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Encyclopedia > Transglutaminase

Transglutaminases are a family of enzymes (EC 2.3.2.13) that catalyze the formation of a covalent bond between a free amine group (e.g., protein- or peptide-bound lysine) and the gamma-carboxamid group of protein- or peptide bound glutamine. Bonds formed by transglutaminase exhibit high resistance to proteolytic degradation. Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... The Enzyme Commission number (EC number) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. ... In chemistry and biology, catalysis (in Greek meaning to annul) is the acceleration of the rate of a chemical reaction by means of a substance, called a catalyst, that is itself unchanged chemically by the overall reaction. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ... Glutamine is one of the 20 amino acids encoded by the standard genetic code. ...


Transglutaminases were first described in 1957.[1]. The exact biochemical activity of transglutaminases was discovered in blood coagulation protein factor XIII in 1968.[2] The coagulation of blood is a complex process during which blood forms solid clots. ... Factor XIII or fibrin stabilizing factor is an enzyme (EC 2. ...

Contents

Physiological transglutaminases

Eight transglutaminases have been characterised.[3]

Name Activity Chromosome OMIM
Factor XIII (fibrin-stabilizing factor) coagulaton 6p25-p24 Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 134570
Keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1) skin 14q11.2 Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 190195
Tissue transglutaminase (TGM2) ubiquitous 20q11.2-q12 Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 190196
Epidermal transglutaminase (TGM3) skin 20q12 Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 600238
Prostate transglutaminase (TGM4) prostate 3p22-p21.33 Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 600585
TGM X or TGM5[4] skin 15q15.2 Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 603805
TGM Y or TGM 6 unclear 20q11-15 not assigned
TGM Z or TGM 7 testis, lung 15q15.2 Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 606776

Figure 1: Chromosome. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... Factor XIII or fibrin stabilizing factor is an enzyme (EC 2. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... Tissue transglutaminase drawn from PDB 1FAU. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2, tTG) is an enzyme (EC 2. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ...

Mechanism of action

Transglutaminases form extensively cross linked generally insoluble protein polymers. These biological polymers are indispensable for the organism in order to create barriers and stable structures. Examples are blood clots (coagulation factor XIII) as well as skin and hair. The catalytic reaction is generally viewed as being irreversible and must be closely monitored through extensive control mechanisms. A thrombus is the final product of blood coagulation, through the aggregation of platelets and the activation of the humoral coagulation system. ... Factor XIII or fibrin stabilizing factor is an enzyme (EC 2. ... In zootomy and dermatology, skin is an organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of epithelial tissues that guard underlying muscles and organs. ... Young Girl Fixing her Hair, by Sophie Gengembre Anderson Hair is a filamentous outgrowth of dead cells from the skin, found only in mammals. ...


Role in disease

Deficiency of factor XIII (a rare genetic condition) predisposes to hemorrhage; concentrated enzyme can be used to correct the abnormality and reduce bleeding risk. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Antibodies to tissue transglutaminase are found in coeliac disease and may play a role in the small bowel damage in response to dietary gliadin that characterises this condition. Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody or immunoglobulin is a large Y-shaped protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... Coeliac disease or celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small bowel that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals in all age groups after early infancy. ... Diagram showing the small intestine In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine (colon). ... Gliadin is a glycoprotein, present in wheat and some other cereals, best known for its role, along with glutenin, in the formation of gluten. ...


Recent research indicates that sufferers from neurological diseases like Huntington's,[5] and Parkinson's[6] may have unusually high levels of one type of transglutaminase, tissue transglutaminase. It is hypothesized that tissue transglutaminase may be involved in the formation of the protein aggregates that causes Huntington's disease, although it is most likely not required.[7] Huntingtons disease (HD), also known as Huntington disease and previously as Huntingtons chorea and chorea maior, is a rare inherited neurological disorder affecting up to 8 people per 100,000. ... Parkinsons disease (also known as Parkinson disease or PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferers motor skills and speech. ... Tissue transglutaminase drawn from PDB 1FAU. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2, tTG) is an enzyme (EC 2. ...


Industrial applications

Industrial transglutaminase is produced by Streptomyces mobaraensis fermentation in commercial quantities and is used in a variety of processes, including the production of processed meat and fish products. It can be used as a binding agent to improve the texture of protein-rich foods such as surimi or ham. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Flesh redirects here. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold blooded, covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Foods made from surimi: artificial shrimp and crab legs Surimi (Chinese: ; pinyin: yú jiāng; literally fish puree/slurry, Japanese: 擂り身, lit. ... Ham with cloves Technically, ham is the thigh and buttock of any animal that is slaughtered for meat, but the term is usually restricted to a cut of pork, the haunch of a pig or boar. ...


Transglutaminase can be used in these applications:

  • Binding small chunks of meats into a big one ("portion control"), such as in sausages, hot dogs, restructured steaks
  • Improving the texture of low-grade meat such as so-called "PSE meat" (pale, soft, and exudative meat; caused by stress and a rapid postmortem pH decline)
  • Making milk and yogurt creamier
  • Making noodles firmer

Besides its "orthodox" uses, transglutaminase can be used to create some unusual foods. "Cold Set Bound Fish Kebabs" are made from alternating layers of salmon and cod which are "glued" together by transglutaminase. Wylie Dufresne, chef of New York's avant-garde restaurant WD-50, invented a "pasta" made by over 95% shrimps thanks to transglutaminase. It has been suggested that makkara be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Restructured steak is a catch-all term to describe a class of beef steaks made from smaller pieces of beef fused together by a binding agent. ... . The initial letter is shown capitalized due to technical restrictions. ... A glass of cows milk Milk is the nutrient fluid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals (including monotremes). ... Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ... A cook making hand-pulled noodles. ... Left to right: Chenjeh Kabab, Kabab Koobideh, Jujeh Kabab in Persian restaurant Kebab (from Persian and Arabic کباب, kabāb) means grilled (or broiled) meat in Persian and several other related languages. ... Illustration of a male Coho Salmon The Chinook or King Salmon is the largest salmon in North America and can grow to 1. ... Species Gadus morhua Gadus macrocephalus Gadus ogac Cod is the common name for the genus Gadus of fish, belonging to the family Gadidae, and is also used in the common name of a variety of other fishes. ... Wylie Dufresne is the chef and owner of wd~50 restaurant in Manhattan. ... Cooks in training in Paris Chef is a term commonly used to refer to an individual who cooks professionally. ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are small, swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ...


See also

Foods made from surimi: artificial shrimp and crab legs Surimi (Chinese: ; pinyin: yú jiāng; literally fish puree/slurry, Japanese: 擂り身, lit. ... The Boneless Fish (骨なし魚) is a fish-based frozen food invented by Dairei Corporation (大冷株式会社) of Japan in 1998. ...

References

  1. ^ Clarke DD, Mycek MJ, Neidle A, Waelsch H. The incorporation of amines into proteins. Arch Biochem Biophys 1957;79:338–354.
  2. ^ Pisano JJ, Finlayson JS, Peyton MP. Cross-link in fibrin polymerized by factor 13: epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)lysine. Science 1968;160:892-3. PMID 4967475.
  3. ^ Griffin M, Casadio R, Bergamini CM. Transglutaminases: nature's biological glues. Biochem J 2002;368(Pt 2):377-96. PMID 12366374.
  4. ^ Aeschlimann D, Koeller MK, Allen-Hoffmann BL, Mosher DF. Isolation of a cDNA encoding a novel member of the transglutaminase gene family from human keratinocytes. J Biol Chem 1998;273:3452-3460. PMID 9452468.
  5. ^ Karpuj MV, Becher MW, Steinman L. Evidence for a role for transglutaminase in Huntington's disease and the potential therapeutic implications. Neurochem Int 2002;40:31-6. PMID 11738470.
  6. ^ Vermes I, Steur EN, Jirikowski GF, Haanen C. Elevated concentration of cerebrospinal fluid tissue transglutaminase in Parkinson's disease indicating apoptosis. Mov Disord 2004;19(10):1252-4. PMID 15368613.
  7. ^ Lesort M, Chun W, Tucholski J, Johnson GV. Does tissue transglutaminase play a role in Huntington's disease? Neurochem Int 2002;40:37-52. PMID 11738471.

Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ...

External links

  • Enzyme for Binder and Texture improver
  • Ajinomoto Co's Transglutaminase Activa
  • Noodles, reinvented (MSNBC)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Process for making cheese using transglutaminase and a non-rennet protease - Patent 6093424 (6932 words)
Transglutaminases are enzymes which catalyze the transfer of the.gamma.-carboxamide group of a glutaminyl residue in a protein or peptide to the.epsilon.-amino of a lysyl residue of the same or a different protein or peptide, thereby forming a.gamma.-carboxyl-.epsilon.-amino crosslink.
Transglutaminases have a broad occurrence in living systems, and may be obtained, for example, from microorganisms such as those belonging to the genus Streptoverticillium, Bacillus subtilis, various Actinomycetes and Myxomycetes, or from plants, fish species, and mammalian sources including pig liver and the blood clotting protein activated Factor XIII.
In general, as the temperature is increased (as long as the transglutaminase is not inactivated), and as the pH approaches the pH optimum of the transglutaminase, the activity of the enzyme is expected to increase, and correspondingly the duration of treatment may be expected to decrease.
Transglutaminase - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (262 words)
Transglutaminases are a family of enzymes ( EC 2.3.2.13) that catalyze the formation of a covalent bond between a free amine group (e.g., protein- or peptide-bound lysine) and the gamma-carboxamid group of protein - or peptide bound glutamine.
Transglutaminase is now produced by Streptoverticillium mobaraense fermentation in commercial quantities and is used in a variety of industrial processes, including the production of processed meat and fish products.
It can be used as a binding agent to improve the texture of protein-rich foods such as surimi or ham.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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