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Encyclopedia > Transducer

A transducer is a device, usually electrical, electronic, electro-mechanical, electromagnetic, photonic, or photovoltaic that converts one type of energy to another for various purposes including measurement or information transfer (for example, pressure sensors). In a broader sense (for example in the Viable System Model) a transducer is sometimes defined as any device that converts a signal from one form to another. A very common device is an audio speaker, which converts electrical voltage variations representing music or speech, to mechanical cone vibration. The speaker cone in turn vibrates air molecules creating acoustical energy. The word transduction has several meanings: In developmental psychology, transduction is reasoning from specific cases to specific cases, typically employed by children. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... In engineering, electromechanics combines the sciences of electromagnetism of electrical engineering and mechanics. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field, encompassing all of space, composed of the electric field and the magnetic field. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A solar cell, a form of photovoltaic cell, is a device that uses the photoelectric effect to generate electricity from light, thus generating solar power (energy). ... Digital air pressure sensor A pressure sensor measures the pressure, typically of gases or fluids. ... The Viable Systems Model, or VSM is a model of the organisational structure of any viable system. ...

Contents

Types of transducers

This list is confined to the narrower definition of the term.

A Yagi-Uda beam antenna Short Wave Curtain Antenna (Moosbrunn, Austria) A building rooftop supporting numerous dish and sectored mobile telecommunications antennas (Doncaster, Victoria, Australia) An antenna is a transducer designed to transmit or receive radio waves which are a class of electromagnetic waves. ... Cathode ray tube employing electromagnetic focus and deflection Cutaway rendering of a color CRT: 1. ... Fluorescent lamps in Shinbashi, Tokyo, Japan Assorted types of fluorescent lamps. ... The light bulb is one of the most significant inventions in the history of the human race, illuminating the darkness of the evening and bringing light indoors at all times in order focus on the task at hand. ... A magnetic cartridge is a device used for the playback of gramophone records on a turntable or phonograph. ... A photoresistor is an electronic component whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity. ... A photoresistor is an electronic component whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity. ... A tape head is a type of transducer used in tape recorders to convert electrical signals to magnetic fluctuations and vice versa. ... The magnetic piston (1) in this pneumatic cylinder will cause the Hall effect sensors (2 and 3) mounted on its outer wall to activate when it is fully retracted or extended. ... A pH meter is an electronic instrument used to measure the pH (acidity or basicity) of a liquid (though special probes are sometimes used to measure the pH of semi-solid substances, such as cheese). ... An electro-galvanic fuel cell is an electrical device used to measure the concentration of oxygen gas in SCUBA diving and medical equipment. ... An actuator is a mechanical device for moving or controlling a mechanism or system. ... Electroactive Polymers or EAPs are polymers whose shape is modified when a voltage is applied to them. ... Wire carrying current to be measured Restoring spring N and S are poles of magnet A galvanometer is a type of ammeter — an instrument for detecting and measuring electric current. ... A mite next to a gear set produced using MEMS. Courtesy Sandia National Laboratories, SUMMiTTM Technologies, www. ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... A linear motor is essentially a multi-phase alternating current (AC) electric motor that has had its stator unrolled so that instead of producing a torque (rotation) it produces a linear force along its length. ... Vibration powered generators are mechanisms for converting kinetic energy derived from ambient vibration to electrical energy. ... It has been suggested that Determining emf of primary cells using potentiometer be merged into this article or section. ... A single-point load cell A load cell is typically an electronic device (transducer) that is used to convert a force into an electrical signal. ... Typical foil strain gauge. ... A depiction of an accelerometer designed at Sandia National Laboratories. ... Typical foil strain gauge. ... A string potentiometer is a transducer used to detect and measure linear position and velocity using a flexible cable and spring-loaded spool. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Tonearm redirects here. ... A hydrophone is a sound-to-electricity transducer for use in water or other liquids, analogous to a microphone for air. ... For the Marty Friedman album, see Loudspeaker (album) An inexpensive low fidelity 3. ... In-ear headphones Headphones (also known as earphones, stereophones, headsets, or the slang term cans) is a transducer that receives an electrical signal from a media player or receiver and uses speakers placed in close proximity to the ears (hence the name earphone) to convert the signal into audible sound... Microphones redirects here. ... Piezoelectricity is the ability of some materials (notably crystals and certain ceramics) to generate an electric potential[1] in response to applied mechanical stress. ... A tactile transducer or bass shaker is a device which is made on the principle that low bass frequencies can be felt as well as heard. ... A diagram illustrating the emission of electrons from a metal plate, requiring energy gained from an incoming photon to be more than the work function of the material. ... A packaged laser diode with penny for scale. ... “LED” redirects here. ... Photodiode closeup A photodiode A photodiode is a semiconductor diode that functions as a photodetector. ... LDR The internal components of a photoelectric control for a typical American streetlight. ... The fact that traditional transistors (these days called “Bipolar Junction Transistors” or BJTs) are photosensitive has been known ever since they were invented. ... Photomultipliers, or photomultiplier tubes (PMT) are extremely sensitive detectors of light in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared. ... An electrometer is an electrical instrument for measuring electric charge or electrical potential difference. ... A resistance temperature detector measures the relationship between electrical resistance and temperature. ... In electronics, thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor and can also be used as a means to convert thermal potential difference into electric potential difference. ... The Peltier-Seebeck effect, or thermoelectric effect, is the direct conversion of heat differentials to electric voltage and vice versa. ... NTC thermistor, bead type, insulated wires Thermistor symbol A thermistor is a type of resistor used to measure temperature changes, relying on the change in its resistance with changing temperature. ... A Geiger-Müller tube (or GM tube) is the sensing element of a Geiger counter instrument that can detect a single particle of ionizing radiation, and typically produce an audible click for each. ... In radio terminology, a receiver is an electronic circuit that receives a radio signal from an antenna and decodes the signal for use as sound, pictures, navigational-position information, etc. ...

Info-acoustic transducers

Info-acoustic transducers are transducers which convert information to sound, or sound to information. Typically, but not necessarily, the information is represented as an electrical signal.


There are four broad categories of info-acoustic transducers which may be categorized according to the state of matter in which they operate: In the physical sciences, a state of matter is one of the many ways that matter can interact with itself to form a macroscopic, homogenous phase. ...


Tabular overview of info-acoustic transducers

State of matter: Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Ideas/Informatics
Transducer: Geophone Hydrophone Microphone/Loudspeaker Ionophone Informatic transducer
Classical Element: Earth Water Air Fire Idea
Greek: Geo/Gaia Hydro/Hydor Aero Pyro/Ion(ἰόν)
Latin: Quintessence (fifth-element)

In the physical sciences, a state of matter is one of the many ways that matter can interact with itself to form a macroscopic, homogenous phase. ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... Gas phase particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) move around freely Gas is one of the four major states of matter, consisting of freely moving atoms or molecules without a definite shape and without a definite volume. ... Look up plasma in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A hydrophone is a sound-to-electricity transducer for use in water or other liquids, analogous to a microphone for air. ... Microphones redirects here. ... For the Marty Friedman album, see Loudspeaker (album) An inexpensive low fidelity 3. ... An ionophone is a device in which sound is produced by matter in the plasma state. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... IDEA may refer to: Electronic Directory of the European Institutions IDEA League Improvement and Development Agency Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Indian Distance Education Association Integrated Data Environments Australia Intelligent Database Environment for Advanced Applications IntelliJ IDEA - a Java IDE Interactive Database for Energy-efficient Architecture International IDEA (International Institute... GEO or Geo may refer to any of the following: Geo or gio, is a creek (inlet) or gulley in the Orkney and Shetland Islands GEO (newspaper), a popular scientific magazine Geo (microformat), a microformat for marking up WSG84 geographical coordinates in (X)HTML Geo (automobile), a brand of entry... Look up Gaia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up hydro, hydro-, hydr- in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lambda Aquarii (λ Aqr / λ Aquarii) is a star in the constellation Aquarius. ... AERO (Anthology of Electronic Revisited Originals) is a 2004 album of electronic music by Jean Michel Jarre. ... Look up Pyro in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... Look up Quintessence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Acoustic impedance of info-acoustic transducers

Since plasma is a gas or gaslike medium of charged particles, it has an acoustic impedance similar to that of gas such as air, thus ionophones can be used as microphones and loudspeakers.


Water is much more dense than air (about 1000 times more dense) so hydrophones do not make very good microphones, and likewise microphones (even if made waterproof) do not work well in water. However, geophones and hydrophones can sometimes produce acceptable results when interchanged, notwithstanding the fact that hydrophones respond to pressure but geophones respond to the derivative (i.e. can't respond all the way down to DC).


See also

A finite state transducer (FST) is a finite state machine with two tapes. ... An ultrasonic transducer is a device that converts energy into ultrasound, or sound waves above the normal range of hearing for humans. ... In biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another, most often involving ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, that are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers resulting in what is thought of as...

References

  • J. Allocca and A. Stuart, Transducers: Theory and Application, Reston 1984.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Transducers
  • What are Transducers?
  • whatis: transducer
  • Federal Standard 1037C, August 7, 1996: transducer
  • American National Standard for Telecommunications - Telecom Glossary 2000: transducer

  Results from FactBites:
 
BoatUS BoatTECH Guides: Selecting a Transducer (1289 words)
Transducers with a wide beam width of up to 50° will "see" around their location at a wide section of the bottom.
Using a transducer from a 100-watt unit on a 1,000-watt unit is also not a good idea as the excessive energy from the more powerful fishfinder will soon destroy the crystals within the small transducer.
Transducers may be installed through the hull, in water- or oil-filled boxes inside certain hulls, attached to the inside of some fiberglass boats, or mounted on the transom.
Pressure Transducer Basics: a Primer (2610 words)
As we continue our journey through the transducer we come to the other side of the diaphragm where one side of the sensor element is. The actual element is a strain gauge; that is, a resistive element whose resistance changes with the amount of strain placed on it.
One of the better ways is to suspend the submersible transducer in a perforated 1 1/2" or 2" PVC pipe or attach the transducer (using a optional 1/2" M NPT fitting) to a rigid conduit.
When mounting the transducer in a well casing, the cable hanger can be secured to a eyebolt attached to the well plate or the side of the well casing.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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