disambiguation). ... When plotted on a logarithmic graph, 15 separate lists of paradigm shifts for key events in human history show an exponential trend. ... When plotted on a logarithmic graph, 15 separate lists of paradigm shifts for key events in human history show an exponential trend. ... In futurology, an existential risk is a risk that is both global and terminal. ...


On a more practical level, as proponents of personal development and body modification, transhumanists tend to use existing technologies and techniques that supposedly improve cognitive and physical performance, while engaging in routines and lifestyles designed to improve health and longevity.[40] Depending on their age, some transhumanists express concern that they will not live to reap the benefits of future technologies. However, many have a great interest in life extension strategies, and in funding research in cryonics in order to make the latter a viable option of last resort rather than remaining an unproven method.[41] Regional and global transhumanist networks and communities with a range of objectives exist to provide support and forums for discussion and collaborative projects. Personal development (also known as self-development, self-improvement or personal growth) comprises the development of the self. ... Body modification (or body alteration) is the permanent or semi-permanent deliberate altering of the human body for non-medical reasons, such as spiritual, various social (markings), BDSM edgeplay or aesthetic. ... Life extension refers to an increase in maximum or average lifespan, especially in humans, by slowing down or reversing the processes of aging. ... Not to be confused with cryogenics. ...


Currents

There is a variety of opinion within transhumanist thought. Many of the leading transhumanist thinkers hold views that are under constant revision and development.[42] Some distinctive currents of transhumanism are identified and listed here in alphabetical order:

Abolitionism is a bioethical school and movement which proposes the use of biotechnology to maximize happiness and minimize suffering while working towards the abolition of involuntary suffering. ... Suffering is any aversive (not necessarily unwanted) experience and the corresponding negative emotion. ... Democratic transhumanism, a term coined by Dr. James Hughes in 2002, refers to the stance of transhumanists (humanists who support morphological freedom and the ethical use of human enhancement technologies) who espouse liberal, social or radical democratic political views. ... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Radical democracy was articulated by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe in their book Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Towards a Radical Democratic Politics, written in 1985. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The proactionary principle, phrase coined in 2004 by cultural strategist Natasha Vita-More, who is known for her writings and multi-media transhumanist works, is an ethical principle intended as a pro-innovation counterbalance to the more famous precautionary principle. ... Immortality is the concept of existing for a potentially infinite or indeterminate length of time. ... This article is about living for infinite period of time. ... Libertarian transhumanism is a political philosophy synthesizing libertarianism and transhumanism. ... For other uses, see Libertarianism (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... Reproductive technology is a term for all current and anticipated uses of technology in human and animal reproduction, including: artificial insemination artificial wombs cloning (see human cloning for the special case of human beings) cryopreservation of sperm, oocytes, embryos embryo transfer germinal choice technology hormone treatment to increase fertility in... Singularitarianism is a moral philosophy based upon the belief that a technological singularity — the technological creation of smarter-than-human intelligence — is possible, and advocating deliberate action to bring it into effect and ensure its safety. ... When plotted on a logarithmic graph, 15 separate lists of paradigm shifts for key events in human history show an exponential trend. ... Technogaianism (a portmanteau word combining techno for technology and Gaia for the Earth Mother of Greek mythology) is the stance that advanced technology can help restore Earths environment, and that developing such technology should therefore be an important goal of environmentalists. ... Clean technology includes the wind power, solar power, biomass, hydropower, clean fuels, information technology, electric motors, lighting, and many other appliances that are now more energy efficient. ... Alternative technology is a term sometimes used by environmental advocates to refer to technologies which are more environmentally friendly than the functionally equivalent technologies dominant in current practice. ... Bold textHello ...

Spirituality

Although some transhumanists report a strong sense of secular spirituality, they are for the most part atheists.[18] A minority of transhumanists, however, follow liberal forms of Eastern philosophical traditions such as Buddhism and Yoga[47] or have merged their transhumanist ideas with established Western religions such as liberal Christianity[48] or Mormonism[49]. Despite the prevailing secular attitude, some transhumanists pursue hopes traditionally espoused by religions, such as immortality.[50] Several controversial new religious movements, originating in the late 20th century, have explicitly embraced transhumanist goals of transforming the human condition by applying technology to the alteration of the mind and body, such as Raëlism.[51] While most thinkers associated with the transhumanist movement focus on the practical goals of using technology to help achieve longer and healthier lives, some speculate that future understanding of neurotheology and the application of neurotechnology will enable humans to gain greater control of altered states of consciousness, which were commonly interpreted as "spiritual experiences", and thus achieve more profound self-knowledge.[47] The cultural phenomenon of secular spirituality refers to the subscription to a spiritual ideology without the advocation of a religious framework. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... Eastern philosophy refers very broadly to the various philosophies of Asia, including Indian philosophy, Chinese philosophy, Persian philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy. ... Buddhist Teachings deals extensively with problems in metaphysics, phenomenology, ethics, and epistemology. ... For other uses, see Yoga (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Liberal Christianity, sometimes called... For more general information about religious denominations that follow the teachings of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... This article is about living for infinite period of time. ... A new religious movement or NRM is a term used to refer to a religious faith, or an ethical, spiritual or philosophical movement of recent origin that isnt part of an established denomination, church, or religious body. ... A gathering of Raëlians in South Korea Raëlism is an UFO religion that is known by the names of Raëlian Church, MADECH from 1974 to 1976,[1] and International Raëlian Movement afterwards. ... Not to be confused with neuroethology. ... Neurotechnology is the set of tools that analyze and influence the human nervous system, especially the brain. ... The phrase altered state of consciousness was coined in the 1970s and describes induced changes in ones mental state, almost always temporary. ... Carl Jung once treated an American patient suffering from chronic alcoholism. ... The four Techniques of Knowledge, also known as kriyas may have originated from the Surat Shabda Yoga, Sant Mat and other ancient traditions in the Far East. ...


The majority of transhumanists are materialists who do not believe in a transcendent human soul. Transhumanist personhood theory also argues against the unique identification of moral actors and subjects with biological humans, judging as speciesist the exclusion of non-human and part-human animals, and sophisticated machines, from ethical consideration.[52] Many believe in the compatibility of human minds with computer hardware, with the theoretical implication that human consciousness may someday be transferred to alternative media.[53] One extreme formulation of this idea may be found in Frank Tipler's proposal of the Omega point. Drawing upon ideas in digitalism, Tipler has advanced the notion that the collapse of the Universe billions of years hence could create the conditions for the perpetuation of humanity in a simulated reality within a megacomputer, and thus achieve a form of "posthuman godhood". Although not a transhumanist, Tipler's thought was inspired by the writings of Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, a paleontologist and Jesuit theologian who saw an evolutionary telos in the development of an encompassing noosphere, a global consciousness.[54] In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... Personhood Theory (Also See Person) Personhood theory addresses the microcosm of lived experience. ... The relevance of particular information in (or previously in) this article or section is disputed. ... Parahumans are chimera of humans and other species. ... AI redirects here. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Frank J. Tipler (born in 1947 in Andalusia, Alabama) is a professor of mathematical physics at Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... Omega point is a term invented by French Jesuit Pierre Teilhard de Chardin to describe the ultimate maximum level of complexity-consciousness, considered by him the aim towards which consciousness evolves. ... Digitalism may refer to: Digital philosophy Digitalism, a New Rave duo from Hamburg, Germany ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Simulated reality is the idea that reality could be simulated — often computer-simulated — to a degree indistinguishable from true reality. ... A megacomputer is the term used to describe a group or cluster of interconnected supercomputers. ... Similar to this theory is the belief or aspiration that humans will create a God entity, emerging from an artificial intelligence. ... It has been suggested that noogenesis be merged into this article or section. ... A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ... It has been suggested that Teleology be merged into this article or section. ... The noosphere can be seen as the sphere of human thought being derived from the Greek νους (nous) meaning mind in the style of atmosphere and biosphere. In the original theory of Vernadsky, the noosphere is the third in a succession of phases of development of the Earth, after the geosphere...


The idea of uploading personality to a non-biological substrate and the underlying assumptions are criticised by a wide range of scholars, scientists and activists, sometimes with regard to transhumanism itself, sometimes with regard to thinkers such as Marvin Minsky or Hans Moravec who are often seen as its originators. Relating the underlying assumptions, for example, to the legacy of cybernetics, some have argued that this materialist hope engenders a spiritual monism, a variant of philosophical idealism.[55] Viewed from a fundamentalist Christian perspective, the idea of mind uploading is asserted to represent a denigration of the human body characteristic of gnostic belief.[56] Transhumanism and its presumed intellectual progenitors have also been described as neo-gnostic by non-Christian and secular commentators.[57][58] In transhumanism and science fiction, mind uploading (also occasionally referred to by other terms such as mind downloading, mind transfer, whole brain emulation, whole body emulation, or electronic transcendence) refers to the hypothetical transfer of a human mind to an artificial substrate, such as a computer simulation. ... Marvin Lee Minsky (born August 9, 1927), sometimes affectionately known as Old Man Minsky, is an American cognitive scientist in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), co-founder of MITs AI laboratory, and author of several texts on AI and philosophy. ... Hans Moravec (born November 30, 1948 in Austria) is a research professor at the Robotics Institute (Carnegie Mellon) of Carnegie Mellon University. ... For other uses, see Cybernetics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... Fundamentalist Christianity is a fundamentalist movement, especially within American Protestantism. ... Posthuman Future, an illustration by Michael Gibbs for The Chronicle of Higher Educations look at how biotechnology will change the human experience, has become one of the secular icons representing transhumanism. ... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The first dialogue between transhumanism and faith was the focus of an academic seminar held at the University of Toronto in 2004.[59] Because it might serve a few of the same functions that people have traditionally sought in religion, religious and secular critics maintained that transhumanism is itself a religion or, at the very least, a pseudoreligion. Transhumanists countered that transhumanism is not a religion, while acknowledging that some varieties of transhumanism may be religious in some senses of the word. Religious critics faulted the philosophy of transhumanism as offering no eternal truths nor a relationship with the divine. They commented that a philosophy bereft of these beliefs leaves humanity adrift in a foggy sea of postmodern cynicism and anomie. Transhumanists responded that such criticisms reflect a failure to look at the actual content of the transhumanist philosophy, which far from being cynical, is rooted in optimistic, idealistic attitudes that trace back to the Enlightenment.[60] For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ... Pseudoreligion (or pseudotheology) is a generally pejorative term applied to a non-mainstream belief system or philosophy which is functionally similar to religious practices, typically having a founder, principal text, liturgy and faith-based beliefs. ... For other uses, see Divinity (disambiguation) and Divine (disambiguation). ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used by philosophers, social scientists, art critics and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary art, culture, economics and social conditions that are the result of the unique features of late 20th century and early 21st century... This article is about the current understanding of the word cynicism. ... Anomie, in contemporary English, means a condition or malaise in individuals, characterized by an absence or diminution of standards or values. ... The opposite of pessimism, optimism is a lifeview where one looks upon the world as a positive place. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ...


Arts and Culture

Natasha Vita-More's Primo is an artistic depiction of a hypothetical posthuman of transhumanist speculation.
For more details on this topic, see Transhumanism in fiction.

Transhumanist themes have become increasingly prominent in various literary forms during the period in which the movement itself has emerged. Contemporary science fiction often contains positive renditions of technologically enhanced human life, set in utopian (especially techno-utopian) societies. However, science fiction's depictions of enhanced humans or other posthuman beings frequently come with a cautionary twist. The more pessimistic scenarios include many horrific or dystopian tales of human bioengineering gone wrong. In the decades immediately before transhumanism emerged as an explicit movement, many transhumanist concepts and themes began appearing in the speculative fiction of authors such as Robert A. Heinlein (Lazarus Long series, 1941–87), A. E. van Vogt (Slan, 1946), Isaac Asimov (I, Robot, 1950), Arthur C. Clarke (Childhood's End, 1953) and Stanislaw Lem (Cyberiad, 1967). Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 720 × 330 pixelsFull resolution (720 × 330 pixel, file size: 40 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Natasha Vita-More, http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 720 × 330 pixelsFull resolution (720 × 330 pixel, file size: 40 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Natasha Vita-More, http://www. ... Natasha Vita-More (born Nancie Clark) is an influential transhumanist theorist and futurist. ... Posthuman Future by Michael Gibbs A posthuman or post-human is a hypothetical future being whose capabilities so radically exceed those of present humans as to be no longer human by current standards. ... Science fiction has depicted transhumanism in various forms for many years. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ... A techno-utopia is an ideal but imaginary community, in which laws, government, and social conditions are solely operating for the benefit and well-being of all its inhabitants, set in the near- or far-future, when advanced science and technology will allow these ideal living standards to exist; for... “Horror story” redirects here. ... This article is about the philosophical concept and literary form. ... Biological engineering (also biosystems engineering and bioengineering) is a broad-based engineering discipline that deals with bio-molecular and molecular processes, product design, sustainability and analysis of biological systems. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... Spoiler warning: Lazarus Long is a fictional character featured in a number of science fiction novels by Robert A. Heinlein. ... Alfred Elton van Vogt (April 26, 1912 – January 26, 2000) was a Canadian-born science fiction author who was one of the most prolific, yet complex, writers of the mid-twentieth century Golden Age of the genre. ... First edition by Arkham House. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American Jewish author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... I, Robot is a collection of nine English language science fiction short stories by Isaac Asimov, first published by Gnome Press in 1950 in an edition of 5,000 copies. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Arthur C. Clarke Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (born 16 December 1917) is a British science-fiction author and inventor, most famous for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, and for collaborating with director Stanley Kubrick on the film of the same... Childhoods End is a science fiction novel by Sir Arthur C. Clarke. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The Cyberiad is a cycle of short and somewhat cartoonish science fiction stories by Stanislaw Lem. ...


The cyberpunk genre, exemplified by William Gibson's Neuromancer (1984) and Bruce Sterling's Schismatrix (1985), has particularly been concerned with the modification of human bodies. Other novels dealing with transhumanist themes that have stimulated broad discussion of these issues include Blood Music (1985) by Greg Bear, The Xenogenesis Trilogy (1987–1989) by Octavia Butler; the "Culture" novels (1987–2000) of Iain Banks; The Beggar's Trilogy (1990–94) by Nancy Kress; much of Greg Egan's work since the early 1990s, such as Permutation City (1994) and Diaspora (1997); The Bohr Maker (1995) by Linda Nagata; Altered Carbon by Richard Morgan (2002); Oryx and Crake (2003) by Margaret Atwood; The Possibility of an Island (Eng. trans. 2006) by Michel Houellebecq; and Glasshouse by Charles Stross. Berlins Sony Center reflects the global reach of a Japanese corporation. ... For other persons named William Gibson, see William Gibson (disambiguation). ... For the 1988 video game, see Neuromancer (video game). ... For other persons named Bruce Sterling, see Bruce Sterling (disambiguation). ... Schismatrix is a science fiction novel by Bruce Sterling, originally published in 1985. ... Blood Music is a science fiction novel by Greg Bear (ISBN 0-7434-4496-5). ... Gregory Dale Bear (born August 20, 1951) is a science fiction author. ... The Xenogenesis trilogy (currently published as the one volume novel, Liliths Brood, which was released in 2000) was written by Octavia Butler. ... Octavia Estelle Butler (June 22, 1947 — February 24, 2006) was an American science fiction writer, one of very few African-American women in the field. ... The Culture is a fictional anarchic, socialistic and utopian society created by the Scottish writer Iain Banks and described by him in several of his novels and shorter fictions. ... Iain Menzies Banks (officially Iain Banks, born on 16 February 1954 in Dunfermline, Fife) is a Scottish writer. ... A science-fiction novel by noted author Nancy Kress which won the Hugo Award and Nebula Award. ... Nancy Kress (born Nancy Anne Koningisor in Buffalo, New York on January 20, 1948) is a science fiction writer. ... Greg Egan (August 20, 1961, Perth, Western Australia) is an Australian computer programmer and science fiction author. ... Permutation City is a science fiction novel (ISBN 1-85798-218-5) by Greg Egan which explores quantum ontology via the various philosophical aspects of artificial life and simulations of intelligence. ... Diaspora is a Hard SF, 1997 novel by Australian writer Greg Egan. ... Linda Nagata (1960-) is an American science fiction author who won the Nebula award for best novella in 2000 (for Goddesses). She frequently writes about nanotechnology and the integration of advanced computing with the human brain. ... Altered Carbon (2002) is a hardboiled science fiction novel by Richard Morgan. ... Richard Morgan (b. ... Oryx and Crake is a novel with dystopian elements by Canadian author Margaret Atwood. ... Margaret Eleanor Atwood, OC (born November 18, 1939) is a Canadian writer. ... The Possibility of an Island is a recent (2005) novel by controversial French novelist Michel Houellebecq, set within the ambience of a cloning cult that resembles the real-world Raelians. ... Michel Houellebecq (pronounced ) (real name Michel Thomas), born 26 February 1958, on the French island of Réunion is a controversial, award-winning French novelist. ... Glasshouse can refer to either: Greenhouse, a building where plants are cultivated Philip Johnson#The Glass House, Philip Johnsons masterpiece building in New Canaan, Connecticut. ... Charles David George Charlie Stross (born Leeds, October 18, 1964) is a writer based in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


Fictional transhumanist scenarios have also become popular in other media during the late twentieth and early twenty first centuries. Such treatments are found in comic books (Captain America, 1941; Him, 1967), films (2001: A Space Odyssey, 1968; Blade Runner, 1982; Gattaca, 1997), television series (The Six Million Dollar Man, 1966; the Cybermen of Doctor Who, 1974; the Borg of Star Trek: The Next Generation, 1989; and the Ancients of Stargate SG-1, 2000), manga and anime (Appleseed, 1985; Ghost in the Shell, 1989 and Gundam Seed, 2002), computer games (Metal Gear Solid, 1998; Deus Ex, 2000; Half-Life 2, 2004), and role-playing games (Shadowrun, 1989). Transhuman Space is a 2002 RPG, set in the year 2100 when humanity has begun to colonize the Solar System, where the pursuit of transhumanism is now in full swing, as more and more people struggle to reach a fully posthuman state. Many of these works are considered part of the cyberpunk genre or its postcyberpunk offshoot. A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... This article is about the superhero. ... Adam Warlock, originally known as Him, is a fictional Marvel Comics superhero created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... This article is about the 1982 film. ... Gattaca is a 1997 science fiction drama film written and directed by Andrew Niccol, starring Ethan Hawke, Uma Thurman and Jude Law with supporting roles played by Loren Dean, Gore Vidal and Alan Arkin. ... A television program is the content of television broadcasting. ... The Six Million Dollar Man is an American television series about a cyborg working for the OSI (which was usually said to refer to the Office of Scientific Intelligence, but sometimes was called the Office of Scientific Investigation). ... The Cybermen - 1966 vintage (from The Moonbase). ... For other uses, see Doctor Who (disambiguation). ... The Unicomplex, a huge Borg complex in the Delta Quadrant. ... The title as it appeared in most episodes opening credits. ... The Ancients, also known as the Alterans and Lanteans, sometimes calling themselves Anqueetas in their language, are a humanoid race in the fictional Stargate universe. ... Stargate SG-1 (often abbreviated as SG-1) is a science fiction television series, part of the Stargate franchise. ... This article is about the comics published in East Asian countries. ... “Animé” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Appleseed. ... Motoko Kusanagi from the manga Ghost in the Shell. ... Title of the series Mobile Suit Gundam SEED (or Gundam Seed) is an anime television series from Japan. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... This article is about the original Metal Gear Solid released for the PlayStation. ... This article is about the video game. ... Half-Life 2 (HL2) is a science fiction first-person shooter computer game that is the sequel to Half-Life. ... This article is about games in which one plays the role of a character. ... Shadowrun is a cyberpunk-urban fantasy cross-genre role-playing game, set 63 years in the future,[1]following a great cataclysm that has brought use of magic back to the world, just as it begins to embrace the marvels (and dangers) of technologies such as cyberspace, omnipresent computer networks... Transhuman Space is a role-playing game published by Steve Jackson Games as parts of the Powered by GURPS (Generic Universal Role-Playing System) line. ... 2100 can refer to either: The first year of the 2100s decade. ... Posthuman Future by Michael Gibbs A posthuman or post-human is a hypothetical future being whose capabilities so radically exceed those of present humans as to be no longer human by current standards. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ...


In addition to the work of Natasha Vita-More, curator of the Transhumanist Arts & Culture center, transhumanist themes appear in the visual and performing arts.[61] Carnal Art, a form of sculpture originated by the French artist Orlan, uses the body as its medium and plastic surgery as its method.[62] The American performer Michael Jackson used technologies such as plastic surgery, skin-lightening drugs and hyperbaric oxygen therapy over the course of his career, with the effect of transforming his artistic persona so as to blur identifiers of gender, race and age.[63] The work of the Australian artist Stelarc centers on the alteration of his body by robotic prostheses and tissue engineering.[64] Other artists whose work coincided with the emergence and flourishing of transhumanism and who explored themes related to the transformation of the body are the Yugoslavian performance artist Marina Abramovic and the American media artist Matthew Barney. A 2005 show, Becoming Animal, at the Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art, presented exhibits by twelve artists whose work concerns the effects of technology in erasing boundaries between the human and non-human. Natasha Vita-More (born Nancie Clark) is an influential transhumanist theorist and futurist. ... The Transhumanist Arts & Culture center was founded in 1982 by artist and cultural critic Natasha Vita-More as an attempt to explore and influence the future directions of art and creativity as well as preserve a history of transhumanity, transhumanist arts, and extropic art. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Orlan is a French artist, born May 30th- 1947, in Saint-Etienne. ... For the album by The Huntingtons, see Plastic Surgery (album). ... Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958), commonly known as MJ as well as the King of Pop, is an American musician, entertainer, and pop icon whose successful career and controversial personal life have been a part of pop culture for the last three decades. ... Racial transformation is the process by which someone changes their appearance with respect to race, either from their current race to another race or to a new category. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... Stelarc (born Stelios Arcadiou on June 19, 1946) to Greek Cypriot parents is an Australian performance artist whose works focus heavily on futurism and extending the capabilities of the human body. ... For other uses, see robot (disambiguation). ... A United States soldier demonstrates Foosball with two prosthetic limbs In medicine, a prosthesis is an artificial extension that replaces a missing part of the body. ... Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physio-chemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Marina Abramović (born 1st November 1946 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia) is a renowned performance artist. ... New media art (also known as media art) is a generic term used to describe art related to, or created with, a technology invented or made widely available since the mid-20th Century. ... Matthew Barney (born March 25, 1967 in San Francisco, California) is a contemporary artist who works with film, video, installations, sculpture, photography, drawing and performance art. ... The Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art, commonly referred to as MASS MoCA, is a museum located in North Adams, Massachusetts. ...


Controversy

The very notion and prospect of human enhancement has sparked public controversy, despite significant expert opinion that many transhumanist proposals can be dismissed as fringe science. Criticisms of transhumanism and its proposals take two main forms: those objecting to the likelihood of transhumanist goals being achieved (practical criticisms); and those objecting to the moral principles or world view sustaining transhumanist proposals or underlying transhumanism itself (ethical criticisms). However, these two strains sometimes converge and overlap, particularly when the ethics of changing human biology in the face of incomplete knowledge is considered. For the Wikipedia policy regarding controversial issues in articles, see Wikipedia:Guidelines for controversial articles. ... Fringe science is a phrase used to describe scientific inquiry in an established field that departs significantly from mainstream or orthodox theories. ... Bioethics is the ethics of biological science and medicine. ...


Critics or opponents often see transhumanists' goals as posing threats to human values. Some also argue that strong advocacy of a transhumanist approach to improving the human condition might divert attention and resources from social solutions. As most transhumanists support non-technological changes to society, such as the spread of civil rights and civil liberties, and most critics of transhumanism support technological advances in areas such as communications and health care, the difference is often a matter of emphasis. Sometimes, however, there are strong disagreements about the very principles involved, with divergent views on humanity, human nature, and the morality of transhumanist aspirations. At least one public interest organization, the U.S.-based Center for Genetics and Society, was formed, in 2001, with the specific goal of opposing transhumanist agendas that involve transgenerational modification of human biology, such as full-term human cloning and germinal choice technology. The Institute on Biotechnology and the Human Future of the Chicago-Kent College of Law critically scrutinizes proposed applications of genetic and nanotechnologies to human biology in an academic setting. Social change (or Social development) is a general term which refers to: change in the nature, the social institutions, the social behaviour or the social relations of a society, community of people, or other social structures. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... For other uses, see Human nature (disambiguation). ... Public interest is a term used to denote political movements and organizations that are in the public interest—supporting general public and civic causes, in opposition of private and corporate ones (particularistic goals). ... The Center for Genetics and Society is a nonprofit information and public affairs organization in Oakland, California, that provides analysis and educational materials, and organizes conferences and workshops, on the new human genetic and reproductive technologies. ... Although genes are recognized as influencing behavior and cognition, genetically identical does not mean altogether identical; identical twins, despite being natural human clones with near identical DNA, are separate people, with separate experiences and not altogether overlapping personalities. ... Germinal choice technology refers to a set of technologies that currently or that are expected to in the future allow parents to influence the genetic constitutions of their children. ... The Institute on Biotechnology and the Human Future (IBHF) is an affiliate of the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) and is housed at IIT’s Chicago-Kent College of Law. ... Chicago-Kent College of Law, the law school of the Illinois Institute of Technology, is nationally recognized for the scholarship and accomplishments of its faculty and student body. ...


Some of the most widely known critiques of the transhumanist program refer to novels and fictional films. These works of art, despite presenting imagined worlds rather than philosophical analyses, are used as touchstones for some of the more formal arguments.


Infeasibility (Futurehype argument)

In his 1992 book Futurehype: The Tyranny of Prophecy, sociologist Max Dublin points out many past failed predictions of technological progress and argues that modern futurist predictions will prove similarly inaccurate. He also objects to what he sees as scientism, fanaticism, and nihilism by a few in advancing transhumanist causes, and writes that historical parallels exist to millenarian religions and Marxist doctrines.[65] Scientism is a term mainly used as a pejorative[1][2][3] to accuse someone of holding that science has primacy over all other interpretations of life such as religious, mythical, spiritual, or humanistic explanations. ... This article is about the philosophical position. ... Millenarianism (sometimes spelled millenarism or millennarism) is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society after which all things will be changed in a positive (or sometimes negative or ambiguous) direction. ... Historical materialism is the methodological approach to the study of society, economics, and history which was first articulated by Karl Marx (1818-1883), although Marx himself never used the term (he referred it as philosophical materialism, a term he used to distinguish it from what he called popular materialism). Historical...

Transhumanist thinkers assert that major paradigm shifts show technology is evolving in a logarithmic pattern.

Despite his sympathies for transhumanism, in his 2002 book Redesigning Humans: Our Inevitable Genetic Future, public health professor Gregory Stock is skeptical of the technical feasibility and mass appeal of the cyborgization of humanity predicted by Raymond Kurzweil, Hans Moravec and Kevin Warwick. He believes that throughout the 21st century, many humans will find themselves deeply integrated into systems of machines, but will remain biological. Primary changes to their own form and character will arise not from cyberware but from the direct manipulation of their genetics, metabolism, and biochemistry.[66] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1189x924, 162 KB) Courtesy of Ray Kurzweil and Kurzweil Technologies, Inc. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1189x924, 162 KB) Courtesy of Ray Kurzweil and Kurzweil Technologies, Inc. ... Logarithms to various bases: is to base e, is to base 10, and is to base 1. ... Gregory Stock is a scientist and writer with doctorate in biophysics from John Hopkins University. ... The term cyborg, a portmanteau of cybernetic organism, is used to designate a creature which is a mixture of organic and mechanical parts. ... Raymond Kurzweil (pronounced: ) (born February 12, 1948) is a pioneer in the fields of optical character recognition (OCR), text-to-speech synthesis, speech recognition technology, and electronic keyboard instruments. ... Hans Moravec (born November 30, 1948 in Austria) is a research professor at the Robotics Institute (Carnegie Mellon) of Carnegie Mellon University. ... Kevin Warwick speaking at the Tomorrows People conference hosted by Oxford University. ... Cyberware is a relatively new and unknown field. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ...


In his 2006 book Future Hype: The Myths of Technology Change, computer scientist and engineer Bob Seidensticker argues that today's technological achievements are not unprecedented. Exposing major myths of technology and examining the history of high tech hype, he aims to uncover inaccuracies and misunderstandings that may characterise the popular and transhumanist views of technology, to explain how and why these views have been created, and to illustrate how technological change in fact proceeds.[67] High tech refers to high technology, technology that is at the cutting-edge and the most advanced currently available. ... Hype! is also the name of a documentary film about grunge music. ... A technological change is a term that is used in economics to describe a change in the set of feasible production possibilities. ...


Those thinkers who defend the likelihood of massive technological change within a relatively short timeframe emphasize what they describe as a past pattern of exponential increases in humanity's technological capacities. This emphasis appears in the work of popular science writer Damien Broderick, notably his 1997 book, The Spike, which contains his speculations about a radically changed future. Kurzweil develops this position in much detail in his 2005 book, The Singularity Is Near. Broderick points out that many of the seemingly implausible predictions of early science fiction writers have, indeed, come to pass, among them nuclear power and space travel to the moon. He also claims that there is a core rationalism to current predictions of very rapid change, asserting that such observers as Kurzweil have a good track record in predicting the pace of innovation.[68] This article is not about the magazine, Popular Science Popular science is interpretation of science intended for a general audience, rather than for other scientists or students. ... pic: Barbara Lamar Damien Broderick (born 1944) is an Australian science fiction and popular science writer. ... The Spike is a 1997 book by Damien Broderick exploring the future of technology, and in particular the concept of the technological singularity. ... Cover of the book The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology (Viking Penguin, ISBN 0-670-03384-7) is a 2005 update of Raymond Kurzweils 1999 book, The Age of Spiritual Machines and his 1987 book The Age of Intelligent Machines. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... Still frame from the video transmission of Neil Armstrong stepping onto the surface of the Moon on 20 July 1969. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ...


Hubris (Playing God argument)

There are two distinct categories of criticism, theological and secular, that have been referred to as "playing god" arguments: Playing god refers to someone supposedly taking on the role of a god for human purposes. ...


The first category is based on the alleged inappropriateness of humans substituting themselves for an actual god. This approach is exemplified by the 2002 Vatican statement Communion and Stewardship: Human Persons Created in the Image of God,[69] in which it is stated that, "Changing the genetic identity of man as a human person through the production of an infrahuman being is radically immoral", implying, as it would, that "man has full right of disposal over his own biological nature". At the same time, this statement argues that creation of a superhuman or spiritually superior being is "unthinkable", since true improvement can come only through religious experience and "realizing more fully the image of God". Christian theologians and lay activists of several churches and denominations have expressed similar objections to transhumanism and claimed that Christians already enjoy, however post mortem, what radical transhumanism promises such as indefinite life extension or the abolition of suffering.[70][71] This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The term subhuman can refer to several concepts: Humanoid, any being whose body structure resembles that of a human Last Man, the antithesis to the Ãœbermensch in Nietzschean philosophy Slave, a person who is under the control of another Subhumans, a UK punk rock band The Subhumans, a Canadian punk... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Eastern Orthodox and... Life extension refers to an increase in maximum or average lifespan, especially in humans, by slowing down or reversing the processes of aging. ... Abolitionism is a bioethical school and movement which proposes the use of biotechnology to maximize happiness and minimize suffering while working towards the abolition of involuntary suffering. ...

The biocomplexity spiral is a depiction of the multileveled complexity of organisms in their environments, which is seen by many critics as the ultimate obstacle to transhumanist ambition.
The biocomplexity spiral is a depiction of the multileveled complexity of organisms in their environments, which is seen by many critics as the ultimate obstacle to transhumanist ambition.

The second category is aimed mainly at attempts to pursue transhumanist goals by way of genetically modifying human embryos in order to create "designer babies". It emphasizes the issue of biocomplexity and the unpredictability of attempts to guide the development of products of biological evolution. This argument, elaborated in particular by the biologist Stuart Newman, is based on the recognition that the cloning and germline genetic engineering of animals are error-prone and inherently disruptive of embryonic development. Accordingly, so it is argued, it would create unacceptable risks to use such methods on human embryos. Performing experiments, particularly ones with permanent biological consequences, on developing humans, would thus be in violation of accepted principles governing research on human subjects (see the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki). Moreover, because improvements in experimental outcomes in one species are not automatically transferable to a new species without further experimentation, there is claimed to be no ethical route to genetic manipulation of humans at early developmental stages.[72] Image File history File links Biocomplexity_spiral. ... Image File history File links Biocomplexity_spiral. ... Biocomplexity is concerned with the complex behavioral, biological, social, chemical, and physical interactions of living organisms with their environment. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... The colloquial term designer baby, which was coined by Maleka Merchant in 1971, has been used in popular scientific and bioethics literature to specify a child whose hereditary makeup (genotype) would be, using various reproductive and genetic technologies, purposefully selected (designed) to be the optimal recombination of their parents genetic... Biocomplexity is concerned with the complex behavioral, biological, social, chemical, and physical interactions of living organisms with their environment. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Stuart Alan Newman (born April 4, 1945 in New York City) is a professor of cell biology and anatomy at New York Medical College in Valhalla, NY, United States. ... In genetics and developmental biology, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a laboratory technique for creating an ovum with a donor nucleus (see process below) . It can be used in embryonic stem cell research, or in regenerative medicine where it is sometimes referred to as therapeutic cloning. ... Germline is a word used in biology and genetics. ... Kenyans examining insect-resistant transgenic Bt corn. ... Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation) is one of three fundamental aspects of developmental biology along with the control of cell growth and cellular differentiation. ... The Declaration of Helsinki, developed by the World Medical Association, is a set of ethical principles for the medical community regarding human experimentation. ...


As a practical matter, however, international protocols on human subject research may not present a legal obstacle to attempts by transhumanists and others to improve their offspring by germinal choice technology. According to legal scholar Kirsten Rabe Smolensky, existing laws would protect parents who choose to enhance their child's genome from future liability arising from adverse outcomes of the procedure.[73]


Religious thinkers allied with transhumanist goals, such as the theologians Ronald Cole-Turner and Ted Peters, reject the first argument, holding that the doctrine of "co-creation" provides an obligation to use genetic engineering to improve human biology.[74][75] Ted Peters is a Lutheran theologian and Professor of Systematic Theology at Pacific Lutheran Theological Seminary. ...


Transhumanists and other supporters of human genetic engineering do not dismiss the second argument out of hand, insofar as there is a high degree of uncertainty about the likely outcomes of genetic modification experiments in humans. However, bioethicist James Hughes suggests that one possible ethical route to the genetic manipulation of humans at early developmental stages is the building of computer models of the human genome, the proteins it specifies, and the tissue engineering he argues that it also codes for. With the exponential progress in bioinformatics, Hughes believes that a virtual model of genetic expression in the human body will not be far behind and that it will soon be possible to accelerate approval of genetic modifications by simulating their effects on virtual humans.[25] Public health professor Gregory Stock points to artificial chromosomes as an alleged safer alternative to existing genetic engineering techniques.[66] Transhumanists therefore argue that parents have a moral responsibility called procreative beneficence to make use of these methods, if and when they are shown to be reasonably safe and effective, to have the healthiest children possible. They add that this responsibility is a moral judgment best left to individual conscience rather than imposed by law, in all but extreme cases. In this context, the emphasis on freedom of choice is called procreative liberty.[25] Bioethics is the ethics of biological science and medicine. ... James Hughes Ph. ... A computer simulation or a computer model is a computer program which attempts to simulate an abstract model of a particular system. ... A graphical representation of the normal human karyotype. ... Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physio-chemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... Gregory Stock is a scientist and writer with doctorate in biophysics from John Hopkins University. ... A human artificial chromosome (short HAC) is a microchromosome that can act as a new chromosome in a population of human cells. ... Procreative beneficence is a term refering to the moral obligation of parents to have the healthiest children. ... François Chifflart (1825-1901), La Conscience (daprès Victor Hugo) Conscience is an ability or faculty or sense that leads to feelings of remorse when we do things that go against our moral values, or which informs our moral judgment before performing such an action. ... Freedom of Choice is the third album by New Wave musicians Devo, released in 1980 (see 1980 in music). ... Procreative liberty is a term refering to the freedom to decide whether or not to have children as well as the freedom to control ones reproductive capacity. ...


Contempt for the flesh (Fountain of Youth argument)

Philosopher Mary Midgley, in her 1992 book Science as Salvation, traces the notion of achieving immortality by transcendence of the material human body (echoed in the transhumanist tenet of mind uploading) to a group of male scientific thinkers of the early 20th century, including J.B.S. Haldane and members of his circle. She characterizes these ideas as "quasi-scientific dreams and prophesies" involving visions of escape from the body coupled with "self-indulgent, uncontrolled power-fantasies". Her argument focuses on what she perceives as the pseudoscientific speculations and irrational, fear-of-death-driven fantasies of these thinkers, their disregard for laymen, and the remoteness of their eschatological visions.[76] Many transhumanists see the 2006 film The Fountain's theme of necrophobia and critique of the quixotic quest for eternal youth as depicting some of these criticisms.[77] Mary Midgley, née Scrutton, (b. ... This article is about living for infinite period of time. ... In philosophy, transcendental/transcendence, has three different but related primary meanings, all of them derived from the words literal meaning (from Latin), of climbing or going beyond: one that originated in Ancient philosophy, one in Medieval philosophy and one in modern philosophy. ... In transhumanism and science fiction, mind uploading (also occasionally referred to by other terms such as mind downloading, mind transfer, whole brain emulation, whole body emulation, or electronic transcendence) refers to the hypothetical transfer of a human mind to an artificial substrate, such as a computer simulation. ... John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (November 5, 1892 - December 1, 1964), who normally used J.B.S. as a first name, was a geneticist born in Scotland and educated at Eton and Oxford University. ... Escapism is mental diversion by means of entertainment or recreation, as an escape from the perceived unpleasant aspects of daily stress. ... A pseudoscience is any body of knowledge purported to be scientific or supported by science but which fails to comply with the scientific method. ... Charles Darwins theory of evolution has made it clear that the strong survive to reproduce while the weak die off and are driven to extinction. ... Look up Layman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Albrecht Dürer - Four horsemen of the Apocalypse This article is about the concept of the end of the world. ... The Fountain is a 2006 science fiction/fantasy film directed by Darren Aronofsky that follows three interwoven narratives that take place in the age of conquistadors, the modern-day period, and the far future. ... Necrophobia or thanatophobia is the fear of death or dead things (e. ... Quixotism (IPA: [ˈkwɪksəˌtɪzm]) is the description of a person or an act that is caught up in the romance of noble deeds and the pursuit of unreachable goals. ... For other uses, see Fountain of Youth (disambiguation). ...


What is perceived as contempt for the flesh in the writings of Marvin Minsky, Hans Moravec, and some transhumanists, has also been the target of other critics for what they claim to be an instrumental conception of the human body.[22] Reflecting a strain of feminist criticism of the transhumanist program, philosopher Susan Bordo points to "contemporary obsessions with slenderness, youth, and physical perfection", which she sees as affecting both men and women, but in distinct ways, as "the logical (if extreme) manifestations of anxieties and fantasies fostered by our culture.”[78] Some critics question other social implications of the movement's focus on body modification. Political scientist Klaus-Gerd Giesen, in particular, has asserted that transhumanism's concentration on altering the human body represents the logical consequence of atomized individualism and body commodification within a consumer culture.[57] Marvin Lee Minsky (born August 9, 1927), sometimes affectionately known as Old Man Minsky, is an American cognitive scientist in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), co-founder of MITs AI laboratory, and author of several texts on AI and philosophy. ... Hans Moravec (born November 30, 1948 in Austria) is a research professor at the Robotics Institute (Carnegie Mellon) of Carnegie Mellon University. ... Feminists redirects here. ... Susan Bordo (born 1947), a modern feminist philosopher, is well known for her contributions to the field of contemporary cultural studies, particularly in the area of “body studies. ... Body image is a persons perception of his or her physical appearance. ... Body modification (or body alteration) is the permanent or semi-permanent deliberate altering of the human body for non-medical reasons, such as spiritual, various social (markings), BDSM edgeplay or aesthetic. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... Commodification is the transformation of what is normally a non-commodity into a commodity, to assign economic value to something that traditionally would not be considered in economic terms, for example, an idea, identity, gender. ... Consumerism is a term used to describe the effects of equating personal happiness with purchasing material possessions and consumption. ...


Nick Bostrom asserts that the desire to regain youth, specifically, and transcend the natural limitations of the human body, in general, is pan-cultural and pan-historical, and is therefore not uniquely tied to the culture of the 20th century. He argues that the transhumanist program is an attempt to channel that desire into a scientific project on par with the Human Genome Project and achieve humanity's oldest hope, rather than a puerile fantasy or social trend.[2] Rejuvenation is the procedure of reversing the aging process, thus regaining youth. ... The Human Genome Projects (HGP) goal is to understand the genetic make-up of the human species by determining the DNA sequence of the human genome and the genome of a few model organisms in an attempt to decode and genetically modify human beings and various other species. ... For other uses, see Hope (disambiguation). ...


Trivialization of human identity (Enough argument)

In the US, the Amish are a religious group probably most known for their avoidance of certain modern technologies. Transhumanists draw a parallel by arguing that in the near-future there will probably be "Humanish", people who choose to "stay human" by not adopting human enhancement technologies, whose choice they believe must be respected and protected.
In the US, the Amish are a religious group probably most known for their avoidance of certain modern technologies. Transhumanists draw a parallel by arguing that in the near-future there will probably be "Humanish", people who choose to "stay human" by not adopting human enhancement technologies, whose choice they believe must be respected and protected.[79]

In his 2003 book Enough: Staying Human in an Engineered Age, environmental ethicist Bill McKibben argued at length against many of the technologies that are postulated or supported by transhumanists, including germinal choice technology, nanomedicine and life extension strategies. He claims that it would be morally wrong for humans to tamper with fundamental aspects of themselves (or their children) in an attempt to overcome universal human limitations, such as vulnerability to ageing, maximum life span, and biological constraints on physical and cognitive ability. Attempts to "improve" themselves through such manipulation would remove limitations that provide a necessary context for the experience of meaningful human choice. He claims that human lives would no longer seem meaningful in a world where such limitations could be overcome technologically. Even the goal of using germinal choice technology for clearly therapeutic purposes should be relinquished, since it would inevitably produce temptations to tamper with such things as cognitive capacities. He argues that it is possible for societies to benefit from renouncing particular technologies, using as examples Ming China, Tokugawa Japan and the contemporary Amish.[80] ImageMetadata File history File links Amish_vs_modern_transportation. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Amish_vs_modern_transportation. ... This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ... Human enhancement describes any attempt, whether temporary or permanent, to overcome the current limitations of human cognitive and physical abilities, whether through natural or artificial means. ... Environmental ethics is the part of environmental philosophy which considers the ethical relationship between human beings and the natural environment. ... Bill McKibben attending a 2006 summit via HDTV uplink Bill McKibben is an American environmentalist and writer who frequently writes about global warming, alternative energy, and the risks associated with human genetic engineering. ... Germinal choice technology refers to a set of technologies that currently or that are expected to in the future allow parents to influence the genetic constitutions of their children. ... Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. ... Life extension refers to an increase in maximum or average lifespan, especially in humans, by slowing down or reversing the processes of aging. ... The effects of ageing on a human face Elderly woman Ageing or aging is the process of systems deterioration with time. ... Maximum life span is a measure of the maximum number of years a member of a group has been observed to survive. ... Not to be confused with the Ultimate Question or Answer to Life, the Universe, and Everything in The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ...


Transhumanists and other supporters of technological alteration of human biology, such as science journalist Ronald Bailey, reject as extremely subjective the claim that life would be experienced as meaningless if some human limitations are overcome with enhancement technologies. They argue that these technologies will not remove the bulk of the individual and social challenges humanity faces. They suggest that a person with greater abilities would tackle more advanced and difficult projects and continue to find meaning in the struggle to achieve excellence. Bailey also claims that McKibben's historical examples are flawed, and support different conclusions when studied more closely.[81] For example, few groups are more cautious than the Amish about embracing new technologies, but though they shun television and use horses and buggies, some are welcoming the possibilities of gene therapy since inbreeding has afflicted them with a number of rare genetic diseases.[66] A science journalist is a journalist who specializes in writing about science topics, and thus excercises science journalism. ... Ronald Bailey is the Science Editor for Reason magazine. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Human enhancement describes any attempt, whether temporary or permanent, to overcome the current limitations of human cognitive and physical abilities, whether through natural or artificial means. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Gene therapy is the insertion of genes into an individuals cells and tissues to treat a disease, and hereditary diseases in which a defective mutant allele is replaced with a functional one. ...


Genetic divide (Gattaca argument)

Some critics of libertarian transhumanism have focused on its likely socioeconomic consequences in societies in which divisions between rich and poor are on the rise. Bill McKibben, for example, suggests that emerging human enhancement technologies would be disproportionately available to those with greater financial resources, thereby exacerbating the gap between rich and poor and creating a "genetic divide".[80] Lee Silver, a biologist and science writer who coined the term "reprogenetics" and supports its applications, has nonetheless expressed concern that these methods could create a two-tiered society of genetically-engineered "haves" and "have nots" if social democratic reforms lag behind implementation of enhancement technologies.[82] Critics who make these arguments do not thereby necessarily accept the transhumanist assumption that human enhancement is a positive value; in their view, it should be discouraged, or even banned, because it could confer additional power upon the already powerful. The 1997 film Gattaca's depiction of a dystopian society in which one's social class depends entirely on genetic modifications is often cited by critics in support of these views.[25] Libertarian transhumanism is a political philosophy synthesizing libertarianism and transhumanism. ... Differences in national income equality around the world as measured by the national Gini coefficient. ... Bill McKibben attending a 2006 summit via HDTV uplink Bill McKibben is an American environmentalist and writer who frequently writes about global warming, alternative energy, and the risks associated with human genetic engineering. ... Lee M. Silver (born 1952) is a professor at Princeton University in the Department of Molecular Biology and the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. ... A science writer is more than a scientific journalist although similarly, a science writer specializes in writing about science topics. ... Reprogenetics is a term referring to the merging of reproductive and genetic technologies expected to happen in the near future as techniques like preimplantation genetic diagnosis become more available and more powerful. ... Gattaca is a 1997 science fiction drama film written and directed by Andrew Niccol, starring Ethan Hawke, Uma Thurman and Jude Law with supporting roles played by Loren Dean, Gore Vidal and Alan Arkin. ... This article is about the philosophical concept and literary form. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ...


These criticisms are also voiced by non-libertarian transhumanist advocates, especially self-described democratic transhumanists, who believe that the majority of current or future social and environmental issues (such as unemployment and resource depletion) need to be addressed by a combination of political and technological solutions (such as a guaranteed minimum income and alternative technology). Therefore, on the specific issue of an emerging genetic divide due to unequal access to human enhancement technologies, bioethicist James Hughes, in his 2004 book Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future, argues that progressives or, more precisely, techno-progressives must articulate and implement public policies (such as a universal health care voucher system that covers human enhancement technologies) in order to attenuate this problem as much as possible, rather than trying to ban human enhancement technologies. The latter, he argues, might actually worsen the problem by making these technologies unsafe or available only to the wealthy on the local black market (or in countries where such a ban is not enforced).[25] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Libertarianism. ... Democratic transhumanism, a term coined by James Hughes in 2002, refers to the ideas of transhumanists (humanists who support morphological freedom and the ethical use of technologies that enhance human capacities) who espouse liberal, social or radical democratic political views. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Resource depletion is an economic term referring to the exhaustion of raw materials within a region. ... Guaranteed minimum income is a proposed system of income redistribution that would provide eligible citizens with a certain sum of money (independent of whether they work or not), also known as Basic Income Guarantee (BIG), universal basic income, citizens income scheme, demogrant, or just a basic income (the term... Alternative technology is a term sometimes used by environmental advocates to refer to technologies which are more environmentally friendly than the functionally equivalent technologies dominant in current practice. ... James Hughes Ph. ... Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future is a 2004 book by James Hughes about the bioethical issues of creating a society with only some transhuman or modified people while others are left behind unimproved mentally or physically due to economical differences. ... This article is about Progressivism. ... Techno-progressivism, technoprogressivism, or tech-progressivism, is a stance of active support for technological development in general and for human practices of genetic, prosthetic, and cognitive modification in particular. ... Universal health care is a situation in which all residents of a geographic or political region have access to most types of health care. ... A voucher is a certificate which is worth a certain monetary value and which may only be spent for specific reasons or on specific goods. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ...


Threats to morality and democracy (Brave New World argument)

Various arguments have been made to the effect that a society that adopts human enhancement technologies may come to resemble the dystopia depicted in the 1932 novel Brave New World by Aldous Huxley. Sometimes, as in the writings of Leon Kass, the fear is that various institutions and practices judged as fundamental to civilized society would be damaged or destroyed.[83] In his 2002 book Our Posthuman Future and in a 2004 Foreign Policy magazine article, political economist and philosopher Francis Fukuyama designates transhumanism as one of the world's most dangerous ideas because he believes that it may undermine the egalitarian ideals of liberal democracy, through a fundamental alteration of "human nature".[3] Social philosopher Jürgen Habermas makes a similar argument in his 2003 book The Future of Human Nature, in which he asserts that moral autonomy depends on not being subject to another's unilaterally imposed specifications. Habermas thus suggests that the human "species ethic" would be undermined by embryo-stage genetic alteration.[84] Critics such as Kass, Fukuyama, and a variety of Christian authors hold that attempts to significantly alter human biology are not only inherently immoral but also threats to the social order. Alternatively, they argue that implementation of such technologies would likely lead to the "naturalizing" of social hierarchies or place new means of control in the hands of totalitarian regimes. The AI pioneer Joseph Weizenbaum criticizes what he sees as misanthropic tendencies in the language and ideas of some of his colleagues, in particular Marvin Minsky and Hans Moravec, which, by devaluing the human organism per se, promotes a discourse that enables divisive and undemocratic social policies.[85] This article is about the philosophical concept and literary form. ... For other uses, see Brave New World (disambiguation). ... Aldous Leonard Huxley (July 26, 1894 – November 22, 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. ... Leon Kass Leon Kass is the Addie Clark Harding Professor in the Committee on Social Thought and the College at the University of Chicago (currently on leave). ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... Francis Fukuyama Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952, Chicago, Illinois) is an American philosopher, political economist and author. ... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... For other uses, see Human nature (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Social order is a concept used in sociology, history and other social sciences. ... Social hierarchy, a multi-tiered pyramid-like social or functional structure having an apex as the centralization of power. ... Social control refers to social mechanisms that regulate individual and group behavior, in terms of greater sanctions and rewards. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Totalitarianism is a term employed by some scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... // This disambiguation page covers alternative uses of the terms Ai, AI, and A.I. Ai (as a word, proper noun and set of initials) can refer to many things. ... Joseph Weizenbaum. ... Misanthropy is a general dislike of the human race. ... Marvin Lee Minsky (born August 9, 1927), sometimes affectionately known as Old Man Minsky, is an American cognitive scientist in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), co-founder of MITs AI laboratory, and author of several texts on AI and philosophy. ... Hans Moravec (born November 30, 1948 in Austria) is a research professor at the Robotics Institute (Carnegie Mellon) of Carnegie Mellon University. ...


In a 2004 article in Reason, science journalist Ronald Bailey has contested the assertions of Fukuyama by arguing that political equality has never rested on the facts of human biology. He asserts that liberalism was founded not on the proposition of effective equality of human beings, or de facto equality, but on the assertion of an equality in political rights and before the law, or de jure equality. Bailey asserts that the products of genetic engineering may well ameliorate rather than exacerbate human inequality, giving to the many what were once the privileges of the few. Moreover, he argues, "the crowning achievement of the Enlightenment is the principle of tolerance". In fact, he argues, political liberalism is already the solution to the issue of human and posthuman rights since, in liberal societies, the law is meant to apply equally to all, no matter how rich or poor, powerful or powerless, educated or ignorant, enhanced or unenhanced.[4] Other thinkers who are sympathetic to transhumanist ideas, such as philosopher Russell Blackford, have also objected to the appeal to tradition, and what they see as alarmism, involved in Brave New World-type arguments.[86] The libertarian Reason Magazine dedicated an issue to Ayn Rands influence one hundred years after her birth. ... Ronald Bailey is the Science Editor for Reason magazine. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... It has been suggested that toleration be merged into this article or section. ... Posthuman Future by Michael Gibbs A posthuman or post-human is a hypothetical future being whose capabilities so radically exceed those of present humans as to be no longer human by current standards. ... Russell Blackford is an Australian writer, philosopher, and critic, based in Melbourne, Victoria. ... This article is about the moral concept. ... Alarmism is the production of needless warnings. ...


Dehumanization (Frankenstein argument)

Australian artist Patricia Piccinini's concept of what human-animal hybrids might look like are provocative creatures which are part of a sculpture entitled "The Young Family," produced to address the reality of such possible parahumans in a compassionate way. Transhumanists would call for the eventual recognition of self-aware parahumans as persons.
Australian artist Patricia Piccinini's concept of what human-animal hybrids might look like are provocative creatures which are part of a sculpture entitled "The Young Family," produced to address the reality of such possible parahumans in a compassionate way. Transhumanists would call for the eventual recognition of self-aware parahumans as persons.

Biopolitical activist Jeremy Rifkin and biologist Stuart Newman accept that biotechnology has the power to make profound changes in organismal identity. They argue against the genetic engineering of human beings, because they fear the blurring of the boundary between human and artifact.[87][72] Philosopher Keekok Lee sees such developments as part of an accelerating trend in modernization in which technology has been used to transform the "natural" into the "artifactual".[88] In the extreme, this could lead to the manufacturing and enslavement of "monsters" such as human clones, human-animal chimeras or bioroids, but even lesser dislocations of humans and non-humans from social and ecological systems are seen as problematic. The film Blade Runner (1982), the novels The Boys From Brazil (1978) and The Island of Dr. Moreau (1896) depict elements of such scenarios, but Mary Shelley's 1818 novel Frankenstein is most often alluded to by critics who suggest that biotechnologies could create objectified and socially-unmoored people and subhumans. Such critics propose that strict measures be implemented to prevent what they portray as dehumanizing possibilities from ever happening, usually in the form of an international ban on human genetic engineering.[89] Image File history File links The_Young_Family. ... Image File history File links The_Young_Family. ... This is an example of Piccininis sculpture work. ... Parahumans are chimera of humans and other species. ... Self-awareness is the ability to perceive ones own existence, including ones own traits, feelings and behaviours. ... For other uses, see Person (disambiguation). ... A neologism coined by Michel Foucault, the term Biopolitics or Biopolitical can refer to several different yet not incompatible concepts. ... Jeremy Rifkin. ... Stuart Alan Newman (born April 4, 1945 in New York City) is a professor of cell biology and anatomy at New York Medical College in Valhalla, NY, United States. ... Life on Earth redirects here. ... A cultural artifact is an man-made object which gives information about the culture of its creator and users. ... Modernization (also Modernisation) is a concept in the sphere of social sciences that refers to process in which society goes through industrialization, urbanization and other social changes that completely transforms the lives of individuals. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of an existing human or growing cloned tissue from that individual. ... Parahumans are chimera of humans and other species. ... Biorobotics is a term that loosely covers the fields of cybernetics, bionics and even genetic engineering as a collective study. ... See Social structure of the United States for an explanation of concepts exsistance within US society. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... This article is about the 1982 film. ... The Boys from Brazil (1976) is a fiction thriller novel by Ira Levin. ... // The Island of Doctor Moreau is an 1896 science fiction novel written by H. G. Wells, addressing ideas of society and community, human nature and identity, religion, Darwinism, eugenics, and the dangers of unchecked and irresponsible scientific research. ... This article is about the 1818 novel. ... Objectification refers to the way in which one person treats another person as an object and not as a human being. ... Anomie, in contemporary English, means a condition or malaise in individuals, characterized by an absence or diminution of standards or values. ... The term subhuman can refer to several concepts: Humanoid, any being whose body structure resembles that of a human Last Man, the antithesis to the Ãœbermensch in Nietzschean philosophy Slave, a person who is under the control of another Subhumans, a UK punk rock band The Subhumans, a Canadian punk... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A ban is, generally, any decree that prohibits something. ...


Writing in Reason magazine, Ronald Bailey has accused opponents of research involving the modification of animals as indulging in alarmism when they speculate about the creation of subhuman creatures with human-like intelligence and brains resembling those of Homo sapiens. Bailey insists that the aim of conducting research on animals is simply to produce human health care benefits.[90] The libertarian Reason Magazine dedicated an issue to Ayn Rands influence one hundred years after her birth. ... Ronald Bailey is the Science Editor for Reason magazine. ... Alarmism is the production of needless warnings. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ...


A different response comes from transhumanist personhood theorists who object to what they characterize as the anthropomorphobia fueling some criticisms of this research, which science writer Isaac Asimov termed the "Frankenstein complex". They argue that, provided they are self-aware, human clones, human-animal chimeras and uplifted animals would all be unique persons deserving of respect, dignity, rights and citizenship. They conclude that the coming ethical issue is not the creation of so-called monsters but what they characterize as the "yuck factor" and "human-racism" that would judge and treat these creations as monstrous.[18][52] Personhood Theory (Also See Person) Personhood theory addresses the microcosm of lived experience. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American Jewish author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... In Isaac Asimovs robot novels, the Frankenstein complex is a colloquial term for the fear of robots. ... Self-awareness is the ability to perceive ones own existence, including ones own traits, feelings and behaviours. ... In science fiction, biological uplift is a common but by no means universal term for the act of an advanced civilization helping the development of another species by bringing a non-sapient one into sentience, or by giving a sapient one spacefaring capabilities. ... “Citizen” redirects here. ... The wisdom of repugnance is a phrase describing the notion that an intuitive (or deep-seated) negative response to a thing (e. ... Human exceptionalism refers to a belief that humans are exempt from some principles shared between species, due to their very nature. ...


Specter of coercive eugenicism (Eugenics Wars argument)

Some critics of transhumanism allege an ableist bias in the use of such concepts as "limitations", "enhancement" and "improvement". Some even see the old eugenics, social Darwinist and master race ideologies and programs of the past as warnings of what the promotion of eugenic enhancement technologies might unintentionally encourage. Some fear future "eugenics wars" as the worst-case scenario: the return of coercive state-sponsored genetic discrimination and human rights violations such as compulsory sterilization of persons with genetic defects, the killing of the institutionalized and, specifically, segregation from, and genocide of, "races" perceived as inferior. Health law professor George Annas and technology law professor Lori Andrews are prominent advocates of the position that the use of these technologies could lead to such human-posthuman caste warfare.[89][91] Ableism is a neologism of American coinage, since about 1981. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Social Darwinism is a descriptive term given to a kind of social theory that draws an association between Darwins theory of evolution by natural selection, and the sociological relations of humanity. ... The master race (German: die Herrenrasse,  ) is a concept in Nazi ideology, which holds that the Germanic and Nordic people represent an ideal and pure race. It derives from nineteenth century racial theory, which posited a hierarchy of races placing African Bushmen and Indigenous Australians at the bottom of the... The Eugenics Wars are a backstory event in the Star Trek fictional universe. ... Genetic discrimination occurs when people are treated differently by their employer or insurance company because they have a gene mutation that causes or increases the risk of an inherited disorder. ... When a government violates national or international law related to the protection of human rights, this is termed a human rights violation. ... Compulsory sterilization programs are government policies which attempt to force people to undergo surgical sterilization. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see animal euthanasia. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home[1]. Segregation... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... // Even as the idea of race was becoming a powerful organizing principle in many societies, the shortcomings of the concept were apparent. ... George J. Annas is the Edward R. Utley Professor of Health Law, Chairman of Health Law Department at the Boston University School of Public Health. ... Professor Lori Andrews Lori Andrews is a distinguished professor of law at Chicago-Kent College of Law; Director of Illinois Institute of Technologys Institute for Science, Law and Technology; and in Spring 2002, she was a visiting professor at Princeton University. ... Posthuman Future by Michael Gibbs A posthuman or post-human is a hypothetical future being whose capabilities so radically exceed those of present humans as to be no longer human by current standards. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ...


For most of its history, eugenics has manifested itself as a movement to sterilize against their will the "genetically unfit" and encourage the selective breeding of the genetically fit. The major transhumanist organizations strongly condemn the coercion involved in such policies and reject the racist and classist assumptions on which they were based, along with the pseudoscientific notions that eugenic improvements could be accomplished in a practically meaningful time frame through selective human breeding. Most transhumanist thinkers instead advocate a "new eugenics", a form of egalitarian liberal eugenics.[92] In their 2000 book From Chance to Choice: Genetics and Justice, (non-transhumanist) bioethicists Allen Buchanan, Dan Brock, Norman Daniels and Daniel Wikler have argued that liberal societies have an obligation to encourage as wide an adoption of eugenic enhancement technologies as possible (so long as such policies do not infringe on individuals' reproductive rights or exert undue pressures on prospective parents to use these technologies) in order to maximize public health and minimize the inequalities that may result from both natural genetic endowments and unequal access to genetic enhancements.[93] Most transhumanists holding similar views nonetheless distance themselves from the term "eugenics" (preferring "reprogenetics"[82]) to avoid having their position confused with the discredited theories and practices of early-20th-century eugenic movements.[94] Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... Fitness (often denoted in population genetics models) is a central concept in evolutionary theory. ... For other uses, see Coercion (disambiguation). ... Scientific racism is a term that describes either obsolete scientific theories of the 19th century or historical and contemporary racist propaganda disguised as scientific research. ... Classism (a term formed by analogy with racism) is any form of prejudice or oppression against people who are in, or who are perceived as being like those who are in, a lower social class (especially in the form of lower socioeconomic status) within a class society. ... A pseudoscience is any body of knowledge purported to be scientific or supported by science but which fails to comply with the scientific method. ... Egalitarianism is the moral doctrine that equality ought to prevail among some group along some dimension. ... Liberal eugenics is the study and use of genetic engineering to improve human beings, specifically in regards to biological characteristics and capacities. ... Reproductive rights (also Procreative liberty) refers to human rights in areas of sexual reproduction, including the rights to reproduce (such as opposition to forced sterilization) as well as rights not to reproduce (such as support for access to birth control and abortion), the right to privacy, medical coverage, right to... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... Reprogenetics is a term referring to the merging of reproductive and genetic technologies expected to happen in the near future as techniques like preimplantation genetic diagnosis become more available and more powerful. ...


Existential risks (Terminator argument)

Struck by a passage from Unabomber Theodore Kaczynski's anarcho-primitivist manifesto (quoted in Ray Kurzweil's 1999 book, The Age of Spiritual Machines[8]), computer scientist Bill Joy became a notable critic of emerging technologies.[95] Joy's 2000 essay Why the future doesn't need us argues that human beings would likely guarantee their own extinction by developing the technologies favored by transhumanists. It invokes, for example, the "grey goo scenario" where out-of-control self-replicating nanorobots could consume entire ecosystems, resulting in global ecophagy.[96] Joy's warning was seized upon by appropriate technology organizations such as the ETC Group. Related notions were also voiced by self-described neo-luddite Kalle Lasn, a culture jammer who co-authored a 2001 spoof of Donna Haraway's 1985 Cyborg Manifesto as a critique of the techno-utopianism that she herself is critical of.[97] Lasn argues that high technology development should be completely relinquished since it inevitably serves corporate interests with devastating consequences on society and the environment.[98] The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... This article is about anarcho-primitivism. ... Time periods between key events in human history shrink expotentially in a chart by Kurzweil depicting his Law of Accelerating Returns, explained in the book. ... Computer science (informally: CS or compsci) is, in its most general sense, the study of computation and information processing, both in hardware and in software. ... Bill Joy William Nelson Joy (born Nov 8, 1954), commonly known as Bill Joy, is an American computer scientist. ... A termite cathedral mound produced by a termite colony: a classic example of emergence. ... Why the future doesnt need us is an article by Bill Joy, Chief Scientist at Sun Microsystems. ... Grey goo is a hypothetical end-of-the-world scenario involving molecular nanotechnology in which out-of-control self-replicating robots consume all living matter on Earth while building more of themselves (a scenario known as ecophagy). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with nanorobotics. ... In ecology, an ecosystem is a community of organisms (plant, animal and other living organisms - also referred as biocenose) together with their environment (or biotope), functioning as a unit. ... A term coined by Robert Freitas, that means, literally, the consuming of an ecosystem. ... ETC group (formerly RAFI - Rural Advancement Foundation International) is an international organization dedicated to countering the problems they see in Erosion, Technology and Concentration. ... Adbusters is a political magazine, founded by Kalle Lasn and Bill Schmalz that is published in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada by the Media Foundation. ... Kalle Lasn (born 1942) is the founder of Adbusters magazine and author of the book Culture Jam. ... Culture jamming is the act of transforming existing mass media to produce commentary about itself, using the original mediums communication method. ... Donna Haraway, born in 1944 in Denver, Colorado, is currently a professor and former chair of the History of Consciousness Program at the University of California, Santa Cruz, United States. ... Donna Haraway, born in 1944 in Denver, Colorado, is currently a professor and former chair of the History of Consciousness Program at the University of California, Santa Cruz, United States. ... Techno-utopianism refers to any ideology based on the belief that advanced science and technology will eventually bring about a techno-utopia, a future society with ideal living conditions for all its citizens. ... High tech refers to high technology, technology that is at the cutting-edge and the most advanced currently available. ... Technology development is the process of research and development of technology. ... Corporate libertarianism is a term coined by David Korten, who wrote When Corporations Rule the World. ...


In his 2003 book Our Final Hour, British Astronomer Royal Martin Rees argues that advanced science and technology bring as much risk of disaster as opportunity for progress. However, Rees does not advocate a halt to scientific activity; he calls for tighter security and perhaps an end to traditional scientific openness.[99] Advocates of the precautionary principle, such as the Green movement, also favor slow, careful progress or a halt in potentially dangerous areas. Some precautionists believe that artificial intelligence and robotics present possibilities of alternative forms of cognition that may threaten human life.[100] The Terminator series' doomsday depiction of the emergence of Skynet, a malignant computer network which initiates a nuclear war in order to kill as many humans as possible, has been cited by some involved in this debate.[101] Our Final Hour is a 2003 book by the British Astronomer Royal Sir Martin Rees. ... Astronomer Royal is a senior post in the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. ... The Right Honourable Martin John Rees, Baron Rees of Ludlow, FRS (born 23 June 1942) is a professor of astronomy. ... The precautionary principle is a moral and political principle which states that if an action or policy might cause severe or irreversible harm to the public, in the absence of a scientific consensus that harm would not ensue, the burden of proof falls on those who would advocate taking the... “Greens” redirects here. ... AI redirects here. ... Robotics is the science and technology of robots, their design, manufacture, and application. ... The Terminator series is a franchise encompassing a series of science fiction films and ancillary media concerning battles between Skynets artificially intelligent machine network, and John Connors Tech-Com forces and the rest of the human race. ... The end of civilization or the end of the world are phrases used in reference to human extinction scenarios, doomsday events, and related hazards which occur on a global scale. ... This article is about the fictional artificial intelligence in the Terminator series of films and games. ... Nuclear War is a card game designed by Douglas Malewicki, and originally published in 1966. ...


Transhumanists do not necessarily rule out specific restrictions on emerging technologies so as to lessen the prospect of existential risk. Generally, however, they counter that proposals based on the precautionary principle are often unrealistic and sometimes even counter-productive. In his television series Connections, science historian James Burke dissects several views on technological change, including precautionism and the restriction of open inquiry. Burke questions the practicality of some of these views, but concludes that maintaining the status quo of inquiry and development poses hazards of its own, such as a disorienting rate of change and the depletion of our planet's resources. The common transhumanist position is a technogaian one where society takes deliberate action to ensure the early arrival of the benefits of safe, clean, alternative technology rather than fostering what it considers to be anti-scientific views and technophobia.[102] In futurology, an existential risk is a risk that is both global and terminal. ... Technorealism is an attempt to expand the middle ground between techno-utopianism and neo-Luddism by assessing the social and political implications of technologies so that people might all have more control over the shape of their future. ... James Burke, the creator and host of Connections, explains the Haber-Bosch Process Connections was a ten-episode documentary television series created and narrated by science historian James Burke. ... The history of science and technology (HST) is a field of history which examines how humanitys understanding of science and technology has changed over the millennia. ... James Burke James Burke (born November 22, 1936) is a British science historian, author and television producer best known for his documentary television series called Connections, focusing on the history of science and technology leavened with a sense of humour. ... A technological change is a term that is used in economics to describe a change in the set of feasible production possibilities. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the English rock band. ... Technogaianism (a portmanteau word combining techno- for technology and gaian for Gaia philosophy) is the stance that emerging technologies can help restore Earths environment, and that developing clean, alternative technology should therefore be an important goal of environmentalists. ... Clean technology includes the wind power, solar power, biomass, hydropower, clean fuels, information technology, electric motors, lighting, and many other appliances that are now more energy efficient. ... Alternative technology is a term sometimes used by environmental advocates to refer to technologies which are more environmentally friendly than the functionally equivalent technologies dominant in current practice. ... Anti-science is a term applied to individuals who are claimed to oppose science or the scientific method. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


One transhumanist solution proposed by Nick Bostrom is differential technological development, in which attempts would be made to influence the sequence in which technologies developed. In this approach, planners would strive to retard the development of possibly harmful technologies and their applications, while accelerating the development of likely beneficial technologies, especially those that offer protection against the harmful effects of others.[39] Nick Bostrom (Boström in the original Swedish) is a philosopher at the University of Oxford, and known for his work on the anthropic principle. ... ...


References

  1. ^ Acronyms.
  2. ^ a b c d Bostrom, Nick (2005). "A history of transhumanist thought". Retrieved on 2006-02-21.
  3. ^ a b Fukuyama, Francis (2004). "The world's most dangerous ideas: transhumanism". Retrieved on 2006-05-01.
  4. ^ a b Bailey, Ronald (2004). "Transhumanism: the most dangerous idea?". URL accessed on February 20, 2006
  5. ^ Huxley, Julian (1957). "Transhumanism". Retrieved on 2006-02-24.
  6. ^ Minsky, Marvin (1960). "Steps toward artificial intelligence". Retrieved on 2006-12-13.
  7. ^ Moravec, Hans (1998). "When will computer hardware match the human brain?". Journal of Evolution and Technology 1. Retrieved on 2006-06-23. 
  8. ^ a b Kurzweil, Raymond (1999). The Age of Spiritual Machines. Viking Adult. ISBN 0-670-88217-8. 
  9. ^ FM-2030 (1989). Are You a Transhuman?: Monitoring and Stimulating Your Personal Rate of Growth in a Rapidly Changing World. Viking Adult. ISBN 0-446-38806-8. 
  10. ^ Ettinger, Robert (1974). Man into Superman (HTML), Avon. ISBN 0-380-00047-4. 
  11. ^ FM-2030 (1973). UpWingers: A Futurist Manifesto. ISBN 0-381-98243-2; available as an eBook: FW00007527. 
  12. ^ EZTV Media. Retrieved on 2006-05-01.
  13. ^ Ed Regis (1990). Great Mambo Chicken and the Transhuman Condition: Science Slightly Over the Edge. Perseus Books. 
  14. ^ Vita-More, Natasha (1982; revised 2003). "Tranhumanist arts statement". Retrieved on 2006-02-16.
  15. ^ Drexler 1986
  16. ^ a b More, Max (1990–2003). "Principles of extropy". Retrieved on 2006-02-16.
  17. ^ More, Max (1990). "Transhumanism: a futurist philosophy". Retrieved on 2005-11-14.
  18. ^ a b c Hughes, James (2005). "Report on the 2005 interests and beliefs survey of the members of the World Transhumanist Association". Retrieved on 2006-02-26.
  19. ^ World Transhumanist Association (2002). "The transhumanist declaration". Retrieved on 2006-04-03.
  20. ^ World Transhumanist Association (2002–2005). "The transhumanist FAQ". Retrieved on 2006-08-27.
  21. ^ Sandberg, Anders (undated). "Definitions of Transhumanism". Retrieved on 2006-05-05.
  22. ^ a b Hayles, N. Katherine (1999). How We Became Posthuman. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-32146-0. 
  23. ^ Zaretsky, Adam (2005). "Bioart in Question". Retrieved on 2007-01-28.
  24. ^ a b Extropy Institute (2006). "Next Steps". Retrieved on 2006-05-05.
  25. ^ a b c d e Hughes, James (2004). Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-4198-1. 
  26. ^ a b Ford, Alyssa (May / June 2005). Humanity: The Remix. Utne Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-03-03.
  27. ^ Saletan, William (2006-06-04). Among the Transhumanists. Slate.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-03.
  28. ^ Bostrom, Nick & Sandberg, Anders (2007). "The Wisdom of Nature: An Evolutionary Heuristic for Human Enhancement". Retrieved on 2007-09-18.
  29. ^ a b Hughes, James (2002). "The politics of transhumanism". Retrieved on 2006-02-26.
  30. ^ Walker, Mark Alan (2002). "Prolegomena to any future philosophy". Retrieved on 2006-03-02.
  31. ^ Naam, Ramez (2005). More Than Human: Embracing the Promise of Biological Enhancement. Broadway Books. ISBN 0-7679-1843-6. 
  32. ^ Sandberg, Anders (2001). "Morphological freedom -- why we not just want it, but need it". Retrieved on 2006-02-21.
  33. ^ a b c Kurzweil, Raymond (2005). The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology. Viking Adult. ISBN 0-670-03384-7. 
  34. ^ Roco, Mihail C. and Bainbridge, William Sims, eds. (2004). Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance. Springer. ISBN 1402012543. 
  35. ^ The Royal Society & The Royal Academy of Engineering (2004). "Nanoscience and nanotechnologies (Ch. 6)". Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  36. ^ European Parliament (2006). "Technology Assessment on Converging Technologies". Retrieved on 2006-12-06.
  37. ^ Browaeys, Dorothée Benoit (2005). "Les transhumains s'emparent des nanotechs". Retrieved on 2006-12-06.
  38. ^ Moreno, Jonathan D. (2006). Mind Wars: Brain Research and National Defense. Dana Press. ISBN 10-1932594167. 
  39. ^ a b Bostrom, Nick (2002). "Existential risks: analyzing human extinction scenarios". Retrieved on 2006-02-21.
  40. ^ Kurzweil, Raymond (1993). The 10% Solution for a Healthy Life. Three Rivers Press. 
  41. ^ Kurzweil, Raymond (2004). Fantastic Voyage: Live Long Enough to Live Forever. Viking Adult. ISBN 1-57954-954-3. 
  42. ^ World Transhumanist Association (2002–2005). "What currents are there within transhumanism?". Retrieved on 2007-11-03.
  43. ^ The Abolitionist Society. Abolitionism. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  44. ^ a b Hughes, James (2002). "Democratic Transhumanism 2.0". Retrieved on 2007-01-26.
  45. ^ Immortality Institute.
  46. ^ George Dvorksy (2002). "New Wikipedia article: Postgenderism". Retrieved on 2007-02-09.
  47. ^ a b Hughes, James (2004). "Technologies of Self-perfection: What would the Buddha do with nanotechnology and psychopharmaceuticals?". Retrieved on 2007-02-21.
  48. ^ Ledford, James MacLean (2005). "Prepare for HyperEvolution with Christian Transhumanism". Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
  49. ^ Mormon Transhumanist Association.
  50. ^ Immortality Institute.
  51. ^ Raël (2002). Oui au clonage humain: La vie éternelle grâce à la science. Quebecor. ISBN 1903571057. 
  52. ^ a b Glenn, Linda MacDonald (2003). "Biotechnology at the margins of personhood: an evolving legal paradigm". Retrieved on 2006-03-03.
  53. ^ Sandberg, Anders (2000). "Uploading". Retrieved on 2006-03-04.
  54. ^ Tipler, Frank J. (1994). The Physics of Immortality. Doubleday. ISBN 0-19-282147-4. 
  55. ^ Dupuy, Jean-Pierre (2005). "The Philosophical Foundations of Nanoethics". Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  56. ^ Pauls, David (2005). "Transhumanism: 2000 Years in the Making". Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  57. ^ a b Giesen, Klaus-Gerd (2004). "Transhumanisme et génétique humaine". Retrieved on 2006-04-26.
  58. ^ Davis, Erik (1999). TechGnosis: Myth, Magic, and Mysticism in the Age of Information. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0-609-80474-X. 
  59. ^ Campbell, Heidi; Walker, Mark Alan (2005). "Religion and transhumanism: introducing a conversation". Retrieved on 2006-03-21.
  60. ^ TransVision 2004: Faith, Transhumanism and Hope Symposium.
  61. ^ Vita-More, Natasha (1997). CREATE/RECREATE: The 3rd Millennial Culture. Transhumanist Arts & Culture. 
  62. ^ O’Bryan, C. Jill (2005). Carnal Art:Orlan’s Refacing. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-4322-9. 
  63. ^ Smith, Simon (2003). "Looking at the Man in the Mirror". Retrieved on 2007-01-31.
  64. ^ Stelarc (2005). "NeMe: From Zombie To Cyborg Bodies — Extra Ear, Exoskeleton and Avatars". Retrieved on 2007-02-01.
  65. ^ Dublin, Max (1992). Futurehype: The Tyranny of Prophecy. Plume. ISBN 0-452-26800-1. 
  66. ^ a b c Stock, Gregory (2002). Redesigning Humans: Choosing our Genes, Changing our Future. Mariner Books. ISBN 0-618-34083-1. 
  67. ^ Seidensticker, Bob (2006). Futurehype: The Myths of Technology Change. Berrett-Koehler. ISBN 1576753700. 
  68. ^ Broderick, Damien (1997). The Spike. Tom Doherty Associates. ISBN 0-312-87781-1. 
  69. ^ International Theological Commission (2002). "Communion and stewardship: human persons created in the image of God". Retrieved on 2006-04-01.
  70. ^ Mitchell, Ben C. & Kilner, John F. (2003). "Remaking Humans: The New Utopians Versus a Truly Human Future". Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  71. ^ Barratt, Helen (2006). "Transhumanism". Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  72. ^ a b Newman, Stuart A. (2003). "Averting the clone age: prospects and perils of human developmental manipulation". J. Contemp. Health Law & Policy 19: 431. Retrieved on 2006-02-23. 
  73. ^ Smolensky, Kirsten Rabe (2006). "Parental liability for germline genetic enhancement: to be or not to be? (Public address, Stanford University)". Retrieved on 2006-06-18.
  74. ^ Cole-Turner, Ronald (1993). The New Genesis: Theology and the Genetic Revolution. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0-664-25406-3. 
  75. ^ Peters, Ted (1997). Playing God?: Genetic Determinism and Human Freedom. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-91522-8. 
  76. ^ Midgley, Mary (1992). Science as Salvation. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-06271-3. 
  77. ^ Dvorsky, George (2006). "Aronofsky's pro-death Fountain". Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  78. ^ Bordo, Susan (1993). Unbearable Weight: Femininism, Western Culture and the Body. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-08883-2. 
  79. ^ Alexander, Brian (2000). "Don't die, stay pretty: introducing the ultrahuman makeover". Retrieved on 2007-01-08.
  80. ^ a b McKibben, Bill (2003). Enough: Staying Human in an Engineered Age. Times Books. ISBN 0-8050-7096-6. 
  81. ^ Bailey, Ronald (2003). "Enough Already". Retrieved on 2006-05-31.
  82. ^ a b Silver, Lee M. (1998). Remaking Eden: Cloning and Beyond in a Brave New World. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-380-79243-5. 
  83. ^ Kass, Leon. "Preventing a Brave New World: why we must ban human cloning now", The New Republic, May 21, 2001. 
  84. ^ Habermas, Jürgen (2004). The Future of Human Nature. Polity Press. ISBN 0-7456-2987-3. 
  85. ^ Platt, Charles (1995). "Superhumanism". Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  86. ^ Blackford, Russell (2003). "Who's afraid of the Brave New World?". Retrieved on 2006-02-08.
  87. ^ Otchet, Amy (1998). "Jeremy Rifkin: fears of a brave new world". Retrieved on 2006-02-20.
  88. ^ Lee, Keekok (1999). The Natural and the Artefactual. Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-0061-0. 
  89. ^ a b Darnovsky, Marcy (2001). "Health and human rights leaders call for an international ban on species-altering procedures". Retrieved on 2006-02-21.
  90. ^ Bailey, Ronald (2001). "Right-Wing Biological Dread: The Subhumans are coming! The Subhumans are coming!". URL accessed on January 18, 2007
  91. ^ Annas, George, Andrews, Lori and Isasi, Rosario (2002). "Protecting the endangered human: toward an international treaty prohibiting cloning and inheritable alterations". Am. J. Law & Med. 28: 151. 
  92. ^ World Transhumanist Association (2002–2005). "Do transhumanists advocate eugenics?". Retrieved on 2006-04-03.
  93. ^ Buchanan, Allen; Brock, Dan W.; Daniels, Norman; Wikler, Daniel (2000). From Chance to Choice: Genetics and Justice. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-66977-4. 
  94. ^ Humphrey, Stephen (2004). "No death, please, I'm bionic". Retrieved on 2006-02-21.
  95. ^ Kaczynski, Theodore (1995). "Industrial society and its future". Retrieved on 2006-02-21.
  96. ^ Joy, Bill (2000). "Why the future doesn't need us". Retrieved on 2005-11-14.
  97. ^ Walker, Ian (2001). "Cyborg Dreams: Beyond Human". Retrieved on 2007-02-02.
  98. ^ Lasn, Kalle. "Changesurfer Radio: Tech for People, not for Corporate Control", 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-12. 
  99. ^ Rees, Martin (2003). Our Final Hour: A Scientist's Warning: How Terror, Error, and Environmental Disaster Threaten Humankind's Future In This Century—On Earth and Beyond. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-06862-6. 
  100. ^ Arnall, Alexander Huw (2003). "Future technologies, today's choices: nanotechnology, artificial intelligence and robotics.". Greenpeace U.K. Retrieved on 2006-04-29.
  101. ^ Layman, Dale (2002). "Robowatch 2002: Mankind At The Brink". London Diplomatic Academy. Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  102. ^ Dvorsky, George (2003). "Technophiles and Greens of the World, Unite!". Retrieved on 2007-03-19.

Nick Bostrom (Boström in the original Swedish) is a philosopher at the University of Oxford, and known for his work on the anthropic principle. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Francis Fukuyama Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952, Chicago, Illinois) is an American philosopher, political economist and author. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Julian Sorell Huxley, FRS (June 22, 1887 – February 14, 1975) was a English biologist, author, Humanist and internationalist, known for his popularisations of science in books and lectures. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Marvin Lee Minsky (born August 9, 1927), sometimes affectionately known as Old Man Minsky, is an American cognitive scientist in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), co-founder of MITs AI laboratory, and author of several texts on AI and philosophy. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hans Moravec (born November 30, 1948 in Austria) is a research professor at the Robotics Institute (Carnegie Mellon) of Carnegie Mellon University. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Raymond Kurzweil (pronounced: ) (born February 12, 1948) is a pioneer in the fields of optical character recognition (OCR), text-to-speech synthesis, speech recognition technology, and electronic keyboard instruments. ... Time periods between key events in human history shrink expotentially in a chart by Kurzweil depicting his Law of Accelerating Returns, explained in the book. ... FM-2030, futurist who laid the groundwork for transhumanist theory FM-2030 was a name adopted by the transhumanist philosopher and futurist Fereydun M. Esfandiary (October 15, 1930–July 8, 2000), who professed a deep nostalgia for the future. ... FM-2030, futurist who laid the groundwork for transhumanist theory FM-2030 was a name adopted by the transhumanist philosopher and futurist Fereydun M. Esfandiary (October 15, 1930–July 8, 2000), who professed a deep nostalgia for the future. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ed Regis is the author of numerous popular science and technology books. ... Natasha Vita-More (born Nancie Clark) is an influential transhumanist theorist and futurist. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Max More (born January 1964, Bristol, England formerly known as Max OConnor) is a philosopher and futurist who writes, speaks, and consults on advanced decision making and foresight methods for handling the impact of emerging technologies. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Max More (born January 1964, Bristol, England formerly known as Max OConnor) is a philosopher and futurist who writes, speaks, and consults on advanced decision making and foresight methods for handling the impact of emerging technologies. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Transhumanist Association is an international non-profit membership organisation which advocates the ethical use of technology to enhance human capacities. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Transhumanist Association is an international non-profit membership organisation which advocates the ethical use of technology to enhance human capacities. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anders Sandberg (b. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... N. Katherine Hayles is a noted postmodern literary critic and theorist as well as the author of How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature and Informatics which won the Rene Wellek Prize for the best book in literary theory for 1998–1999 [1]. // Background Hayles received her B... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Extropianism, also reffered to as extropy, is a transhumanist philosophy characterized by a set of principles regarding extropy, defined by Dr. Max More in The Principles of Extropy. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future is a 2004 book by James Hughes about the bioethical issues of creating a society with only some transhuman or modified people while others are left behind unimproved mentally or physically due to economical differences. ... Utne Reader is a left-of-center periodical founded in 1984 by Eric Utne. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... William Saletan is the chief national correspondent at Slate. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nick Bostrom (Boström in the original Swedish) is a philosopher at the University of Oxford, and known for his work on the anthropic principle. ... Anders Sandberg (b. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... James Hughes Ph. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mark Alan Walker Ph. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ramez Naam is a professional technologist who helped create two of the most widely used pieces of software in the world: Microsoft Internet Explorer and Microsoft Outlook. ... Anders Sandberg (b. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Raymond Kurzweil (pronounced: ) (born February 12, 1948) is a pioneer in the fields of optical character recognition (OCR), text-to-speech synthesis, speech recognition technology, and electronic keyboard instruments. ... Cover of the book The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology (Viking Penguin, ISBN 0-670-03384-7) is a 2005 update of Raymond Kurzweils 1999 book, The Age of Spiritual Machines and his 1987 book The Age of Intelligent Machines. ... Dr. William Sims Bainbridge (October 12, 1940 - present) is an innovative American sociologist who currently resides in Virginia. ... Cover of 2002 report. ... The Royal Society of London is claimed to be the oldest learned society still in existence and was founded in 1660. ... The Royal Academy of Engineering is a British learned society concerned with engineering. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nick Bostrom (Boström in the original Swedish) is a philosopher at the University of Oxford, and known for his work on the anthropic principle. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Raymond Kurzweil (pronounced: ) (born February 12, 1948) is a pioneer in the fields of optical character recognition (OCR), text-to-speech synthesis, speech recognition technology, and electronic keyboard instruments. ... Fantastic Voyage: Live Long Enough to Live Forever, published in 2004, is a book authored by Ray Kurzweil and Terry Grossman. ... The World Transhumanist Association is an international non-profit membership organisation which advocates the ethical use of technology to enhance human capacities. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... George Dvorsky is the Deputy Editor of Betterhumans and author of the Transitory Human column. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... “Rael” redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anders Sandberg (b. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Frank J. Tipler (born in 1947 in Andalusia, Alabama) is a professor of mathematical physics at Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Erik Davis is a San Francisco-based writer, culture critic, and independent scholar. ... Mark Alan Walker Ph. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Natasha Vita-More (born Nancie Clark) is an influential transhumanist theorist and futurist. ... CREATE/RECREATE: The 3rd Millennial Culture by Natasha Vita-More is a 1997 self-published book on transhumanism. ... The Transhumanist Arts & Culture center was founded in 1982 by artist and cultural critic Natasha Vita-More as an attempt to explore and influence the future directions of art and creativity as well as preserve a history of transhumanity, transhumanist arts, and extropic art. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Stelarc (born Stelios Arcadiou on June 19, 1946) to Greek Cypriot parents is an Australian performance artist whose works focus heavily on futurism and extending the capabilities of the human body. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregory Stock is a scientist and writer with doctorate in biophysics from John Hopkins University. ... pic: Barbara Lamar Damien Broderick (born 1944) is an Australian science fiction and popular science writer. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Stuart Alan Newman (born April 4, 1945 in New York City) is a professor of cell biology and anatomy at New York Medical College in Valhalla, NY, United States. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mary Midgley, née Scrutton, (b. ... George Dvorsky is the Deputy Editor of Betterhumans and author of the Transitory Human column. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Susan Bordo (born 1947), a modern feminist philosopher, is well known for her contributions to the field of contemporary cultural studies, particularly in the area of “body studies. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bill McKibben attending a 2006 summit via HDTV uplink Bill McKibben is an American environmentalist and writer who frequently writes about global warming, alternative energy, and the risks associated with human genetic engineering. ... Ronald Bailey is the Science Editor for Reason magazine. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... (born 1952) is a professor at Princeton University (as of 07/2005) in the Department of Molecular Biology and the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. ... Leon Kass Leon Kass is the Addie Clark Harding Professor in the Committee on Social Thought and the College at the University of Chicago (currently on leave). ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Charles Platt (born in London, England, 1945) is the author of 41 fiction and nonfiction books, including science-fiction novels such as The Silicon Man (endorsed by William Gibson as A plausible, well-crafted narrative exploring cyberspace in a wholly new and very refreshing way) and Protektor (published in paperback... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Russell Blackford is an Australian writer, philosopher, and critic, based in Melbourne, Victoria. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... George J. Annas is the Edward R. Utley Professor of Health Law, Chairman of Health Law Department at the Boston University School of Public Health. ... Professor Lori Andrews Lori Andrews is a distinguished professor of law at Chicago-Kent College of Law; Director of Illinois Institute of Technologys Institute for Science, Law and Technology; and in Spring 2002, she was a visiting professor at Princeton University. ... Rosario Isasi is an health and human rights attorney, whose research and work focuses on human genetic technologies. ... The World Transhumanist Association is an international non-profit membership organisation which advocates the ethical use of technology to enhance human capacities. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bill Joy William Nelson Joy (born Nov 8, 1954), commonly known as Bill Joy, is an American computer scientist. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kalle Lasn (born 1942) is the founder of Adbusters magazine and author of the book Culture Jam. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Right Honourable Martin John Rees, Baron Rees of Ludlow, FRS (born 23 June 1942) is a professor of astronomy. ... Our Final Hour is a 2003 book by the British Astronomer Royal Sir Martin Rees. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Find more information on Transhumanism by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity

The following are notable manifestos, organizations and portals which may have not been discussed in the main article. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ...

  • Anders Transhuman Resources
  • Betterhumans
  • Center for Responsible Nanotechnology
  • Cryonics Institute
  • Cryostasis
  • Eudoxa
  • Foresight Nanotech Institute
  • Future Human Evolution Gateway
  • Future of Humanity Institute
  • FutureTAG wiki
  • Genetics & Public Policy Center
  • Immortality Institute
  • Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies
  • Island Foundation
  • Institute for the Study of Accelerating Change
  • International Center for Technology Assessment
  • Journal of Evolution and Technology
  • Lifeboat Foundation
  • Mormon Transhumanist Association
  • Omega Point Institute
  • Posthuman Manifesto
  • Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence
  • Synaptic Buddhism: Buddhist Transhumanist Association
  • Terasem
  • Thoughtware.TV the Transhuman Multimedia Repository
  • Transhuman Culture InfoMark
  • Transhumanism Search
  • Transhumanist Arts & Culture
  • Transhumanists.org Social Network
  • Transhumanist Student Network
  • World Transhumanist Association


  Results from FactBites:
 
Transhumanism - Conservapedia (186 words)
Natasha Vita-More's Primo is a depiction of a hypothetical transhuman.
Transhumanism is the idea that humanity should use the possibilities for self-modification potentially offered by technologies like cybernetics, genetic engineering, and nanotechnology to improve the human body and consciousness beyond our current form and limitations.
Early advances towards Transhumanism is a common philosophy in the body modification or "bod mod" community.
Reference for Transhumanism - Search.com (7510 words)
Transhumanism is therefore sometimes referred to as "posthumanism" or a form of transformational activism influenced by posthumanist ideals.
Some secular humanists conceive transhumanism as an offspring of the humanist freethought movement and argue that transhumanists differ from the humanist mainstream by having a specific focus on technological approaches to resolving human concerns and on the issue of mortality.
Transhuman Space is a 2002 RPG, set in the year 2100 when humanity has begun to colonize the Solar System, where the pursuit of transhumanism is now in full swing, as more and more people struggle to reach a fully posthuman state.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m