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Encyclopedia > Transgender
A transwoman with XY written on her hand, at a protest in Paris, October 1, 2005.
A transwoman with XY written on her hand, at a protest in Paris, October 1, 2005.
Transgender
Androgyny · Bigender · Cross-dressing · Drag king · Drag queen · Genderqueer · Intersexuality · Questioning · Third gender · Transsexualism · Transvestism
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LGBT history · Transphobia · Homosexuality and transgender · Gynephilia and androphilia
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Transgender (IPA: /trænzˈdʒɛndɚ/, from (Latin) derivatives [trans <L, combination form meaning across, beyond, through] and [gender <ME <MF gendre, genre <L gener- meaning kind or sort]) is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at birth, as well as the role traditionally held by society. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (888 × 1185 pixel, file size: 129 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (888 × 1185 pixel, file size: 129 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... MTF redirects here. ... A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism. ... Demonstrators march in the street while protesting the World Bank and International Monetary Fund on April 16, 2005. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Transgender_Pride_flag. ... For other uses, see Androgyny (disambiguation). ... Bigender (bi+gender) is a tendency to move between masculine and feminine gender-typed behaviour depending on context, expressing a distinctly male persona and a distinctly female persona. ... This articles is about cross-dressing in general, that is the act of wearing the clothing of another gender for any reason. ... A drag king performance troupe NYC Drag King Alliance Switch NPlay photo:Jenny Norris Drag kings are mostly female-bodied or -identified performance artists who dress in masculine drag and personify male gender stereotypes as part of their performance. ... A drag artist Lypsinka. ... Genderqueer or intergender is a gender identity of both, neither or some combination of man and/or woman. In relation to the gender binary (the view that there are only two genders), genderqueer people generally identify as more both/and or neither/nor, rather than either/or. ... Intersexuality is the state of a person whose sex chromosomes, genitalia and/or secondary sex characteristics are determined to be neither exclusively male nor female. ... Questioning is a term that can refer to a person who is questioning their gender identity, sexual identity or sexual orientation. ... Anna P., who lived for many years as a man in Germany, was photographed for Magnus Hirschfelds book Sexual Intermediates in 1922. ... For the electronic music EP by Mr. ... A male dressed as a female. ... LGBT history refers to the history of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender cultures around the world, dating back to the first recorded instances of same-sex love and sexuality within ancient civilizations. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights LGBT rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights · Masculinism Children... Homosexuality and transgender are two separate concepts. ... Gynephilia (or gynophilia) (From Greek gunÄ“, women, + -philia, love) is the romantic and/or sexual attraction to adult females, and its counterpart androphilia (from Greek andro-, male, + -philia, love) is attraction to adult males. ... Transsexual people are those who establish a permanent identity with the gender opposite to that which they were assigned at birth. ... Transgender and Transexual people may face difficulty when trying to access amenities, such as toilets and change rooms, when presenting as their chosen gender // From Main Article: Toilet Sex-separated public toilets are often difficult to negotiate for transgendered or androgynous people, who are often subject to embarrassment, harassment, or... Transgender is a very complex topic, where consensual and precise definitions have not yet been reached. ... This is a list of lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender-related films. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ... Diverse women. ... Photograph of a nude man by Wilhelm von Gloeden, ca. ...


Transgender is the state of one's "gender identity" (self-identification as male, female, both or neither) not matching one's "assigned gender" (identification by others as male or female based on physical/genetic sex). "Transgender" does not imply any specific form of sexual orientation; transgender people may identify as heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, pansexual, polysexual or asexual. The precise definition for transgender remains in flux, but includes: This does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the SRY gene. ... Sexual orientation refers to the direction of an individuals sexuality, usually conceived of as classifiable according to the sex or gender of the persons whom the individual finds sexually attractive. ... Heterosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love or sexual desire exclusively for members of the opposite sex or gender, contrasted with homosexuality and distinguished from bisexuality and asexuality. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... In human sexuality, bisexuality describes a man or woman having a sexual orientation to persons of either or both sexes (a man or woman who sexually likes both sexes; people who are sexually and/or romantically attracted to both males and females). ... The adjective pansexual refers to equal acceptance of all of the major human sexual orientations and identities, including heterosexuality, homosexuality, bisexuality, as well as transgender, transsexual and intersex people. ... This article is about human asexuality; asexual reproduction is a separate topic. ...

  • "Of, relating to, or designating a person whose identity does not conform unambiguously to conventional notions of male or female gender, but combines or moves between these."[1]
  • "People who were assigned a gender, usually at birth and based on their genitals, but who feel that this is a false or incomplete description of themselves."[2]
  • "Non-identification with, or non-presentation as, the gender one was assigned at birth."[3]

A transgender individual may have characteristics that are normally associated with a particular gender, identify elsewhere on the traditional gender continuum, or exist outside of it as "other," "agender," "intergender," or "third gender". Transgender people may also identify as bigender, or along several places on either the traditional transgender continuum, or the more encompassing continuums which have been developed in response to the significantly more detailed studies done in recent years.[4] Look up Intergender in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anna P., who lived for many years as a man in Germany, was photographed for Magnus Hirschfelds book Sexual Intermediates in 1922. ... Bigender (bi+gender) is a tendency to move between masculine and feminine gender-typed behaviour depending on context, expressing a distinctly male persona and a distinctly female persona. ...

Contents

Evolution of the term transgender

The term transgender (TG) was popularised in the 1970s[5] (but implied in the 1960s[6][7]) describing people who wanted to live cross-gender without sex reassignment surgery.[8] In the 1980s the term was expanded to an umbrella term[9] and became popular as a means of uniting all those whose gender identity did not mesh with their gender assigned at birth.[10] In the 1990s the term took on a political dimension[11][12] as an alliance covering all who have at some point not conformed to gender norms, and the term became used to question the validity of those norms[13] or pursue equal rights and anti-discrimination legislation,[14][15] leading to its widespread usage in the media, academic world and law.[16] The term continues to evolve. For specialized articles on surgical procedures, see Sex reassignment surgery male-to-female and Sex reassignment surgery female-to-male. ...


Transgender identities

Albert Cashier, a historical transman who served as a soldier in the US civil war.
Albert Cashier, a historical transman who served as a soldier in the US civil war.

While many people identify simply as transgender, transgender identity includes many overlapping categories. These include transsexual (TS); cross-dresser (CD); transvestite (TV); androgynes; genderqueer; people who live cross-gender; drag kings; and drag queens.[17] Usually not included because it is considered to be a paraphilia (rather than gender identification) are transvestic fetishists. In an interview, artist RuPaul talked about society's ambivalence to the differences in the people who embody these terms. "A friend of mine recently did the Oprah show about transgendered youth," said RuPaul. "It was obvious that we, as a culture, have a hard time trying to understand the difference between a drag queen, transsexual, and a transgender, yet we find it very easy to know the difference between the American baseball league and the National baseball league, when they are both so similar."[18] These terms are explained below. Image File history File links Albert-Cashier. ... Image File history File links Albert-Cashier. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A transsexual (sometimes transexual) person establishes a permanent identity with the opposite gender to their assigned (usually at birth) sex. ... This articles is about cross-dressing in general, that is the act of wearing the clothing of another gender for any reason. ... A male dressed as a female. ... For other uses, see Androgyny (disambiguation). ... Genderqueer or intergender is a gender identity of both, neither or some combination of man and/or woman. In relation to the gender binary (the view that there are only two genders), genderqueer people generally identify as more both/and or neither/nor, rather than either/or. ... Gender, for the purposes of this article, is the perceived or projected (self-identified) masculinity or femininity of a person. ... A drag king performance troupe NYC Drag King Alliance Switch NPlay photo:Jenny Norris Drag kings are mostly female-bodied or -identified performance artists who dress in masculine drag and personify male gender stereotypes as part of their performance. ... A drag artist Lypsinka. ... Look up paraphilia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Transvestic fetishism is a sexual fetish for the clothing of the opposite gender. ... RuPaul (born RuPaul Andre Charles on November 17, 1960), is an American drag performer, dance music singer, actor, and songwriter who gained worldwide fame in the 1990s; appearing in a wide variety of television programs, films, and musical albums. ... The Oprah Winfrey Show (also known as Oprah) is a United States syndicated talk show, hosted and produced by its namesake Oprah Winfrey, and is the highest-rated talk show in American television history. ... The American League (or formally the American League of Professional Baseball Clubs) is one of two leagues that make up Major League Baseball in the United States of America and Canada. ... For other uses, see National League (disambiguation). ...


The extent to which intersex people (those with ambiguous genitalia or other physical sexual characteristics) are transgender is debated, since not all intersex people disagree with their gender assigned at birth. The current definitions of transgender include all transsexual people, although this has been criticized. (See below.) An intersexual is a person (or individual of any unisexual species) who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ...


The term transman refers to female-to-male (FtM or F2M) transgender people, and transwoman refers to male-to-female (MtF or M2F) transgender people, although some transgender people identify only slightly with the gender not assigned at birth. In the past, it was assumed that there were far more transwomen than transmen, but a Swedish study estimated a ratio of 1.4:1 in favour of transwomen for those requesting sex reassignment surgery and a ratio of 1:1 for those who proceeded.[19] There is a school of thought that says terms such as "FtM" and "MtF" are subjugating language that reinforces the binary gender stereotype.[20] Transmen or trans men are transgender or transsexual people who were assigned female at birth based on genital appearance (or, in cases of intersexuality, were later assigned to the female gender) and who feel that this is not an accurate or complete description of themselves. ... MTF redirects here. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ...


The term "cisgender" has been coined as an antonym referring to non-transgendered people; i.e. those who identify with their gender assigned at birth.[21] Cisgender (IPA: ) is an adjective neologism that means non-transgender. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ...


Transsexual

Main article: Transsexual

Transsexual people identify as, or desire to live and be accepted as, a member of the gender opposite to that assigned at birth.[22][23] Many transsexual people also want to change their bodies. These physical changes are collectively known as sex reassignment therapy and often include hormone replacement therapy and sex reassignment surgery. References to "pre-operative", "post-operative" and "non-operative" transsexual people indicate whether they have had, or are planning to have sex reassignment surgery. People who have transitioned, who do not necessarily identify as transgender or transsexual any longer; they identify as simply a man or a woman. Those that continue identifying as transexual don't want to ignore their pre-transition life and may continue strong ties with other trans people and raising social consciousness. [24] A transsexual (sometimes transexual) person establishes a permanent identity with the opposite gender to their assigned (usually at birth) sex. ... For the electronic music EP by Mr. ... Sex reassignment therapy is an umbrella term for all medical procedures regarding gender reassignment of both transgender and intersexual people. ... For specialized articles on surgical procedures, see Sex reassignment surgery male-to-female and Sex reassignment surgery female-to-male. ... Transsexual or transgender individuals who undertake transgender transition --the process of change from one gender presentation to another-- often change their social gender roles, legal names, and legal sex designation. ... Photograph of a nude man by Wilhelm von Gloeden, ca. ... Diverse women. ...


Cross-dresser

See also: cross-dressing

The term 'cross-dresser' is not exactly defined in the relevant literature. Michael A. Gilbert,[25] professor at the Department of Philosophy, York University, Toronto, offers this definition: "[A cross-dresser] is a person who has an apparent gender identification with one sex, and who has and certainly has been birth-designated as belonging to one sex, but who wears the clothing of the opposite sex because it is the clothing of the opposite sex." This excludes people "who wear opposite sex clothing for other reasons". Also, the group doesn't include "those female impersonators who look upon dressing as solely connected to their livelihood, actors undertaking roles, individual males and females enjoying a masquerade, and so on. These individuals are cross dressing but are not cross dressers."[26] Cross-dressers may not identify with, or want to be the opposite gender, nor adopt the behaviors or practices of the opposite gender, and generally do not want to change their bodies medically. The majority of cross-dressers identify as heterosexual.[27] This articles is about cross-dressing in general, that is the act of wearing the clothing of another gender for any reason. ... York University (French: Université York), located in Toronto, Ontario, is Canadas third-largest university and has produced several of the countrys top leaders in the fields of law, politics, literature, philosophy, journalism, management, meteorological, chemical, and space sciences, and fine arts including film, theatre, jazz and experimental music...


Transvestite

Main article: Transvestism

A transvestite is somebody who cross-dresses.[28][29] The term "transvestite" is used as a synonym for the term "cross-dresser",[30][31] although it has been stated that "cross-dresser" is the preferred term.[31][32] The term "transvestite" and the associated term "transvestism" are conceptually different from the term "fetishistic transvestism" (a.k.a. "transvestic fetishism"), as "transvestic fetishist" describes those who intermittently use clothing of the opposite gender for fetishistic purposes,[33][34] and "transvestite" does not. In medical terms, transvestic fetishism is differentiated from cross-dressing by use of the separate codes 302.3[34] in the DSM and F65.1[33] in the ICD. A male dressed as a female. ... A male dressed as a female. ... A folded cream-coloured full slip Some men find the sheer fabric of stockings highly enticing Transvestic fetishism is a sexual fetish for the clothing of the opposite gender. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a handbook for mental health professionals that lists different categories of mental disorder and the criteria for diagnosing them, according to the publishing organization the American Psychiatric Association. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ...


Drag kings and queens

See also: Drag king, Drag queen, and Faux queen
New York City drag king Murray Hill with drag queen Linda Simpson.
New York City drag king Murray Hill with drag queen Linda Simpson.

Drag is a term applied to clothing and make-up worn on special occasions for performing or entertaining as a hostess, stage artist or at an event (e.g. Lypsinka). This is in contrast to those who cross-dress for other reasons or are otherwise transgender. Drag can be theatrical, comedic, or grotesque, and female-identified drag has been considered a caricature of women by second-wave feminism. Within the genre of drag are gender illusionists who do try to pass as another gender. Drag artists explore gender issues and have a long tradition in LGBT culture. Drag has been regarded as an area where transgender people can find more acceptance and financial support than mainstream work environments. Generally the terms drag queen covers men doing female drag, drag king covers women doing male drag, and faux queen covers women doing female drag. A drag king performance troupe NYC Drag King Alliance Switch NPlay photo:Jenny Norris Drag kings are mostly female-bodied or -identified performance artists who dress in masculine drag and personify male gender stereotypes as part of their performance. ... A drag artist Lypsinka. ... Faux queen Holy McGrail (right) during a performance at San Franciscos Trannyshack Star Search night. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The performing arts are those forms of art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artists own body, face and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some... Lypsinka (real name: John Epperson) is a New York based drag queen who lip-synchs to meticulously edited show-length soundtracks culled from snippets of outrageous 20th-century female performances in movies and song. ... This articles is about cross-dressing in general, that is the act of wearing the clothing of another gender for any reason. ... Second-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity which began during the early 1960s and lasted through the late 1980s. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... Christopher Street Parade Sexuality and gender identity-based cultures concern the culture, knowledge, and references shared by members of sexual minorities or transgendered people by virtue of their membership in those minorities or their state of being transgendered. ... A drag artist Lypsinka. ... A drag king performance troupe NYC Drag King Alliance Switch NPlay photo:Jenny Norris Drag kings are mostly female-bodied or -identified performance artists who dress in masculine drag and personify male gender stereotypes as part of their performance. ... Faux queen Holy McGrail (right) during a performance at San Franciscos Trannyshack Star Search night. ...


Genderqueer

Main article: Genderqueer

Genderqueer is a recent attempt to signify gendered experiences that do not fit into binary concepts, and refers to a combination of gender identities and sexual orientations. One example could be a person whose gendered presentation is sometimes perceived as male, sometimes female, but whose gender identity is female, gendered expression is butch, and sexual orientation is lesbian. It suggests nonconformity or mixing of gendered stereotypes, conjoining both gender and gayness,[35] and challenges existing constructions and identities.[36] Genderqueerness is unintelligible and abjected in the binary sex/gender system.[37] Genderqueer or intergender is a gender identity of both, neither or some combination of man and/or woman. In relation to the gender binary (the view that there are only two genders), genderqueer people generally identify as more both/and or neither/nor, rather than either/or. ... Genderqueer or intergender is a gender identity of both, neither or some combination of man and/or woman. In relation to the gender binary (the view that there are only two genders), genderqueer people generally identify as more both/and or neither/nor, rather than either/or. ...


People who live cross-gender

People who live cross-gender live always or mostly as the gender other than that assigned at birth. If they want to be or identify as their gender assigned at birth, then the term "crossdresser"[38] may be used. If they want to be or identify as the gender they always or mostly live in, then the term "transsexual" may be used.[22] The term "transgender"[39][40][41] or "transgenderist"[42] has been applied to people who live cross-gender without sex reassignment surgery. Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) includes the surgical procedures by which a persons physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are changed to that of the other sex. ...


Androgyne

Main article: Androgyny

An androgyne is a person who does not fit cleanly into the typical gender roles of their society. Androgynes may identify as beyond gender, between genders, moving across genders, entirely genderless, or any or all of these. Androgyne identities include pangender, bigender, ambigender, non-gendered, agender, gender fluid or intergender. Androgyne used to be a synonym for intersex people, but this usage has fallen out of favor. Androgyny can be either physical or psychological; it does not depend on birth sex and is not limited to intersex people. Occasionally, people who do not define themselves as androgynes adapt their physical appearance to look androgynous. This outward androgyny has been used in fashion, and the milder forms of it (women wearing men's pants or men wearing two earrings, for example) are not seen as transgender behavior. For other uses, see Androgyny (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Androgyny (disambiguation). ... A bagpiper in military uniform. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pansexuality. ... Bigender (bi+gender) is a tendency to move between masculine and feminine gender-typed behaviour depending on context, expressing a distinctly male persona and a distinctly female persona. ... An androgyne is a person who does not fit cleanly into the typical masculine and feminine gender roles of their society. ... An androgyne is a person who does not fit cleanly into the typical masculine and feminine gender roles of their society. ... An androgyne is a person who does not fit cleanly into the typical masculine and feminine gender roles of their society. ... An androgyne is a person who does not fit cleanly into the typical masculine and feminine gender roles of their society. ... Look up Intergender in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An intersexual is a person (or individual of any unisexual species) who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ... Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul and logos = word) is the study of mind, thought, and behaviour. ... An intersexual is a person (or individual of any unisexual species) who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ... If referring to a flower, see disambiguation under bisexual Androgyny is the state of indeterminate gender, or characteristics of gender. ...


Transgender in contrast with sexual orientation

A transgender woman at New York City's gay pride parade
Main article: Homosexuality and transgender
See also: LGBT, section “Controversy”

Gender identity and transgender identity are fundamentally different concepts to that of sexual orientation. Transgender people have more or less the same variety of sexual orientations as cisgender people.[43] In the past, the terms homosexual and heterosexual were used for transgender folks based on their birth sex.[44] Professional literature now uses terms such as attracted to men (androsexual), attracted to women (gynosexual), attracted to both or attracted to neither to describe a person's sexual orientation without reference to their gender identity.[45] Therapists are coming to understand the necessity of choosing terms with respect to their clients' gender identities and preferences.[46][47] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2448 × 3264 pixel, file size: 509 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2448 × 3264 pixel, file size: 509 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Homosexuality and transgender are two separate concepts. ... The initialism LGBT also GLBT is in use (since the 1990s) to refer collectively to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ... Sexual orientation refers to the direction of an individuals sexuality, usually conceived of as classifiable according to the sex or gender of the persons whom the individual finds sexually attractive. ... Gynephilia (or gynophilia) (From Greek gunē, women, + -philia, love) is the romantic and/or sexual attraction to adult females, and its counterpart androphilia (from Greek andro-, male, + -philia, love) is attraction to adult males. ... Gynephilia (or gynophilia) (From Greek gunē, women, + -philia, love) is the romantic and/or sexual attraction to adult females, and its counterpart androphilia (from Greek andro-, male, + -philia, love) is attraction to adult males. ...


Despite this distinction, throughout history the gay, lesbian, and bisexual subculture was often the only place where gender-variant people were socially accepted in the gender role they felt they belonged to; especially during the time when legal or medical transitioning was almost impossible. This acceptance has had a complex history - like the wider world, the gay community in Western societies did not generally distinguish between sex and gender identity until the 1970s, and generally perceived gender variant people more as homosexuals who behaved in a gender-variant way than as gender-variant people in their own right. The initialism LGBT also GLBT is in use (since the 1990s) to refer collectively to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ... A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ... Transitioning is the process of ceasing to live in one gender role and starting to live in another, undertaken by transgender and transsexual people. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the years following the sexual revolution of the 1960s, transgender sexuality has often been accepted into the fold of the burgeoning LGBT movement. The nature and degree of this acceptance has not been without controversy, however, and has drawn criticism from LGB and transgender people alike. For the Macy Gray song, see Sexual Revolution (song). ... The initialism LGBT also GLBT is in use (since the 1990s) to refer collectively to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ...


Transgender and healthcare

See also: Gender transitioning

Transsexual or transgender individuals who undertake transgender transition --the process of change from one gender presentation to another-- often change their social gender roles, legal names, and legal sex designation. ...

Mental healthcare

Beginning therapy is recommended for all people are frustrated by their gender, especially if they desire to transition. People who experience discord between their gender and the expectations of others or whose gender identity conflicts with their body benefit by talking through their feelings in depth with someone who will listen indefinitely. Gender identity is new to psychology and research is still in its infancy. Transitioning is the process of ceasing to live in one gender role and starting to live in another, undertaken by transgender and transsexual people. ...


Trans people may be eligible for diagnosis of gender identity disorder (GID) "only if [being transgender] causes distress or disability."[48] This distress is referred to as gender dysphoria and may manifest as depression or inability to work and form healthy relationships with others. This diagnosis is often over-simplified to mean that simply being transgender means a person suffers from GID which is not true. This has caused much confusion to trans people and those who strongly seek to either criticize or affirm them. Trans people who are comfortable with their gender, whose gender does not directly cause inner frustration or impair their functioning, do not have GID and are not applicable for a related mental disorder. Further, GID is not permanent and is usually resolved through therapy and transitioning, especially its social aspects. GID does not refer to people who feel oppressed by the negative attitudes and behaviors or others including legal entities in the same way that racist institutions do not create a "race disorder." Neither does GID imply an opinion of immorality. The psychological establishment holds the position that people with any kind of mental or emotional problem should not receive stigma. The solution for GID is whatever will alleviate suffering and restore functionality; this often means transitioning, but not always. Gender identity disorder as identified by psychologists and medical doctors is a condition where a person who has been assigned one gender (usually at birth on the basis of their sex, but compare intersexual) but identifies as belonging to another gender, or does not conform with the gender role their... Look up depression in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Transitioning is the process of ceasing to live in one gender role and starting to live in another, undertaken by transgender and transsexual people. ...


The terms "transsexualism", "dual-role transvestism", "gender identity disorder in adolescents or adults" and "gender identity disorder not otherwise specified" are listed as such in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) or the American Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) under codes F64.0, F64.1, 302.85 and 302.6 respectively. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a handbook for mental health professionals that lists different categories of mental disorder and the criteria for diagnosing them, according to the publishing organization the American Psychiatric Association. ...


Transgender issues are both new in the scientific field and affect relatively few people, so understandably many mental healthcare providers know little about transgender issues. People seeking help from these professionals often end up educating the professional rather than receiving help.[49] Among those therapists who profess to know about transgender issues, many believe that transitioning from one sex to another — the standard transsexual model — is the best or only solution. This usually works well for those who are transsexual, but is not the solution for other transgender people, particularly genderqueer people who do not identify as exclusively male or female. Genderqueer or intergender is a gender identity of both, neither or some combination of man and/or woman. In relation to the gender binary (the view that there are only two genders), genderqueer people generally identify as more both/and or neither/nor, rather than either/or. ... This article is about the Male sex. ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ...


Physical healthcare

Medical and surgical procedures exist for transgender people. Hormone replacement therapy for transmen induces beard growth and masculinises skin, hair, voice and fat distribution. Hormone replacement therapy for transwomen feminises fat distribution and breasts. Laser hair removal or electrolysis removes excess hair for transwomen. Surgical procedures for transwomen feminise the voice, skin, face, adam's apple, breasts, waist, buttocks and genitals. Surgical procedures for transmen masculinise the chest and genitals and remove the womb and ovaries and fallopian tubes. The acronyms "GRS" and "SRS" refer to genital surgery. The term "sex reassignment therapy" (SRT) is used as an umbrella term for physical procedures required for transition. Use of the term "sex change" has been debated.[50] Availability of these procedures depends on degree of gender dysphoria, presence or absence of gender identity disorder,[51] and standards of care in the relevant jurisdiction. Epilation performed by laser was performed experimentally for about 20 years before it became commercially available in the mid 1990s. ... Electrology is either of two electrical epilation methods for the permanent removal of human hair. ... Voice therapy or voice training refers to any non-surgical technique used to improve or modify the human voice. ... Dermabrasion involves the removal of the surface of the skin with specialist equipment and usually involves a general anaesthetic. ... Facial feminization surgery (FFS) refers to surgical procedures that alter the human face to increase its femininity. ... Chondrolaryngoplasty is a surgical procedure in which the thyroid cartilage is reduced in size by shaving down the cartilage through an incision in the throat, generally to aid male-to-female transsexuals in achieving a passable female appearance, and occasionally on men who are uncomfortable with the girth of their... A breast implant is a prosthesis used to enlarge the size of a womans breasts (known as breast augmentation, breast enlargement, mammoplasty enlargement, augmentation mammoplasty or the common slang term boob job) for cosmetic reasons; to reconstruct the breast (e. ... Liposuction, also known as lipoplasty (fat modeling), liposculpture or suction lipectomy (suction-assisted fat removal) is a cosmetic surgery operation that removes fat from many different sites on the human body. ... There are two types of Buttock Augmentation: The Surgical enlargement of the Buttocks through the insertion of a Synthetic Implant. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In men with female breast growth, or transmen, a Male Chest Reconstruction is often done to give the chest a male appearance again. ... Sexual reassignment surgery from female to male includes surgical procedures which will reshape a female body into a body with a male appearance. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Oophorectomy is the surgical removal of the ovaries of a female animal. ... Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) includes the surgical procedures by which a persons physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are changed to that of the other sex. ... For specialized articles on surgical procedures, see Sex reassignment surgery male-to-female and Sex reassignment surgery female-to-male. ... Sex reassignment therapy is an umbrella term for all medical procedures regarding gender reassignment of both transgender and intersexual people. ... Transsexual or transgender individuals who undertake transgender transition --the process of change from one gender presentation to another-- often change their social gender roles, legal names, and legal sex designation. ... A clownfish Sex change in animals Some species are known to change sex, including reproductive functions, in special circumstances, such as the clownfish. ... Gender identity disorder as identified by psychologists and medical doctors is a condition where a person who has been assigned one gender (usually at birth on the basis of their sex, but compare intersexual) but identifies as belonging to another gender, or does not conform with the gender role their... Gender identity disorder, as identified by psychologists and physicians, is a condition in which a person has been assigned one gender, usually on the basis of their sex at birth (compare intersex disorders), but identifies as belonging to another gender, and feels significant discomfort or being unable to deal with... In many countries or areas, an individuals pursuit of sexual reassignment surgery (SRS) is often governed, or at least guided, by documents called standards of care (SOC), or standards of care for gender identity disorders. ...


Transgender and the law

Dr. Camille Cabral, a transgender activist at a demonstration for transgender people in Paris, October 1 2005
Dr. Camille Cabral, a transgender activist at a demonstration for transgender people in Paris, October 1 2005

Legal procedures exist in some jurisdictions allowing an individual to change their legal gender, or their name, to reflect their gender identity. Requirements for these procedures vary from an explicit formal diagnosis of transsexualism, to a diagnosis of gender identity disorder, to a letter from a physician attesting to the individual's gender transition, or the fact that one has established a different gender role.[52] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 551 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1188 × 1292 pixel, file size: 324 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 551 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1188 × 1292 pixel, file size: 324 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Transsexual people are those who establish a permanent identity with the gender opposite to that which they were assigned at birth. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For the electronic music EP by Mr. ... Gender identity disorder, as identified by psychologists and physicians, is a condition in which a person has been assigned one gender, usually on the basis of their sex at birth (compare intersex disorders), but identifies as belonging to another gender, and feels significant discomfort or being unable to deal with... A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ...


Transgender people in non-Western cultures

See also: Category:Transgender in non-Western cultures
Nong Tum, a Kathoey internationally recognized for her portrayal in the film Beautiful Boxer.
Nong Tum, a Kathoey internationally recognized for her portrayal in the film Beautiful Boxer.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (680 × 1024 pixel, file size: 946 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The permission for use of this work has been archived in the Wikimedia OTRS system. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (680 × 1024 pixel, file size: 946 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The permission for use of this work has been archived in the Wikimedia OTRS system. ... Parinya Kiatbusaba or Parinya Charoenphol (born 1981), more popularly known as Nong Thoom, Nong Toom or Nong Tum, is probably the best-known kathoey (male-to-female transgendered person) in Thailand. ... Ladyboy redirects here. ... Parinya Kiatbusaba or Parinya Charoenphol (born 1981), more popularly known as Nong Thoom, Nong Toom or Nong Tum, is probably the best-known kathoey (male-to-female transgendered person) in Thailand. ...

Asia

In Thailand and Laos,[53] the term kathoey is used to refer to male-to-female transgender people[54] and effeminate gay men.[55] The cultures of the Indian subcontinent include a third gender, referred to as hijra[56] in Hindi. Transgender people also have been documented in Iran,[57] Japan,[58] Nepal,[59] Indonesia,[60] Vietnam,[61] South Korea,[62] Singapore,[63] and the greater Chinese region, including Hong Kong,[64][65] Taiwan,[66] and the People's Republic of China.[67][68][69] Ladyboy redirects here. ... Effeminacy is character trait of a male showing femininity, unmanliness, womanliness, weakness, softness and/or a delicacy, which contradicts traditional masculine, male gender roles. ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Anna P., who lived for many years as a man in Germany, was photographed for Magnus Hirschfelds book Sexual Intermediates in 1922. ... For other uses, see Hijra. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... China and greater China (the Chinese region, including Peoples Republic of China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan (Republic of China)) have a long history of transgenderism. ...


North America

In what is now the United States and Canada, many Native American and Canadian First Nations peoples recognised[70] the existence of more than two genders, such as the Zuñi male-bodied Ła'mana,[71] the Lakota male-bodied winkte[72] and the Mohave male-bodied alyhaa and female-bodied hwamee.[73] Such people were previously[74] referred to as berdache but are now referred to as Two-Spirit,[75] and their spouses would not necessarily have been regarded as gender-different.[73] In Mexico, the Zapotec culture includes a third gender in the form of the Muxe.[76] This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... First Nations is a common title used in Canada to describe the various societies of indigenous peoples of North America located in what is now Canada, who are not of Inuit or Métis descent. ... For other uses, see Zuni (disambiguation). ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... Winkte is an old Lakota word, Winyanktehca, that has been contracted through long use. ... Two Mohave men dressed in loincloths, western Arizona Judith, a young Mohave woman about eighteen years of age The Mohave are a Native American tribe, many of whom live on or near the Colorado River Indian Tribes, Chemehuevi and Fort Mojave Indian Reservations on the Colorado River in California and... Berdache (from French, from Arabic bardajo meaning kept boy) is a generic term used by some for a third gender (woman-living-man) among many, if not most, Native American tribes. ... The Zapotecs are an indigenous people of Mexico, concentrated in the state of Oaxaca but also with communities spread into some of the neighbouring states. ... Anna P., who lived for many years as a man in Germany, was photographed for Magnus Hirschfelds book Sexual Intermediates in 1922. ... In Zapotec cultures of Oaxaca (southern Mexico), a muxe (or muxhe) is a physically male individual who dresses and behaves in a feminine manner; they may be seen as a third gender. ...


Other

In early Medina, gender-variant[77] male-to-female Islamic people were acknowledged[78] in the form of the Mukhannathun. In Ancient Rome, the Gallae were castrated[79] followers of the Phrygian goddess Cybele and can be regarded as transgender in today's terms.[80][81] This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Mukhannathun (also mukhannath) are gender-variant (typically male-to-female) persons of the Islamic faith who are accepted within the boundaries of Makkah and Madinah (Islam). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Galli was the Roman name for castrated followers of the Phrygian goddess Cybele, which can be regarded as transgendered in todays terms. ... Castration (also referred as: gelding, neutering, orchiectomy, orchidectomy, and oophorectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which a male loses the functions of the testes or a female loses the functions of the ovaries. ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ... A fountain in Madrid depicting Cybele in her chariot drawn by lions, in the Plaza de Cibeles Originally a Phrygian goddess, Cybele (Greek: Κυβέλη) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. ...


A salzikrum appeared biologically female but had distinct male traits. Salzikrum is a compound word meaning male daughter. According to the Code of Hammurabi, salzikrum had inheritance rights like that of a priestess; she inherited from her father, unlike regular daughters. Her father could also stipulate that she inherit a certain amount.[82] An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi. ...


Criticism

Critics believe that trans people are unhealthy varying from an innocent confusion to a mental disorder to an immoral perversion. In this view, Trans people who embrace their feelings by transitioning either socially, surgically, or both are especially harmful to themselves emotionally and physically. Trans-affirming people may call these criticisms "transphobia" or "trans-bashing", considering them personal attacks based on hatred and/or fear. Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights LGBT rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights · Masculinism Children...


Stereotype as a mental disorder

Much criticism comes from people who believe all transgender people have gender identity disorder (GID) and that the only solution is to conform their gender identity with their birth sex. They believe that any gender variant behavior (called the "transgender lifestyle") will make their life worse and includes, but is not limited to, name and pronoun change, clothing, makeup, hormones and surgery. The only exception may be in cases of suicide. They claim that transgender feelings are unnatural, caused by problems in childhood such as sexual abuse, lack of identity with their same-sex parent, or mixed messages from the media; that transgender people are capable of passing on their gender to children, thus they should not be allowed to adopt or even display their gender variant behavior to children; that transgender feelings can be resolved by affirming their birth sex and identifying the gender in accordance with their sex; and that being transgender is a choice, therefore they should not receive legal recognition as a distinct group as regards to discrimination, marriage, or hate crimes.

Rather than cutting tissue by invasive surgery and starting a new life, which for the most part doesn't work, people need to find help psychiatrically.[83]

The medical establishment and trans community thoroughly rejects these ideas. Scientific research into the cause of gender identity is currently inconclusive. GID pertains to only some trans people; see Mental Healthcare.


Gender tied to sex

The conservative view is that sex determines gender and does not see a practical difference between the two. Therefore a female cannot be anything other than a woman and the same for males. Trying to violate this divide, according to this view, is both impossible, unnatural, and unhealthy. It is often pointed out that chromosomes are immutable. Surgery and hormone therapy have medical risks which typically include infertility. While trans people may claim to feel like a certain gender, due to biological and technological limitations, there are limits to how much of a biological male or female one can become-- only a biological female can experience bearing and giving birth to a child.[84]



This argument is an example of biological determinism. It does not address people who are infertile, or both intersex and trans identifying. Categories: Biology stubs ...


Religious criticism

Religions have a variety of attitudes about transgender people. For example, in the traditions of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam, transgendered lifestyles are not condoned but considered a sinful behavior or nature against the natural order of God. While other religions such as Satanism, Wicca, Hinduism, and even Buddhism accept this practice as a subjective and natural life-style.


Characterization as a sexual obsession

The controversial[85] Blanchard, Bailey, and Lawrence theory characterizes transwomen as having a sexual motivation for transition.[86][87][88] This characterization has been criticized by many in the medical and transgender communities alike as being potentially unfalsifiable,[89] unscientific,[90] and transphobic.[91] The Blanchard, Bailey, and Lawrence theory is an informal name for a controversial behavioral model of male-to-female transsexualism. ...


Citations

  1. ^ Author unknown, (2004) "...Transgender, adj. Of, relating to, or designating a person whose identity does not conform unambiguously to conventional notions of male or female gender, but combines or moves between these..." Definition of transgender from the Oxford English Dictionary, draft version March 2004. Retrieved on 2007-04-07.
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  6. ^ Ekins, R., King, D. (2004) "...As far as we can see, Virginia first used the term 'transgenderal' in print in 1969..." Rethinking 'Who put the "Trans" in Transgender?' GENDYS 2004, The Eighth International Gender Dysphoria Conference, Manchester England. Retrieved on 2007-04-10.
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  8. ^ Stryker, S. (2004), "...lived full-time in a social role not typically associated with their natal sex, but who did not resort to genital surgery as a means of supporting their gender presentation..." in Transgender from the GLBTQ: an encyclopedia of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and queer culture. Retrieved on 2007-04-10.
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  54. ^ Jackson, P. (2003) Performative Genders, Perverse Desires: A Bio-History of Thailand's Same-Sex and Transgender Cultures in Intersections: Gender, History and Culture in the Asian Context, Issue 9, August 2003.
  55. ^ Winter, S. and Udomsak, N. (2002) Male, Female and Transgender : Stereotypes and Self in Thailand in the International Journal of Transgender, Volume 6, Number 1, January - March 2002.
  56. ^ Author unknown, (2003) Human Rights Violations against the Transgender Community: A study of kothi and hijra sex workers in Bangalore, India, full text,summary, by the Peoples’ Union for Civil Liberties, Karnataka (PUCL-K), September 2003. Retrieved on 2007-04-07.
  57. ^ Harrison, F. (2005) "...He shows me the book in Arabic in which, 41 years ago, Ayatollah Khomeini wrote about new medical issues like transsexuality. "I believe he was the first Islamic scientist in the world of Islam who raised the issue of sex change," says Hojatulislam Kariminia. The Ayatollah's ruling that sex-change operations were allowed has been reconfirmed by Iran's current spiritual leader..." in Iran's sex-change operations, from the BBC. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
  58. ^ Mitsuhashi, J. (2006) "...the male to female cross-dressing (MTFCD) community in Shinjuku, Tokyo, which plays an important role in the overall transgender world and how people in the community think and live..." in The transgender world in contemporary Japan: male to female cross-dressers, translated by Kasumi Hasegawa, from the Journal of Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
  59. ^ Haviland, C. (2005) "...The Gurung people of western Nepal have a tradition of men called maarunis, who dance in female clothes..." in Crossing sexual boundaries in Nepal, from the BBC. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
  60. ^ Graham, S. (2002) "...Among the Bugis of South Sulawesi, possibly four genders are acknowledged plus a fifth para-gender identity. In addition to male-men (oroane) and female-women (makunrai)..., there are calalai (masculine females), calabai (feminine males), and bissu..." in Priests and gender in South Sulawesi, Indonesia from the Transgender ASIA Research Centre. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
  61. ^ Walters, I. (2006) "...In Vietnam, male to female (MtF) transgender people are categorised as lai cai, bong cai, bong lai cai, dong co, or be-de..." in Vietnam Some notes by Ian Walters from the Transgender ASIA Research Centre. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
  62. ^ Shim, S. (2006) "...Rush, catering especially to crossdressers and transgenders, is a cafe owned by a 46-year-old man who goes by the female name Lee Cho-rong. "...Many people in South Korea don't really understand the difference between gay and transgender. I'm not gay. I was born a man but eager to live as a woman and be beautiful," said Lee..." in S. Korea in dilemma over transgender citizens right to choose from the Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
  63. ^ Heng, R. (2005) "...Even if we take Bugis Street as a starting point, we should remember that cross-dressing did not emerge suddenly out of nowhere. Across Asia, there is a tradition of cross-dressing and other forms of transgender behaviour in many places with a rich local lexicon and rituals associated with them...." in Where queens ruled! - a history of gay venues in Singapore from IndigNation. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
  64. ^ Emerton, R. (2006) "...Hong Kong's transgender movement at its current stage, with particular reference to the objectives and activities of the Hong Kong Transgender Equality and Acceptance Movement..." in Finding a voice, fighting for rights: the emergence of the transgender movement in Hong Kong, from the Journal of Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
  65. ^ Hung, L. (2007) "...there are many archetypal flamboyant embodiments of female-to-male transgender physicality living and displaying their unrestrained, dashing iconic presence..." in Trans-Boy Fashion, or How to Tailor-Make a King from the Gender Studies programme of The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
  66. ^ Ho, J. (2006) "...specificities of Taiwanese transgender existence in relation to body- and subject-formations, in hope to not only shed light on the actualities of trans efforts toward self-fashioning, but also illuminate the increasing entanglement between trans self-construction and the evolving gender culture that saturates it..." in Embodying gender: transgender body/subject formations in Taiwan, from the Journal of Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
  67. ^ Hahn, L. (2005) "...Aware that he often felt more like a woman than a man, Jin Xing underwent a sex change in 1995; a daring move in a conservative Chinese society..." in Jin Xing TalkAsia Interview Transcript - June 13, 2005 from CNN. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
  68. ^ Wang, Z. and Xie, F. (2006) "...While it is true that not everyone turns into a drag queen when they are feeling stressed out, many young people do seem to be caught up in the fad of androgyny..." in Cross-dressers captivate people across China from China Daily. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
  69. ^ Goldkorn, J. (2006) "...At one point in 2003, there was so much media coverage of transsexuals in China that Danwei started a special section for it..." in Transsexuals in the Chinese media again from Danwei. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
  70. ^ Fulton, R. and Anderson, S.W. (1992) The Amerindian "Man-Woman": Gender, Liminality, and Cultural Continuity in Current Anthropology: Vol. 33, No. 5, December 1992 pp. 603-610.
  71. ^ Parsons, E.P. (1916) "...of these 'men-women'..." from Zuñi Ła'mana in the American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 18, No. 4. (Oct. - Dec., 1916), pp. 521-528. Retrieved on 2007-05-21.
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  74. ^ Stryker, S. Berdache, from the GLBTQ: an encyclopedia of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and queer culture.
  75. ^ Medicine, B. (2002) Directions in Gender Research in American Indian Societies: Two Spirits and Other Categories, taken from Online Readings in Psychology and Culture Center for Cross-Cultural Research, Unit 3, Chapter 2, Western Washington University.
  76. ^ Stephen, L (2002) Sexualities and Genders in Zapotec Oaxaca, Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 41-59. Mar., 2002.
  77. ^ Partial Translation of the Sunan Abu-Dawud, Book 41, Number 4910, USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts, University of Southern California, translated by Prof. Ahmad Hasan.
  78. ^ Rowsen, E.K. (1991) "...They played an important role in the development of Arabic music in Umayyad Mecca and, especially, Medina, where they were numbered among the most celebrated singers and instrumentalists..." from The Effeminates of Early Medina in the Journal of the American Oriental Society 111 (1991), pp. 671-93. Retrieved on 2007-04-07.
  79. ^ Tillyard, E.M.W. (1917), A Cybele Altar in London, The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 7 (1917), pp. 284-288.
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  82. ^ Code of Hammurabi § 178 and following, and § 184 and following.
  83. ^ Jerry Leach, director of Reality Resources, as quoted in Christianity Today
  84. ^ Raymond, Janice G. (1980) The Transsexual Empire Women's Press, London, ISBN 0704338572 (Pbk)
  85. ^ Dreger, Alice D (2007-07-03). "The Controversy Surrounding The Man Who Would Be Queen: A Case History of the Politics of Science, Identity, and Sex in the Internet Age". Archives of Sexual Behavior, in press: 55,56. Retrieved on 2007-08-20. 
  86. ^ Bailey, J. M. (2003). The Man Who Would Be Queen: The Science of Gender-Bending and Transsexualism. Joseph Henry Press, ISBN-10: 0309084180, ISBN-13: 978-0309084185
  87. ^ Blanchard, R. (2005) "...Since the beginning of the last century, clinical observers have described the propensity of certain males fo be erotically aroused by the thought or image of themselves as women..." in Early History of the Concept of Autogynephilia from the Archives of Sexual Behavior, Volume 34, Number 4, pages 439-446. Retrieved on 2007-09-22.
  88. ^ Smith, Y.L.S., van Goozen, S.H.M., Kuiper, A.J., Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.. (2005) "...The present study was designed to investigate whether transsexuals can be validly subdivided into subtypes on the basis of sexual orientation..." in Transsexual subtypes: Clinical and theoretical significance from Psychiatry Research, Volume 137, Issue 3, pages 151-160. Retrieved on 2007-09-22.
  89. ^ Wyndzen, M.H. (1998-2004)"...I have noticed some researchers' tendency to turn Blanchard's theory into an unfalsifiable unscientific dogma. For example, even though Blanchard's results are based on self-report from transsexuals, there are actually researchers who dismiss as lies any accounts given by transsexuals that are inconsistent with Blanchard's model..." in Autogynephilia & Ray Blanchard: Introducing a Theory about Transsexuality from the Psychology of Gender Identity & Transgenderism, the personal experiences of a transsexual psychologist and a scientific critique of the psychopathology of gender identity disorder. Retrieved on 2007-09-11.
  90. ^ McCloskey, D. (2003) "...The academics don't like Bailey's use of the mantle of Science to push a conservative, unscientific agenda worthy of National Review, or of The National Enquirer..." in Queer Science: A data-bending psychologist confirms what he already knew about gays and transsexuals from Reason, a libertarian magazine covering politics, culture, and ideas. Retrieved on 2007-09-22.
  91. ^ Marks, J. (2004). "...The specific issue was whether the book (The Man Who Would Be Queen) was transphobic...The judges looked at the book more closely and decided it was..." quoted by Letellier, P (2004) in Group rescinds honor for disputed book from Advocate Online News on Gay.com, retrieved on 2007-09-11.

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Raymond is professor emerita of womens studies and medical ethics at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

The current version of the article or section reads like an advertisement. ... The people on this list have been selected because their fame or notoriety is in some way due or connected to their transgender identity or behaviour. ... Transgender is a very complex topic, where consensual and precise definitions have not yet been reached. ... Groups that campaign for the rights of transgender, transvestite, transsexual, third gender and other gender variant peoples have been in existence since the mid-20th century, and have multiplied greatly in number since the 1990s. ... Books. ... For the novel by William S. Burroughs, see Queer (novel). ... Gender identity disorder, as identified by psychologists and physicians, is a condition in which a person has been assigned one gender, usually on the basis of their sex at birth (compare intersex disorders), but identifies as belonging to another gender, and feels significant discomfort or being unable to deal with... Cisgender (IPA: ) is an adjective neologism that means non-transgender. ... Transgenderism is a social movement seeking transgender rights and affirming transgender pride. ... The Transgender Law Center (TLC) is a civil rights organization advocating for transgender communities. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Transgender
  • Transgendered at the Open Directory Project
  • European transgender network - EU-based advocacy site.
  • FTM Australia - Australia-based information site.
  • Hudson's FTM Resource Guide - USA-based information site.
  • TransGender Victoria - Australia-based advocacy site.
  • Second Type Woman - USA-based information site.
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... This article is about the Male sex. ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Androgyny (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cisgender (IPA: ) is an adjective neologism that means non-transgender. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Gender identity disorder, as identified by psychologists and physicians, is a condition in which a person has been assigned one gender, usually on the basis of their sex at birth (compare intersex disorders), but identifies as belonging to another gender, and feels significant discomfort or being unable to deal with... Genderqueer or intergender is a gender identity of both, neither or some combination of man and/or woman. In relation to the gender binary (the view that there are only two genders), genderqueer people generally identify as more both/and or neither/nor, rather than either/or. ... A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ... Intersexuality is the state of a person whose sex chromosomes, genitalia and/or secondary sex characteristics are determined to be neither exclusively male nor female. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pansexuality. ... Anna P., who lived for many years as a man in Germany, was photographed for Magnus Hirschfelds book Sexual Intermediates in 1922. ... Transmen or trans men are transgender or transsexual people who were assigned female at birth based on genital appearance (or, in cases of intersexuality, were later assigned to the female gender) and who feel that this is not an accurate or complete description of themselves. ... MTF redirects here. ... For the electronic music EP by Mr. ... Sexual orientation refers to the direction of an individuals sexuality, usually conceived of as classifiable according to the sex or gender of the persons whom the individual finds sexually attractive. ... This article is about the sexual orientation in humans. ... Bisexual redirects here. ... One version of a Heterosexuality symbol Heterosexuality is sexual or romantic attraction between opposite sexes, and is the most common sexual orientation among humans. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Pansexuality (sometimes referred to as omnisexuality[1]) is a sexual orientation characterized by the potential for aesthetic attraction, romantic love and/or sexual desire for people regardless of their gender identity or biological sex. ... Anna P., who lived for many years as a man in Germany, was photographed for Magnus Hirschfelds book Sexual Intermediates in 1922. ... Faafafine (Samoa), fakaleiti (Tonga), rae rae or mahu (French Polynesia) is a Polynesian concept related to gender role and gender identity. ... A fakaleiti (or leiti or fakafefine or lady) is a Tongan man who behaves in in effeminate ways, in contrast to mainstream Tongan men, who tend to be very masculine. ... For other uses, see Hijra. ... Ladyboy redirects here. ... Khanith (variant transcription Xanith) is a vernacular Arabic term for both standard written Arabic mukhannath and khuntha. ... Mukhannathun (also mukhannath) are gender-variant (typically male-to-female) persons of the Islamic faith who are accepted within the boundaries of Makkah and Madinah (Islam). ... In Zapotec cultures of Oaxaca (southern Mexico), a muxe (or muxhe) is a physically male individual who dresses and behaves in a feminine manner; they may be seen as a third gender. ... A sworn virgin is a virgin who adamantly refuses to ever have sexual intercourse. ... Berdache (from French, from Arabic bardajo meaning kept boy) is a generic term used by some for a third gender (woman-living-man) among many, if not most, Native American tribes. ... Femme redirects here. ... A castrato is a male soprano, mezzo-soprano, or alto voice produced either by castration of the singer before puberty or one who, because of an endocrinological condition, never reaches sexual maturity. ... European illustration of a Eunuch (1749) Chief Eunuch of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II at the Imperial Palace, 1912. ... Two women in handcuffs and latex miniskirts and tops - Latex and PVC fetishism Wikinews has related news: Dr. Joseph Merlino on sexuality, insanity, Freud, fetishes and apathy Sexual fetishism is the sexual attraction for material and terrestrial objects while in reality the essence of the object is inanimate and sexless. ... This article is about the word Master as used in BDSM. For other uses of the word, see Master. ... Polyamory (from Greek (, literally “multiple”) and Latin (literally “love”)) is the desire, practice, or acceptance of having more than one loving, intimate relationship at a time with the full knowledge and consent of everyone involved. ... This article is about the subcultural sexual lifestyle. ... For the novel by William S. Burroughs, see Queer (novel). ... Womyn is one of a number of alternate spellings of the word woman, which some feminists use. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Incarcerated transgender people (764 words)
For transgender offenders who were undergoing hormonal therapy or sex reassignment at the time of arrest, the continuation of hormone treatment is important to their welfare.
For example, a defendant's transgender status could affect decisions to arrest, influence jury verdict decision-making and could lead to disproportionate sentences exceeding what is typical for the crime committed.
Careful attention must be given to how the transgender population is defined, and it is vital that empirical investigations are mindful of subpopulations encompassed by this general classification.
Transgender - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2439 words)
Transgender is an overarching term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at birth.
Transgender is the state of one's gender identity not matching one's assigned gender — which is usually based on physical/genetic sex — or falling into multiple categories in terms of gender.
Transgender people may feel misunderstood by caregivers because of this practice; it is also quite confusing when a relationship that is considered gay or lesbian by both partners is labeled heterosexual, or a relationship that consists, as far as the partners are concerned, of a man and a women is labeled homosexual.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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