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Encyclopedia > Transfer of the sovereignty of Hong Kong

Image File history File links Hkhistory. ...

History of Hong Kong
Timeline

    Prehistoric
    Imperial (221 BC - 1800s)
    Colonial (1800s - 1930s)
    Occupied (1940s)
    Modern Hong Kong (1950s - 1997)
        1950s | 60s | 70s | 80s | 90s
        Handover to PRC rule
    At present
The history of Hong Kong began as a coastal island geographically located in southern China. ... The following is a timeline of the history of Hong Kong: See also History of Hong Kong Categories: Articles to be expanded ... In the prehistory of Hong Kong, according to archaeological studies and many other resources, human activity in Hong Kong dates back over five millennia. ... The History of Hong Kong in Imperial China began in 214 BC under the Qin Dynasty. ... Motto  (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King/Queen  Location of Hong Kong Capital Victoria City Language(s) English Chinese Political structure Colony Monarch  - 1841–1901 Victoria  - 1901–1910 Edward VII  - 1910–1927 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1952 George VI  - 1952- (Cont. ... The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began after the Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Mark Young surrendered the territory of Hong Kong to Japan on 25 December 1941 after 18 days of fierce fighting between British and Canadian defenders against Japanese Imperial forces. ... The history of Hong Kong began as a coastal island geographically located in southern China. ... 1950s in Hong Kong began after the Japanese rule ended in 1945 with sovereignty returning to the British. ... Hong Kongs development in the 1960s are most notably at industries. ... In the 1970s, Hong Kong underwent many changes that were to shape the future of the city. ... [[1980s injkfsld;js;dlkjgfksldjg s;djfsa;ljfsaljfawsde recognized internationally for its politics, entertainment and skyrocketing real estate prices. ... The 1990s in Hong Kong was defined by the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration, a statement that paved the way for a series of changes that would facilitate the transfer of sovereignty from the United Kingdom to the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... 2000s in Hong Kong began a new millennium under the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...

   Aviation history
   Bus history
   Technical standards
Seven years after the first flight of a heavier-than-air controlled aeroplane in 1903, planes were already flying in Hong Kong. ... Collection of KMB bus models, from past to present. ... This article gives readers an insight on how the British colonial rule affected the technical standards in Hong Kong. ...

History of China
History of the UK
The history of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...

Other Hong Kong topics
Culture - Economy
Education - Geography - Politics
Hong Kong Portal

The transfer of the sovereignty of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to China, often referred to as "The Handover", occurred on July 1, 1997. The event marked the end of British rule, and the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong to Chinese rule. The culture of Hong Kong can best be described as a foundation that began with China, and then leaned West for much of the 20th century under constructive British colonialism. ... Other Hong Kong topics Culture - Economy Education - Geography - History Hong Kong Portal Politics of Hong Kong takes place in a framework of a political system dominated by China, an own legislature, the Chief Executive as the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...

Contents

Overview

Chris Patten takes the podium at the Royal Armed Forces' Retreat Ceremony of Hong Kong in 1997
Chris Patten takes the podium at the Royal Armed Forces' Retreat Ceremony of Hong Kong in 1997

Hong Kong's territory was acquired from three separate treaties: the Treaty of Nanking in 1842, the Treaty of Beijing in 1860, and The Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory in 1898, which gave the United Kingdom the control of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon (area south of Boundary Street), and the New Territories (area north of Boundary Street and south of the Shenzhen River, and outlying islands), respectively. Although Hong Kong Island and Kowloon had been ceded to the United Kingdom in perpetuity, the control on the New Territories was a 99-year lease. The finite nature of the 99-lease did not hinder Hong Kong's development as the New Territories was combined as a part of Hong Kong. By 1997, it was technically impossible to separate the three territories and only return the New Territories. In addition, with the scarcity of land and natural resources in Hong Kong Island and Kowloon, the New Territories were being developed with large-scale infrastructures and other developments, with the break-even day lying well past 30 June 1997. Thus, the status of the New Territories after the expiry of the 99-year lease became key in Hong Kong's economic development. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Christopher Francis Patten, Baron Patten of Barnes, CH, PC (born 12 May 1944 in Bath, Somerset) is a prominent British Conservative politician and a Patron of the Tory Reform Group. ... The Treaty of Nanjing (Chinese: 南京條約, Nánjīng Tiáoyuē) is the agreement which marked the end of the First Opium War between the United Kingdom and China. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Convention of Peking (October 18, 1860), also known as the First Convention of Peking, was a treaty between the Qing Government of China and the British Empire, and between China and France, and China and Russia. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... The Convention Between Great Britain and China Respecting an Extension of Hong Kong Territory (aka. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The night view of the Island side as seen from the Kowloon side - the opposite side of the Victoria Harbour Hong Kong Island (Traditional Chinese: 香港島; Simplified Chinese: 香港岛; Cantonese Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2 dou2; Mandarin Pinyin: Xiānggǎngdǎo) is the island where the colonial settlement of the Hong Kong territory... In modern day Hong Kong, Kowloon refers to the urban area made up of Kowloon Peninsula and New Kowloon, bordered by the Lei Yue Mun strait in the east, Mei Foo Sun Chuen and Stonecutters Island in the west, Tates Cairn and Lion Rock in the north, and... Boundary Street (Chinese: 界限街; Cantonese IPA: , Jyutping gaai3 haan6 gaai1; Mandarin Pinyin: Jiè Xiàn Jiê) is a three-lane one-way street in Kowloon, Hong Kong. ... A major road, Kwong Fuk Road in Tai Po, a town in the New Territories. ... Sham Chun River (also Shenzhen River, Shenzhen He) (Chinese: 深圳河; Cantonese IPA: ; Jyutping: sam1 zan3 ho4; Hanyu Pinyin: Shēnzhèn Hé), together with the Sha Tau Kok River, serves as the natural border between Hong Kong and mainland China. ... The night view of the Island side as seen from the Kowloon side - the opposite side of the Victoria Harbour Hong Kong Island (Traditional Chinese: 香港島; Simplified Chinese: 香港岛; Cantonese Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2 dou2; Mandarin Pinyin: Xiānggǎngdǎo) is the island where the colonial settlement of the Hong Kong territory... In modern day Hong Kong, Kowloon refers to the urban area made up of Kowloon Peninsula and New Kowloon, bordered by the Lei Yue Mun strait in the east, Mei Foo Sun Chuen and Stonecutters Island in the west, Tates Cairn and Lion Rock in the north, and... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...


In March 1979, the Governor of Hong Kong Murray MacLehose paid his first official visit to the People's Republic of China, taking the initiative to raise the question of Hong Kong's sovereignty with Deng Xiaoping. Without clarifying and establishing the official position of the PRC government, the arranging of real estate leases and loans agreements in Hong Kong within the next 18 years would be rather difficult. In fact, as early as the mid 1970s, Hong Kong had faced additional risks raising loans for large scale infrastructure projects such as its MTR system and a new airport. Caught unprepared, Deng asserted the necessity of Hong Kong's return to China, upon which Hong Kong would be given special status by the PRC government. Flag of the Governor of Hong Kong, 1959–1997 The Governor of Hong Kong (Traditional Chinese: ; abbreviated 港督) was a British official who ruled Hong Kong during the colonial period between 1841 and 1997 and was ex-officio Commander-in-Chief and Vice-Admiral of Hong Kong. ... The Rt. ... Deng Xiaoping   (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 – February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician and reformer, and the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... This article is about MTR as a metro system. ...


Many argue that had it not been for MacLehose's rashness, the PRC government might not have pressed to put the Hong Kong question on its agenda. Debate aside, MacLehose's visit to the PRC did raise the curtain on the issue of Hong Kong's sovereignty: Britain was made very much aware of the PRC's intention - their aspiration to resume sovereignty over Hong Kong as the Qing Dynasty's successor - and began to make arrangements accordingly to ensure the sustenance of its interests within the territory, as well as initiating the creation of a withdrawal plan in case of emergency. Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ...


Three years later, Deng received the former British Prime Minister Edward Heath. Heath had been dispatched as the special envoy of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher to establish an understanding of the PRC's view with regards to the question of Hong Kong. Throughout their meeting, Deng stated clearly for the first time the PRC's willingness to settle the sovereignty issue with Britain through formal negotiations. In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, OBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ... For other uses, see Negotiation (disambiguation). ...


In the same year, Edward Youde, who succeeded MacLehose as the 26th Governor of Hong Kong, led a delegation of five Executive Councillors to London, including Chung Sze Yuen, Lydia Dunn, and Roger Lobo. Chung presented their position on the sovereignty of Hong Kong to Thatcher, encouraging her to take into consideration the interests of the native Hong Kong population in her upcoming visit to China. Sir Edward Youde (尤德) GCMG, GCVO, MBE (19 June 1924 - 5 December 1986 in Beijing, China) was a British administrator, diplomat and Sinologist. ... Delegation is the handing of a task over to another person, usually a subordinate. ... The Executive Council (ExCo) of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China is an organ in the Executive branch of the political structure of Hong Kong. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Chung Sze Yuen (Sir S.Y. Chung, GBE, GBM) (鍾士元) is a politician and industrialist in Hong Kong. ... Lydia Selina Dunn, Baroness Dunn, DBE (traditional Chinese: 鄧蓮如男爵) was the Senior Unofficial Member of the Legislative Council and Executive Council in Hong Kong in 1985-1992. ... Rogerio Hyndman Lobo (羅保), also Rogerio Lobo and Roger Lobo, is a businessman of Portuguese and Scottish descent and has been an active philanthropist and politician in Hong Kong. ...


In 1982, the two governments began to talk about the sovereignty of Hong Kong. In light of the increasing openness of the PRC government and economic reforms on the mainland, then-British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher sought the PRC's agreement to a continued British presence in the territory[1]. However, the PRC took a contrary position: not only did the PRC wish for the New Territories, on lease until 1997, to be placed under the PRC's jurisdiction, it also refused to recognise the "unfair and unequal treaties" under which Hong Kong Island and Kowloon had been ceded to Britain in perpetuity[1]. Consequently, the PRC recognised only the British administration in Hong Kong, but not British sovereignty. Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ... ... The night view of the Island side as seen from the Kowloon side - the opposite side of the Victoria Harbour Hong Kong Island (Traditional Chinese: 香港島; Simplified Chinese: 香港岛; Cantonese Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2 dou2; Mandarin Pinyin: Xiānggǎngdǎo) is the island where the colonial settlement of the Hong Kong territory... The Kowloon Peninsula, commonly referred to as Kowloon, is a peninsula, in the south of the mainland part of the Hong Kong territory. ...


The talks

Major events during 1979 - 1997
24 March 1979 Hong Kong Governor Sir Murray MacLehose was invited to visit Guangzhou and Beijing to find out the attitude of the Chinese government on the issue of Hong Kong.
29 March 1979 Sir Murray MacLehose met the then vice Premier Deng Xiaoping and raised the issue of Hong Kong for the first time. Deng remarked that the investors could set their minds at peace.
4 April 1979 The Kowloon-Canton through-train routes were restored after 30 years of non-service.
3 May 1979 The Conservative Party won the U.K. Election.
29 October 1979 Premier Hua Guofeng visited Britain and had a meeting with Margaret Thatcher. Both of them expressed their concern to maintain the stability and prosperity of Hong Kong.
12 May 1980 Tabled by the Conservative Party in the British government, a new status "British Dependent Territories Citizens" was introduced. This status proposal was widely opposed by Hong Kong people.
3 April 1981 Lord Carrington met Deng Xiaoping in his visit to Beijing.
30 September 1981 Chairman of the NPC Ye Jianying issued nine guiding principles concerning a peaceful reunification of Taiwan and mainland China.
30 October 1981 The House of Commons passed the new British Nationality Act.
Nov 1981 The Beijing government invited some Hong Kong citizens to help organizing a united front in the handling of the Hong Kong issue.
6 January 1982 Chinese Prime Minister Zhao Ziyang received Humphrey Atkins. Zhao insisted that the PRC would uphold her sovereignty over Hong Kong.
10 March 1982 Vice Premier Gu Mu received Sir John Bremridge, promising to maintain Hong Kong's stability and prosperity.
6 April 1982 Deng Xiaoping revealed his wish to have official contact with the British government.
8 May 1982 Sir Edward Youde arrived as the 26th Governor of Hong Kong.
May 1982 Deng Xiaoping and Zhao Ziyang collected advice from Hong Kong notables such as Lee Ka-shing and Ann tse-kei.
15 June 1982 Deng Xiaoping officially announced the position of the Chinese government in the context of the Hong Kong 97 Issue, marking the first public statement on part of the PRC with regards to the issue.

is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Zhao Ziyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chao Tzu-yang) (October 17, 1919–January 17, 2005) was a politician in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Humphrey Atkins (August 12, 1922 - October 4, 1996) was a British Conservative politician who served as Secretary of State for Northern Ireland from 1979-1981 before being appointed in September 1981 as Lord Privy Seal in which he was the chief government spokesman in the House of Commons for Foreign... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Sir John Henry Bremridge (彭勵治爵士), KBE, JP, MA (1926 - 1994) was Financial Secretary of Hong Kong from 1981 to 1986. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Redirect page ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...

Before the war of words

In the wake of Governor MacLehose's visit, Britain and the PRC established initial diplomatic contact for further discussions of the Hong Kong question, paving the way for Thatcher's first visit to the PRC in September 1982[2]. Margaret Thatcher, in discussion with Deng Xiaoping, reiterated the validity of an extension of the lease of Hong Kong territory, particularly in light of binding treaties, including the Treaty of Nanking in 1842, the Convention of Peking in 1856, and the clause signed in 1890. In response, Deng Xiaoping cited clearly the lack of room for compromise on the question of sovereignty over Hong Kong; the PRC, as the successor of Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, would recover the entirety of the New Territories, Kowloon and Hong Kong Island. Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ... Deng Xiaoping   (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 – February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician and reformer, and the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... The Treaty of Nanjing (Chinese: 南京條約, NánjÄ«ng TiáoyuÄ“) is the agreement which marked the end of the First Opium War between the United Kingdom and China. ... The Convention of Peking (October 18, 1860), also known as the First Convention of Peking, was a treaty between the Qing Government of China and the British Empire, and between China and France, and China and Russia. ... The Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory (aka. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...


After her visit with Deng in Beijing, Thatcher was received in Hong Kong as the first British Prime Minister to set foot on the territory whilst in office. At a press conference, Thatcher re-emphasised the validity of the three treaties, asserting the need for countries to respect treaties on universal terms: "treaties ought always to be respected; without such respect, without such necessary trust, it was impossible for any negotiations to take place".


At the same time, at the 5th session of the 5th National People's Congress, the constitution was amended to include a new clause which stated that the country might establish a special administrative region (SAR) when necessary. The additional clause would hold tremendous significance in settling the question of Hong Kong and later Macau, putting into social consciousness the concept of "One country, two systems". The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest... Special administrative region may be: Peoples Republic of China Special administrative regions, present-day administrative divisions (as of 2006) set up by the Peoples Republic of China to administer Hong Kong (since 1997) and Macau (since 1999) Republic of China Special administrative regions, also translated as special administrative... One country, two systems (Simplified Chinese: 一国两制; Traditional Chinese: 一國兩制; pinyin: yì; guó liÇŽng zhì; Jyutping: jat1 gwok3 loeng5 zai3; Yale: yāt gwok leúhng jai), is an idea originally proposed by Deng Xiaoping, then Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), for the unification of China. ...


Negotiations began

A few months after Thatcher's visit to Beijing, the PRC government had still yet to open negotiations with the British government regarding the sovereignty of Hong Kong. Unsure of what to do, Thatcher consulted former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, though consultation proved fruitless in the end. Shortly before the initiation of sovereignty talks, Governor Youde declared his intention to represent the population of Hong Kong at the negotiations. This statement sparked a strong response from the PRC, which slammed Britain for "making a three-legged stool" and "playing public-opinion cards" as bargaining chips[1]. At the preliminary stage of the talks, the British government refused to budge, insisting on an exchange of sovereignty for administration and the implementation of a British administration post-handover. The PRC government refused, contending that the notions of sovereignty and administration were inseparable, and although it recognised Macau as a "Chinese territory under Portuguese administration", it also sought the return of that territory. In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ...


The conflict arising at this point of the negotiations, ended the possibility of further negotiation. During the reception of former British Prime Minister Edward Heath during his sixth visit to the PRC, Deng Xiaoping commented quite clearly on the impossibility of exchanging sovereignty for administration, declaring an ultimatum: the British government must modify or give up its position or the PRC will announce its resolution of the issue of Hong Kong sovereignty unilaterally. Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, OBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ...


In 1983, Typhoon Ellen ravaged Hong Kong, causing great amounts of damage to both life and property. The Hong Kong dollar plummeted on Black Saturday, and the Financial Secretary of Hong Kong John Bremridge publicly associated the economic uncertainty with the instability of the political climate. In response, the PRC government condemned Britain through the press for "playing the economic cards" in order to achieve their ends: to intimidate the PRC into conceding to British demands. The 1983 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. ... Black Saturday (September 24, 1983) is the name given to the crisis when Hong Kong dollar was at an all time low exchange rate. ... Financial Secretary, often abbreviated as FS, is a position of the Hong Kong Government. ... Sir John Henry Bremridge (彭勵治爵士), KBE, JP, MA (1926 - 1994) was Financial Secretary of Hong Kong from 1981 to 1986. ...


British concession

Governor Youde with nine members of the Hong Kong Executive Council travelled to London to discuss with Prime Minister Thatcher the crisis of confidence - the problem with morale among the people of Hong Kong arising from the ruination of the Sino-British talks. The session concluded with Thatcher's writing of a letter addressed to the PRC Premier Zhao Ziyang; in it, she expressed Britain’s willingness to explore arrangements optimizing the future prospects of Hong Kong while utilising the PRC’s proposals as a foundation. Furthermore, and perhaps most significantly, she expressed Britain's concession on its position of a continued British presence in the form of an administration post-handover. The Executive Council (ExCo) of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China is an organ in the Executive branch of the political structure of Hong Kong. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Zhao Ziyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chao Tzu-yang) (October 17, 1919–January 17, 2005) was a politician in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Two rounds of negotiations were held in October and November. On the sixth round of talks in November, Britain formally conceded its intentions of either maintaining a British administration in Hong Kong or seeking some form of co-administration with the PRC, and showed its sincerity in discussing PRC's proposal on the 1997 issue. Obstacles were cleared.


Simon Keswick, chairman of Jardine Matheson & Co., said they were not pulling out of Hong Kong, though reinstated a new holding company would be established in Bermuda instead. He remarked that it was not desirable to "put all of one's eggs in one basket." The PRC took this as yet another plot by the British. The Hong Kong government explained that it had been informed about the move only a few days before the announcement. The government would not and could not stop the company from making a business decision. Simon Lindley Keswick (born 20 May 1942) is an Scottish Businessman and brother of Sir John Chips and Henry Keswick. ... ... For the band, see Big Brother and the Holding Company. ...


Just as the atmosphere of the talks was becoming cordial, members of the Hong Kong Legislative Council felt impatient at the long-running secrecy over the progress of Sino-British talks on the Hong Kong issue. They held that the people of Hong Kong should have the right to know what was being discussed and to speak at the talks. A motion, tabled by legislator Roger Lobo, and declaring, "This Council deems it essential that any proposals for the future of Hong Kong should be debated in this Council before agreement is reached", was passed unanimously. The PRC attacked the motion furiously, referring to it as "somebody’s attempt to play the three-legged stool trick again". At length, the PRC and Britain initiated the Joint Declaration on the question of Hong Kong’s future in Beijing. Zhou Nan, the then PRC Deputy Foreign Minister and leader of the negotiation team, and Sir Richard Evans, British Ambassador to Beijing and leader of the team, signed respectively on behalf of the two governments. Rogerio Hyndman Lobo (羅保), also Rogerio Lobo and Roger Lobo, is a businessman of Portuguese and Scottish descent and has been an active philanthropist and politician in Hong Kong. ... Zhou Nan (Simplified Chinese: 周南; Pinyin: Zhōu Nán) is the former Director of the Hong Kong Branch of Xinhua News Agency, as well as the former Vice Minister of the Peoples Republic of Chinas Ministry of Foreign Affairs. ... Richard Evans could be Richard Evans (businessman), current Chancellor of the University of Central Lancashire and former chairman of BAE Systems Richard Evans (AI researcher), computer game developer Richard Evans (footballer), Welsh footballer. ...


Sino-British Joint Declaration

Hong Kong SAR and People's Republic of China table flag
Hong Kong SAR and People's Republic of China table flag
Main article: Sino-British Joint Declaration

The Sino-British Joint Declaration was signed by the Prime Ministers of the People's Republic of China and the United Kingdom governments on December 19, 1984 in Beijing. The Declaration entered into force with the exchange of instruments of ratification on May 27, 1985 and was registered by the PRC and UK governments at the United Nations on June 12, 1985. In the Joint Declaration, the PRC Government stated that it had decided to resume the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong (including Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, and the New Territories) with effect from July 1, 1997, and the UK Government declared that it would restore Hong Kong to the PRC with effect from July 1, 1997. In the document the PRC Government also declared its basic policies regarding Hong Kong. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x1024, 74 KB)Photo of the HKSAR and PRC flags, as used on a table. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x1024, 74 KB)Photo of the HKSAR and PRC flags, as used on a table. ... Hong Kong (香港; Cantonese IPA: ; Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2; Yale: heūng góng; pinyin: Xiānggǎng; Wade-Giles: Hsiang-kang) is one of the two Special Administrative Regions of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Sino-British Joint Declaration, formally known as the Joint Declaration of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Peoples Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong, was signed by the Prime Ministers of the Peoples... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Peking redirects here. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The night view of the Island side as seen from the Kowloon side - the opposite side of the Victoria Harbour Hong Kong Island (Traditional Chinese: 香港島; Simplified Chinese: 香港岛; Cantonese Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2 dou2; Mandarin Pinyin: XiānggÇŽngdÇŽo) is the island where the colonial settlement of the Hong Kong territory... The Kowloon Peninsula, commonly referred to as Kowloon, is a peninsula, in the south of the mainland part of the Hong Kong territory. ... A major road, Kwong Fuk Road in Tai Po, a town in the New Territories. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...


In accordance with the "One Country, Two Systems" principle agreed between the UK and the PRC, the socialist system of PRC would not be practised in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), and Hong Kong's previous capitalist system and its way of life would remain unchanged for a period of 50 years. The Joint Declaration provides that these basic policies shall be stipulated in the Hong Kong Basic Law. The ceremony of the signing of the Sino-British Joint Declaration took place at 18:00, 19 December 1984 at the Western Main Chamber of the Great Hall of the People. The Hong Kong and Macau Affairs Office at first proposed a list of 60-80 Hong Kong people to attend the ceremony. The number was finally extended to 101. The list included Hong Kong government officials, members of the Legislative and Executive Councils, chairmen of the The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and Standard Chartered Bank, Hong Kong celebrities such as Li Ka-shing, Pao Yue-kong and Fok Ying-tung, and also Martin Lee Chu-ming and Szeto Wah who are now often condemned by the PRC government. Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Special administrative region may be: Peoples Republic of China Special administrative regions, present-day administrative divisions (as of 2006) set up by the Peoples Republic of China to administer Hong Kong (since 1997) and Macau (since 1999) Republic of China Special administrative regions, also translated as special administrative... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... Cover of Index to the Basic Law The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China (中華人民共和國香港特別行政區基本法; or in short 香港基本法 or 基本法) serves as the constitutional document of Hong Kong. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... HSBC Holdings PLC (NYSE: HBC), (LSE: HSBA) , (HKSE: 005) , (Euronext: HSBC) , is one of the largest banking groups in the world. ... Standard Chartered Bank (LSE: STAN, SEHK: 2888) is a British bank headquartered in London with operations in more than fifty countries. ... Li Ka Shing (李嘉誠 pinyin: Lǐ Jiāch ng, Jyutping: Lei5 Gaa1-sing4), is the wealthiest person in Hong Kong and East Asia. ... Henry Fok Ying Tung 霍英東, pinyin: Huò YÄ«ngdōng (born May 10, 1923 in Hong Kong. ... For other persons named Martin Lee, see Martin Lee (disambiguation). ... Szeto Wah 司徒華 (born February 28, 1931), is currently the chairman of The Hong Kong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Democratic Movements in China (香港市民支援愛國民主運動聯合會), was a member of the Legislative Council from 1985...


Drafting of Basic Law

The Basic Law was drafted by a Committee composed of members from both Hong Kong and mainland China. A Basic Law Consultative Committee formed purely by Hong Kong people was established in 1985 to canvass views in Hong Kong on the drafts. The first draft was published in April 1988, followed by a five-month public consultation exercise. The second draft was published in February 1989, and the subsequent consultation period ended in October 1989. The Basic Law was formally promulgated on 4 April 1990 by the NPC, together with the designs for the flag and emblem of the HKSAR. Some members of the Basic Law drafting committee were ousted by Beijing following the 4 June 1989 Tiananmen Square incident,after voicing views supporting the students. The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China serves as the constitutional document of Hong Kong. ... The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China serves as the constitutional document of Hong Kong. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Basic Law was said to be a mini-constitution drafted with the participation of Hong Kong people. The political system had been the most controversial issue in the drafting of the Basic Law. The special issue sun-group adopted the political model put forward by Louis Cha. This "main-stream" proposal was criticised for being too conservative. According to Clauses 158 and 159 of the Basic Law, powers of interpretation and amendment of the Basic Law are vested in the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress and the National People's Congress, respectively. Hong Kong people have limited influence. Louis Cha, (born June 6, 1924), known to most by his penname Jinyong or Kam-yung, is one of the most influential Chinese-language novelists. ...


Migration tide

Kai Tak Airport in the 1980s was overcrowded daily
Kai Tak Airport in the 1980s was overcrowded daily

After the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, the Executive Councillors and the Legislative Councillors unexpectedly held an urgent meeting, requesting the British Government to give the right of abode in the United Kingdom to the people of Hong Kong. More than 10,000 Hong Kong residents rushed to Central in order to get an application form for residency in Singapore and the United Kingdom. On the eve of the deadline, over 100,000 lined up overnight for a BN(O) application form. While mass migration did begin well before 1989, the event did lead to the peak migration year in 1992 with 66,000[3]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Kai Tak Airport (Traditional Chinese: ) was the international airport of Hong Kong from 1925 until 1998. ... [[1980s injkfsld;js;dlkjgfksldjg s;djfsa;ljfsaljfawsde recognized internationally for its politics, entertainment and skyrocketing real estate prices. ... The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly referred to as the Tiananmen Square Massacre,[1] were a series of demonstrations led by students, intellectuals, and labor activists in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) between April 15 and June 4, 1989. ... The Executive Council (ExCo) of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China is an organ in the Executive branch of the political structure of Hong Kong. ... The Legislative Council (abbreviated as LegCo; Chinese: 立法會, Pinyin: Lìfǎ Huì; formerly 立法局, Lìfǎ Jú) is the unicameral legislature of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The night view of the Central as viewed from Tsim Sha Tsui on the opposite side of the Victoria Harbour Central (Chinese: 中環; Jyutping: zung1 waan4; Cantonese IPA: ; Pinyin: Zhōnghuán) is an area located in Central and Western District, Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong. ... The United Kingdom has arguably the worlds most complex nationality laws, because of its former status as an imperial power. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


Many citizens were pessimistic towards the future of Hong Kong and the transfer of the region's sovereignty. A tide of emigration, which was to last for no less than five years, broke out. At its peak, citizenships of such small countries as Cape Verde, Tonga, Gambia and Ecuador were also in great demand. Many consuls were deported for their corrupt behaviour in granting immigration visas. “Citizen” redirects here. ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... World map of the Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International, which measures the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians. High numbers (green) indicate relatively less corruption, whereas lower numbers (red) indicate relatively more corruption. ...


Canada (Toronto & Vancouver), Australia (Sydney), and the United States (San Francisco & New York) were, by and large, the most popular destinations. The United Kingdom devised the British Nationality Selection Scheme, granting 50,000 families British citizenship under the British Nationality Act (Hong Kong) 1990. Vancouver was among the most popular destinations, so much so that Richmond (a suburb of Vancouver) earned the nickname of "Little Hong Kong" and "New Chinatown", and for the city itself, "HongCouver". Other popular settlements are found in Auckland and Singapore. All in all, from the start of the settlement of the negotiation in 1984 to 1997, nearly 1 million people have emigrated, consequently Hong Kong suffered serious loss of capital and talents[4]. A map of Torontos Census Metropolitan Area, which contains a large portion of the Greater Toronto Area. ... Motto: Building a sustainable region Area: 2,878. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... Bay Area redirects here. ... New York–Northern New Jersey–Long Island is the most populous metropolitan area in the United States and is also one of the most populous in the world . ... Section 1(1) of the British Nationality (Hong Kong) Act 1990 gave the Home Secretary the power to register as British citizens up to 50,000 persons (heads of families) recommended to him by the Governor of Hong Kong. ... British nationality law as it pertains to Hong Kong has been a unique situation ever since it was created a British colony in 1842. ... Motto: Building a sustainable region Area: 2,878. ... Richmond is an incorporated city on the Pacific coast of the Canadian province of British Columbia. ... This article is about sections of an urban area associated with a large number of Chinese residents or commercial activities. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ... This article is about the emigration term. ...


The last governor

Chris Patten became the last governor of Hong Kong. This was regarded as a turning point in Hong Kong's history. Unlike his predecessors, Patten was not a diplomat, but a career politician and former Member of Parliament. He introduced democratic reforms which pushed PRC-British relations to a standstill and affected the negotiations for a smooth handover. Christopher Francis Patten, Baron Patten of Barnes, CH, PC (born 12 May 1944 in Bath, Somerset) is a prominent British Conservative politician and a Patron of the Tory Reform Group. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ...


Patten introduced a package of electoral reforms in the Legislative Council. These reforms proposed to enlarge the electorate, thus making voting in the Legislative Council more democratic. This move posed significant changes because Hong Kong citizens would have the power to make decisions regarding their future. The Legislative Council (abbreviated as LegCo; Chinese: 立法會, Pinyin: Lìfǎ Huì; formerly 立法局, Lìfǎ Jú) is the unicameral legislature of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The handover ceremony

British Representatives at the Royal Armed Forces' Retreat Ceremony. Left-to-right: Robin Cook, Cherie Blair, Prince Charles (in his dress uniform as an Rear Admiral of the Royal Navy) and Chris Patten; Tony Blair can just be seen on the right-hand side
British Representatives at the Royal Armed Forces' Retreat Ceremony. Left-to-right: Robin Cook, Cherie Blair, Prince Charles (in his dress uniform as an Rear Admiral of the Royal Navy) and Chris Patten; Tony Blair can just be seen on the right-hand side

The handover ceremony was held at the new wing of the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre in Wan Chai on the night of 30 June 1997. The principal British guest was The Prince of Wales who read a farewell speech on behalf of the Queen. The newly elected Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Tony Blair, and the departing Hong Kong governor Chris Patten also attended. Representing China were the President of the People's Republic of China, Jiang Zemin; and Tung Chee-hwa, the first Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Robert Finlayson Cook (28 February 1946 – 6 August 2005) was a politician in the British Labour Party. ... Cherie Blair QC (born in Bury, Greater Manchester on September 23, 1954), better known as the wife of British Prime Minister Tony Blair, is also a successful lawyer, in which capacity she uses her maiden name Cherie Booth. ... Prince Charles may refer to: Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, current heir-apparent to the British throne Any of the previous British royals named Charles, Prince of Wales The former Belgian regent, Prince Charles of Belgium This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that... See military uniform and full dress for wider coverage of dress uniforms. ... Admiral is a senior rank of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom, outranked only by the rank Admiral of the Fleet. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Christopher Francis Patten, Baron Patten of Barnes, CH, PC (born 12 May 1944 in Bath, Somerset) is a prominent British Conservative politician and a Patron of the Tory Reform Group. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Handover ceremony of Hong Kong in 1997: The Union Flag lowered and the Flag of China raised. ... Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre New Wing Harbour view of the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre New Wing The Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre (香港會議展覽中心; often abbreviated as HKCEC or 會展) is a convention and exhibition venue in Wan Chai North, Hong Kong Island, the business hub of Hong... See Wan Chai District for the broader administrative district that covers Wan Chai, Causeway Bay, Happy Valley, etc. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... “Prince Charles” redirects here. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Christopher Francis Patten, Baron Patten of Barnes, CH, PC (born 12 May 1944 in Bath, Somerset) is a prominent British Conservative politician and a Patron of the Tory Reform Group. ... The President of the Peoples Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国主席; Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ZhÇ”xí, or abbreviated Guójiā ZhÇ”xí 国家主席) is the head of state of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Jiāng Zémín (Traditional Chinese: 江澤民, Simplified Chinese: 江泽民, Hanyu Pinyin: Jiāng Zémín, Wade-Giles: Chiang Tse-min, Cantonese (Jyutping): gong1 zaak6 man4) (born August 17, 1926) was the core of the third generation of Communist Party of China leaders, serving as General Secretary of the Communist... Tung Chee-hwa (Traditional Chinese: 董建華 Simplified Chinese: 董建华 Pinyin: Dǒng Jiànhuá) (born July 7, 1937, or the 29th day of the fifth month in the Chinese calendar) is the first Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People... The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China (中華人民共和國香港特別行政區), mostly referred to as Hong Kong (香港; pronunciation), is one of the two Special Administrative Regions of the Peoples Republic of...


Additional effects

The Rose Garden Project

After the Tiananmen Square Protest, the Hong Kong government proposed a grand "Rose Garden Project" to restore faith and solidarity among the residents. As the construction of the new airport would extend well after the handover. Governor Wilson met PRC Premier Li Peng in Beijing to ease the mind of the PRC government. The communist press published stories that the project was an evil plan to bleed Hong Kong dry before the handover, leaving the territory in serious debt[5]. After three years of negotiations, Britain and the PRC finally reached an agreement over the construction of the new airport, and signed a Memorandum of Understanding. Removing hills and reclaiming land, it took only a few years to construct the new airport. The Port and Airport Development Strategy (PADS) (港口及機場發展策略) is an infrastructure project in Hong Kong. ... The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly referred to as the Tiananmen Square Massacre,[1] were a series of demonstrations led by students, intellectuals, and labor activists in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) between April 15 and June 4, 1989. ... Chek Lap Kok Airport Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Hong Kong International Airport (IATA: HKG, ICAO: VHHH) is the main airport in Hong Kong. ... Li Peng (Simplified Chinese: 李鹏, Traditional Chinese: 李鵬, Wade-Giles: Li Peng) (b. ...


Views of the Kowloon Walled City

The handover of Hong Kong on July 1, 1997, the last major overseas British colony.
Main article: Kowloon Walled City

The Walled City was originally a single fort built in the mid-1800s on the site of an earlier 17th century watch post on the Kowloon Peninsula of Hong Kong[6]. After the ceding of Hong Kong Island to Britain in 1842 (Treaty of Nanjing), Qing (Chinese) authorities felt it necessary for them to establish a military-cum-administrative post to rule the area and to check further British influence in the area. Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The transfer of the sovereignty of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) occurred on June 30, 1997. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The Walled city in 1989, viewed from an airplane. ... The Kowloon Peninsula, commonly referred to as Kowloon, is a peninsula, in the south of the mainland part of the Hong Kong territory. ... The night view of the Island side as seen from the Kowloon side - the opposite side of the Victoria Harbour Hong Kong Island (Traditional Chinese: 香港島; Simplified Chinese: 香港岛; Cantonese Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2 dou2; Mandarin Pinyin: XiānggÇŽngdÇŽo) is the island where the colonial settlement of the Hong Kong territory... Signing of the Treaty of Nanjing The Treaty of Nanking (Chinese: 南京條約, NánjÄ«ng TiáoyuÄ“) is the treaty which marked the end of the First Opium War between the United Kingdom and Empire of China. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of...


The 1898 Convention which handed additional parts of Hong Kong (the New Territories) to Britain for 99 years excluded the Walled City, with a population of roughly 700. It stated that China could continue to keep troops there, so long as they did not interfere with Britain's temporary rule. Britain quickly went back on this unofficial part of the agreement, attacking Kowloon Walled City in 1899, only to find it deserted. They did nothing with it, or with the outpost, and thus put the question of Kowloon Walled City's ownership squarely up in the air. The outpost consisted of a yamen, as well as buildings which grew into low-lying, densely packed neighbourhoods from 1890s to 1940s. The enclave remained part of Chinese territory despite the turbulent events of the early 20th century that saw the fall of the Qing government, the establishment of a Chinese republic and later, the People's Republic of China (PRC). A major road, Kwong Fuk Road in Tai Po, a town in the New Territories. ... Official Session in a Chinese Yamen, Guangzhou, before 1889. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...


Squatters began to occupy the Walled City, resisting several attempts by Britain in 1948 to drive them out. The Walled City became a haven for crooks and drug addicts, as the Hong Kong Police had no right to enter the City and mainland China refused maintainability. The 1949 foundation of the People's Republic of China added thousands of refugees to the population, many from Guangdong; by this time, Britain had had enough, and simply adopted a 'hands-off' policy. A murder that occurred in Kowloon Walled City in 1959 set off a small diplomatic crisis, as the two nations each tried to get the other to accept responsibility for a vast tract of land now virtually ruled by anti-Manchurian Triads. If the Black Market ever had a physical location, this would have been it. After the Joint Declaration in 1984, the PRC allowed British authorities to demolish the City and resettle its inhabitants. The mutual decision to tear down the walled city was made in 1987. The government spent up to HK$ 3 billion to resettle the residents and shops. Some residents were not satisfied with the compensation, and some even obstructed the demolition in every possible way. Ultimately, everything was settled, and the Walled City became a park. The Hong Kong Police Force (香港警察) (from 1969 to 1997, Royal Hong Kong Police Force (皇家香港警察) is the police force of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... ... Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Triad (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally Triad Society) or (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally Black Society, a general term for criminal organizations) is a term that describes many branches of Chinese underground society and/or organizations based in Hong Kong and Macau and also operating in Taiwan, mainland... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ... The Sino-British Joint Declaration, formally known as the Joint Declaration of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Peoples Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong, was signed by the Prime Ministers of the Peoples... The Hong Kong Dollar (ISO 4217: HKD) is the official currency of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) within the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Views of Rennie's Mill

Rennie's Mill got its name from a Canadian businessman named Alfred Herbert Rennie, who established a flour mill at Junk Bay. The business failed, and Rennie hanged himself there in 1908. The incident gave the Chinese name for the site Tiu Keng Leng (吊頸嶺), meaning "Hanging (neck) Ridge". The name was later changed to similar sounding Tiu King Leng (調景嶺) because it was inauspicious. Tiu Keng Leng (調景嶺, also Rennies Mill) is an area of Hong Kong adjacent to Tseung Kwan O (Junk Bay). ...


In the 1950s the (British) Hong Kong government settled a considerable number of refugees from China - former Nationalist soldiers and other Kuomintang supporters - at Rennie's Mill, following the Chinese civil war. For many years the area was a Kuomintang enclave known as "Little Taiwan", with the flag of the Republic of China flying, its own school system and practically off-limits to the Royal Hong Kong Police Force. On July 1, 1997, the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) resumed its exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong, ending more than 150 years of British colonial control. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... Combatants Kuomintang of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War (traditional... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... Flag of Taiwan redirects here. ... Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, good judgement and wisdom. ... The Hong Kong Police Force (香港警察) (from 1969 to 1997, Royal Hong Kong Police Force (皇家香港警察) is the police force of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


In 1996 the Hong Kong government finally forcibly evicted Rennie's Mill's residents, ostensibly to make room for new town developments, as part of the Tseung Kwan O New Town, but widely understood to be a move to please the Communist Chinese government before Hong Kong reverted to Communist Chinese rule in 1997. A new town, planned community or planned city is a city, town, or community that was designed from scratch, and grew up more or less following the plan. ... Tseung Kwan O (Chinese: 將軍澳, Cantonese Jyutping: zoeng1 gwan1 ou3; Cantonese IPA: ; Mandarin Pinyin: Jiāngjūn Aò; formerly Junk Bay) is a new town in Hong Kong, mainly built on reclaimed land in the northern half of the bay after which it is named. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ...


Before the eviction, Rennie's Mill could be reached by the winding, hilly and narrow Po Lam Road South. At that time, Rennie's Mill's only means of public transport were the routes 90 and 290 of KMB, which were operated by minibuses, and by water transport. This article needs cleanup. ... Volkswagen minibus A minibus is a motor vehicle that is designed to carry fewer people than a full-size bus. ...


Transfer of the sovereignty of Hong Kong in popular culture

  • Hong Kong Cantopop artist Sam Hui has made numerous references to 1997 including the song 话知你 97 (Could Not Care Less About 1997).
  • Chinese American rapper Jin Auyeung has a song called 1997 in his Cantonese album ABC, which he makes references to the handover, bus uncle, 10 years of Hong Kongs return to China.

Samuel Hui Koon-kit, usually known as just Sam Hui, was a star in the Cantopop and movie industry in Hong Kongs from the 1960s to 1990s. ... Jin Au-Yeung (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; jyutping: Au1joeng4 Zing6), also known as Jin, Jin tha MC, 100 Grand Jin and The Emcee is a Chinese American rapper born on June 4, 1982. ...

See also

Seal of Macau Special Administrative Region The transfer of the sovereignty of Macau from the Portuguese Republic to the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) occurred on December 20, 1999. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

Bibliography

  • 2006. Cousins and Strangers: America, Britain, and Europe in a New Century
  • 2005. Not Quite the Diplomat: Home truths about World Affairs
  • 1999. East and West: China, Power, and the Future of Asia . ISBN 0-7710-6981-2. Pb'k. ISBN 0-330-37308-0
  • 1983. Tory Case

References

  1. ^ a b c Yahuda, Michael B. [1996] (1996) Hong Kong: China's Challenge. United Kingdom: Routledge. ISBN 0415140714
  2. ^ Buckley, Roger. [1997] (1997) Hong Kong: The Road to 1997. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521469791
  3. ^ Manion, Melanie. [2004](2004). Corruption by Design: Building Clean Government in Mainland China and Hong Kong. Harvard University press. ISBN 0674014863
  4. ^ Fosh, Patricia. Chan, Andy. Chow, Wilson WS. Snape, Ed. Westwood, Robert. [2000] (2000) Hong Kong Management and Labour. United Kingdom: Routledge. ISBN 0415222699.
  5. ^ Bray, Denis. Hong Kong Metamorphisis. [2001] (2001) Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 962209550X
  6. ^ Lim, Patricia. [2002] (2002). Discovering Hong Hong's Cultural Heritage. Central, Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. ISBN Volume One 0-19-592723-0


  Results from FactBites:
 
Transfer of the sovereignty of Hong Kong - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3599 words)
Margaret Thatcher, engaged in discussion with Deng Xiaoping, reiterating the validity for an extension of the lease of Hong Kong territory, particularly in light of binding treaties, including the Treaty of Nanking in 1842, the Convention of Peking in 1856, and the clause signed in 1890.
The Hong Kong dollar plummeted; the Financial Secretary of Hong Kong John Bremridge publicly associated the economic uncertainty with the instability of the political climate.
The handover ceremony was held at the new wing of the Hong Kong Exhibition and Convention Centre in Wan Chai on the night of 30th June 1997.
Handover - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (159 words)
The term was also used for the transfer of the Panama Canal and the Canal Zone to Panama, and the returns of sovereignty to Iraq by the United States.
The transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong, a former British crown colony, from UK to People's Republic of China in 1997.
The transfer of sovereignty of Macau from Portugal to People's Republic of China in 1999, and has become a special administrative region.
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