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Encyclopedia > Transfusions

Blood transfusion is the taking of blood or blood-based products from one individual and inserting them into the circulatory system of another. It can be considered a form of organ transplant. Blood transfusions may treat medical conditions, such as massive blood loss due to trauma, surgery, shock and where the red cell producing mechanism (or some other normal and essential component) fails (see blood diseases). Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... An organ transplant is the transplantation of a whole or partial organ from one body to another, for the purpose of replacing the recipients damaged or failing organ with a working one from the donor. ... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... A typical modern surgery operation For other meanings of the word, see Surgery (disambiguation) Surgery (from the Greek cheirourgia - lit. ... In medicine, shock (hypoperfusion) is a life-threatening medical emergency characterized by inability of the body to supply enough oxygen to meet tissue requirements. ... Blood diseases affect the production of blood and its components, such as blood cells, hemoglobin, blood proteins, the mechanism of coagulation, etc. ...

Contents


History

Roman Catholic authors take pains to discredit the contemporary chronicler Stefano Infessura's story of Innocent VIII's deathbed. As the Pope sank into a coma, the harrowing story was told that, at the suggestion of a Jewish physician, the blood of three boys was infused into the dying pontiff's veins. They were ten years old, and had been promised a ducat each. All three died. Historians of medicine note this event as the first reported historical attempt at a blood transfusion. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Stefano Infessura (Rome, ca 1435- ca 1500), an antipapal humanist lawyer is remembered through his Diary of the City of Rome, a gossipy chronicle of events at Rome. ... Innocent VIII, né Giovanni Battista Cibo (1432 – July 25, 1492), pope from 1484 to 1492, was born at Genoa, and was the son of Aran Cibo who under Calixtus III had been a senator at Rome. ... The pope is the Catholic Patriarch and Bishop of Rome, and leader of the Catholic Church. ... The ducat was a gold coin that was used throughout Europe. ...

World War II syringe for direct interhuman blood transfusion
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World War II syringe for direct interhuman blood transfusion

With Harvey's discovery of the circulation of the blood, more sophisticated research into blood transfusion began in the 17th century, with successful experiments of transfusions between animals. However, successive attempts on humans continued to bring death. WWII Syringe for direct interhuman blood transfusion. ... WWII Syringe for direct interhuman blood transfusion. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


The first fully-documented human blood transfusion was administered by Dr. Jean-Baptiste Denys on June 15, 1667. He transfused the blood of a sheep to a 15-year old boy (the boy later died, and Denys was accused of murder). June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... Species See text A Sheep is a mammal, one of several woolly ruminant quadrupeds in the genus Ovis. ...


Only in the first decade of the 19th century was the reason for such death found in the existence of blood types, and the practice of mixing some blood from the donor and the receiver before the transfusion allowed a greater number of successes. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A blood type is a description an individuals characteristics of red blood cells due to substances (carbohydrates and proteins) on the cell membrane. ...


In 1818 Dr.James Blundell, a British obstetrician, performed the first successful transfusion of human blood to a patient for the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage. He used the patient's husband as a donor, and extracted four ounces of blood from his arm to transfuse into his wife. During the years 1825 and 1830, he performed 10 transfusions,five of which were beneficial and published his results. He also invented many instruments for the transfusion of blood. He made a lot of money from this endeavour, in the neighbourhood of today's equivalent of $50,000,000. This article needs to be wikified. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Hemorrhage (alternate spelling is Haemorrhage) is the medical term referring to the presence of blood in the interstitial tissues. ...


In 1840, at St. George's School in London, Samuel Armstrong Lane, aided by Dr. Blundell, performed the first successful whole blood transfusion to treat hemophilia. Haemophilia or hemophilia is the name of any of several hereditary genetic illnesses that impair the bodys ability to control bleeding. ...


While the first transfusions had to be made directly from donor to receiver before coagulation, in the 1910s it was discovered that by adding anticoagulants and refrigerating the blood it was possible to store it for some days, thus opening the way for blood banks. The first non-direct transfusion was performed on March 27, 1914 by the Belgian doctor Albert Hustin, who used sodium citrate as an anticoagulant. The first blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled was performed on January 1, 1916. It was performed by the Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC), and the procedure was very successful. The coagulation of blood is a complex process during which blood forms solid clots. ... // Events and trends The 1910s represent the culmination of European militarism which had its beginings during the second half of the 19th Century. ... An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation; that is, it stops blood from clotting. ... Refrigeration (from the Latin frigus, frost) is generally the cooling of a body by the transfer of a portion of its heat away from it. ... A blood bank is a cache or bank of blood or blood components, gathered as a result of blood donation, stored and preserved for later use in blood transfusions. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (87th in Leap years). ... 1914 (MCMXIV) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Albert Hustin ( 1882- 1967) was a Belgian medical doctor. ... Sodium citrate is the sodium salt of citric acid with the chemical formula of Na3C6H5O7. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January-February January 1 -The first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ... The Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC) is a specialist corps in the British Army which provides medical services to all British Army personnel and their families in war and in peace. ...


The first blood transfusion institute was set up by Alexander Bogdanov (who would sacrifice his own life in one of the experiments) in Moscow in 1925. Alexander Bogdanov (1873 - 1928) was a Russian physician, philosopher, economist, writer, and revolutionary. ... Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA: ▶(?)) is the capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ...


There is an urban legend concerning one of the pioneers of blood transfusion research, Dr. Charles Drew. Drew's research led to the discovery that blood could be separated into blood plasma and red blood cells, and that the components could be frozen separately. Blood stored in this way lasted longer and was less likely to become contaminated. His untimely death after an automobile accident is commonly believed to have resulted partly from delayed access to emergency blood transfusion treatment because of his race. The popular television series M*A*S*H once aired an episode (see Season 2, Episode 9 - "Dear Dad ... Three") propagating this legend. Contemporary eye-witness accounts however, contradict that version. Urban legends are a kind of folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them (see rumor). ... Dr. Charles Richard Drew (June 3, 1904_April 1, 1950) was a physician and medical researcher. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... Death is the cessation of physical life in a living organism or the state of the organism after that event. ... A small variety of cars, the most popular kind of automobile. ... A race is a population of humans distinguished from other populations. ... M*A*S*H at the Internet Movie Database M*A*S*H Timeline Encyclopedia of Television Finest Kind - Fan Site w/ News, Episode Guides, Video Clips U.K. Fan Site w/ Interviews, Episode Guides Best Care Anywhere - Fan Site w/ Episode Guides, Memorable Moments TV Tome Yahoo Groups M... M*A*S*H episode list from TV Tome M*A*S*H episode guide from TV Tome: Season 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 M*A*S*H episode trivia quizzes at Funtrivia. ...


Precautions

Great care is taken to ensure that the recipient's immune system will not attack the donor blood, and also to avoid transfusing white blood cells that could initiate an immune attack on the host (graft versus host disease). Nevertheless, blood transfusion does suppress the immune system, increasing the risk of complications after surgery. The immune system is the system of specialised cells and organs that protect an organism from outside biological influences. ... White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ... Graft-versus-host disease is a common complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. ...


In addition to the familiar human blood type (A, B, AB and O) and Rhesus (positive or negative) classifications, other red cell antigens are known to determine compatibility, to one degree or other. These other type become increasingly important in people who receive many blood transfusions as their bodies develop increasing resistance to blood from other people. A blood type is a description of an individuals characteristics of red blood cells due to substances (carbohydrates and proteins) on the cell membrane. ... A blood type is a description an individuals characteristics of red blood cells due to substances (carbohydrates and proteins) on the cell membrane. ... Glycosphingolipids are a subtype of glycolipids containing the amino alcohol phingosine. ... The term compatibility has the following meanings: In telecommunication, the capability of two or more items or components of equipment or material to exist or function in the same system or environment without mutual interference. ...


There is increased awareness that a number of diseases (such as AIDS, syphilis, hepatitis B and hepatitis C and others) can be passed from the donor to recipient. This has led to strict human blood transfusion standards in developed countries, such as HIV blood screening. Standards include screening for potential risk factors and health problems including determining donor hemoglobin level, and answering a set of standard oral and written questions, as well as testing donated units for these infections. The lack of such standards in places like rural China, where desperate villagers donated plasma for money and had others' red blood cells reinjected, has produced entire villages infected with AIDS. The Red Ribbon is the global symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS. AIDS is an acronym for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and is defined as a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the depletion of the immune system caused... Depression-era U.S. poster advocating early syphilis treatment Syphilis (historically called lues) is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is caused by a spirochaete bacterium, Treponema pallidum. ... Originally known as serum hepatitis, Hepatitis B has only been recognized as such since World War II, and has caused current epidemics in parts of Asia and Africa. ... Hepatitis C is a form of hepatitis liver inflammation caused by a virus, the Hepatitis C virus (HCV). ... The risk of transmitting HIV infection to blood transfusion recipients has been drastically reduced by improved donor selection and sensitive serologic screening assays in many countries. ... 3-dimensional structure of hemoglobin. ...


Procedure

Blood can only be administered intravenously. It therefore requires the insertion of a cannula of suitable caliber. Before the blood is administered, the personal details of the patient are matched with the blood to be transfused, to minimize risk of transfusion reactions. An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... A cannula (pl. ...


A unit (up to 500 ml) of blood is typically administered over 4 hours. In patients at risk of congestive heart failure, many doctors administer furosemide to prevent fluid overload. Congestive heart failure (CHF) (also called congestive cardiac failure and heart failure) is the inability of the heart to pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body, or requiring elevated filling pressures in order to pump effectively. ... Furosemide (INN) or frusemide (former BAN) is a loop diuretic used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and edema. ...


Contraindications

The contraindications to a blood donor include:

  • previous malaria or hepatitis.
  • history of drug abuse
  • donors who have received human pituitary hormone.
  • donors with high risk sexual behaviour
  • donors who have previously been transfused (depending on geographic location)

Sometimes only parts of the blood are taken as a donation. Blood is made up mostly of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Plasma and platelets can be donated separately in a process called ~apherisis. Blood is usually separated into components after being donated to make the most use of it. Donation of whole blood is generally reserved for treating young children and remote areas where the hospital summons donors when it needs them. Resulting blood component products also include albumin protein used to treat burns, clotting factor concentrates used to treat hemophilia, cryoprecipitate, fibrinogen concentrate, and immunoglobulin antibodies for immunological disorders. Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen from the lungs or gills to body tissues via the blood. ... White blood cells (also called leukocytes or immune cells) are a component of blood. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... You may be looking for albumen, or egg white. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Haemophilia or hemophilia is the name of any of several hereditary genetic illnesses that impair the bodys ability to control bleeding. ... Cryoprecipitate is a blood product manufactured by warming frozen plasma. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ...


Donation of whole blood eliminates transfusion-related risk of illness for the blood donor, aside from the minuscule chance of infection or perhaps of localized injury to the donor site. While there is a theoretical risk to the donor when they donate plasma and have red cells reinfused, this risk is eliminated by proper sterilization procedures. However, this caused public health disasters in China where this practice was often unregulated. Modern, well-run blood plasma collection centers are completely safe. In the United States and other developed countries, they are maintained by pharmaceutical companies, using paid donors up to twice weekly. Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ...


Donations are usually anonymous to the recipient, but products in a blood bank are always individually traceable through the whole cycle of donation, testing, separation into components, storage, administration to the recipient. This enables management and investigation of any suspected transfusion related disease transmission. A blood bank is a cache or bank of blood or blood components, gathered as a result of blood donation, stored and preserved for later use in blood transfusions. ...


Complications

Possible complications in the recipient include:

Hemolysis (alternative spelling haemolysis) is the excessive breakdown of red blood cells. ... An allergy or Type I hypersensitivity is an immune malfunction whereby a persons body is hypersensitised to react immunologically to typically nonimmunogenic substances. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), also known as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or adult respiratory distress syndrome (in contrast with IRDS) is a serious reaction to various forms of injuries to the lung. ...

Animal blood transfusion

Veterinarians also administer transfusions to animals. Various species require different levels of testing to ensure a compatible match. Cats have 3 blood types, cattle have 11, dogs have a dozen, pigs 16 and horses have 34. Look up veterinarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In biology, the most commonly used definition of species was first coined by Ernst Mayr. ... Trinomial name Felis silvestris catus (Linnaeus, 1758) This article is about the domestic cat. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (called cows in vernacular usage) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris (Linnaeus, 1758) The dog is a canine mammal of the Order Carnivora that has been domesticated for at least 24,800 years and perhaps for as long as 150,000 years based on recent evidence. ... Species Sus barbatus Sus bucculentus Sus cebifrons Sus celebensis Sus domesticus Sus heureni Sus philippensis Sus salvanius Sus scrofa Sus timoriensis Sus verrucosus Pigs are ungulates native to Eurasia collectively grouped under the genus Sus within the Suidae family. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The Horse (Equus caballus) is a sizeable ungulate mammal, one of the seven modern species of the genus Equus. ...


The rare and experimental practice of inter-species blood transfusions is a form of xenograft. A xenograft (xenotransplant) is a transplant of tissue from a donor of one species to a recipient of another species. ...


Blood transfusion substitutes

There are currently no clinically acceptable oxygen-carrying blood substitutes for humans, however, there are widely available non-blood volume expanders and other blood saving techniques. These are helping doctors and surgeons avoid the risks of disease transmission and immune suppression, address the chronic blood donor shortage and address the religious objections of Jehovah's Witnesses. Blood substitutes are used to fill fluid volume and/or carry oxygen and other gases in the cardiovascular system. ... Blood substitutes are used to fill fluid volume and/or carry oxygen and other gases in the cardiovascular system. ...


A number of blood substitutes are currently in the clinical evaluation stage. Most attempts to find a suitable alternative to blood have so far concentrated on cell-free hemoglobin solutions. Blood substitutes could make transfusions more readily available in emergency medicine and in pre-hospital EMS care. If successful such a blood substitute could save many lives, particularly in traumas where massive blood loss results. Blood substitutes are used to fill fluid volume and/or carry oxygen and other gases in the cardiovascular system. ... Emergency medicine is a branch of medicine that is practiced in a hospital emergency department, in the field (in a modified form; see EMS), and other locations where initial medical treatment of illness takes place. ... Emergency medical service (known by the acronym of EMS in the USA and Canada) is a branch of medicine that is performed in the field, pre-hospital, (i. ...


See also

Blood donation is a process by which a blood donor voluntarily has blood drawn for storage in a blood bank for subsequent use in a blood transfusion. ... A phlebotomist is an individual trained to draw blood (venipuncture), either for laboratory tests, or for blood donations. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Blood substitutes are used to fill fluid volume and/or carry oxygen and other gases in the cardiovascular system. ... Luis Agote ( September 22, 1868- November 12, 1954) was an Argentinian doctor and researcher. ... Dr. Norman Bethune 1922 Dr. Henry Norman Bethune (March 3, 1890 – November 12, 1939) was a Canadian physician, medical innovator, and humanitarian. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Blood transfusion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1322 words)
Blood transfusions may treat medical conditions, such as massive blood loss due to trauma, surgery, shock and where the red cell producing mechanism (or some other normal and essential component) fails (see blood diseases).
He transfused the blood of a sheep to a 15-year old boy (the boy later died, and Denys was accused of murder).
While the first transfusions had to be made directly from donor to receiver before coagulation, in the 1910s it was discovered that by adding anticoagulants and refrigerating the blood it was possible to store it for some days, thus opening the way for blood banks.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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