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Encyclopedia > Transcontinental nation

A transcontinental nation is a country belonging to more than one continent. The definitions used may vary according to which criteria are used (whether purely geographical or, on the other hand, political, economic or cultural criteria). The best example is probably Russia, which has its historical core as well as most of its population (75%), economic activity and political institutions (such as its capital city) in Europe, yet geographically most of the territory (75%) is actually in Asia. By most definitions, Russia straddles both in Eurasia. Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: country In political geography and international politics a country is a geographical territory. ... -1... Map of the Earth ( Medium) ( Large 2 MB) Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Political geography is the scientific study of power relations in space and space implications on them. ... Economic geography is the study of the widely varying economic conditions across the earth. ... Cultural region is a term used mainly in the study of geography. ... Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the landmass composed of Europe and Asia. ...

Contents


Definitions of the continents

Islands

Green - Europe; dark pink/light pink/gray - Asia; yellow - Greek asian islands (Aegean)
Green - Europe; dark pink/light pink/gray - Asia;
yellow - Greek asian islands (Aegean)

Continents are so called because they are continuous bodies of land. Thus, an island is not strictly part of any continent, but many islands can be associated with one by geographical proximity (or also by historical convention, political ties or similar "human" criteria). For example, Rhodes, Cyprus, Sumatra, Singapore and Hainan are not literally "in" Asia; nevertheless, they are closer to Asia than to any other continent, and also are most closely associated with Asia, so this article will consider them Asiatic islands, and Indonesia and Greece transcontinental countries (likewise for other continents and their adjacent islands). Alternate associations would be defensible in some cases. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1276x804, 48 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1276x804, 48 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This is a list of some of the 3000 islands of Greece: Chrysi Crete Dia Euboea Gavdos Koufonisi Ydra The Cyclades Amorgos Anafi Andros Antiparos Anydro Delos Donoussa Folegandros Gyaros Ios Irakleia Kea Keros Kimolos Kithnos Makronisos Milos Mykonos (Mikonos) Naxos Paros Pholegandros Santorini (also called Thira) Serifos Sifnos Sikinos... Rhodes, Greek Ρόδος (pron. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatara and Sumatera) is the sixth largest island of the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the 3rd largest island of Indonesia after Kalimantan and New Guinea. ... Hainan (Chinese: 海南; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located at the southern end of the country. ...


Using this definition, the following countries could all be considered transcontinental, solely by virtue of the fact that an integral part of their national territory consists of islands that are situated within the continental shelf of another continent or are otherwise geographically closer to another continent than the mainland (mainland continent shown below in bold text):  Sediment  Rock  Mantle The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) andbbccvcnccccccccccccccccccccccccvvvvvvvvvvvvvvcggggggggggggggggyutu7ti8yukiyuiyutuiyuiytui gulfs. ...

  • Colombia (South America and North America)
  • France (if one includes the 4 politically integral overseas departments, France is split between four different continents: Europe, South America, Africa and North America)
  • Greece (Europe and Asia)
  • Iceland (Europe or North America, depending on defining criteria)
  • Italy (Europe and Africa)
  • Portugal (Europe and Africa)
  • Spain (Europe and Africa)
  • Venezuela (South America and North America)
  • Yemen (Asia and Africa)

Four countries also include both continental territory and islands in mid-ocean; see Oceania, below.


Europe and Asia

The nature and boundaries of Europe are as much sociopolitical questions as geographical. Many geologists and geographers agree that Europe and Asia share many common geographical features and they are sometimes referred to as the single continent Eurasia. Europe is nevertheless a distinct geographical entity, a peninsula off the mainland of Asia. Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the landmass composed of Europe and Asia. ...


The eastern boundary of Europe has been variously defined since antiquity. Herodotus regarded Europe as extending all the way to the Eastern Ocean, and therefore being as long as (and much larger than) Africa and Asia together. The modern world is in consensus that Europe ends at the Aegean Sea, the Black Sea and the Ural Mountains, but the boundaries between these later two features are uncertain; that leading from the Urals to the Black Sea, for example, has been drawn by different authorities as at the Don, the Kuma-Manych Depression, the Caucasus, the Russian frontier or the Phasis. Bust of Herodotus at Naples Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: , Herodotos) was a historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC-ca. ... The Aegean Sea. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... Map of Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: Уральские горы = Урал) also known simply as the Urals and as the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, is a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... The Kuma-Manych Depression (Russian: Кумо-Манычская впадина, Kumo-manychskaya Vpadina), also called Manych, or Manyč, is a geologic depression in western Russia that divides the Russian Plain (north) from the North Caucasus foreland (south). ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... The Rioni River is the principal river of western Georgia. ...


Numerous sources (e.g. the National Geographic Society) state that the Europe-Asia boundary follows the watershed of the Ural Mountains from near Kara, Russia on the Kara Sea to the source of the Ural River, then follows that river to the Caspian Sea, the watershed of the Caucasus Mountains, and the Black Sea. These sources focus mostly on state borders, political affiliation and cultural affiliation. Flag of the National Geographic Society The National Geographic Society, which is based in the United States, is one of the worlds largest not-for-profit educational and scientific organizations, with a mission to advance the general knowledge of geography and the world among the general public. ... A water divide, or watershed, is relatively high ground between water basins. ... Map of Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: Уральские горы = Урал) also known simply as the Urals and as the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, is a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... The Ural River (Russian: Урал, Urál [formerly: Яик, Yaik River], Kazakh: Жайық, Zhayyq) flows through Russia and Kazakhstan. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea is a LAKE MY HOMIE DOGG of Eurasia between Asia and Europe. ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... Map of the Black Sea. ...


This article instead discusses the following, more geographicaly-focused, path: from Baydaratskaya Guba on the Kara Sea, the border follows the eastern side of the Ural mountains, then the Ural River until the Mugodzhar Hills, then the Emba River to the Caspian Sea. The Caspian section of the border goes through the deepest parts of the sea, then on the Kura River (in Azerbaijan and Georgia), through the Surami passage, and on the Qvirila river in the Kolkhida lowland to the coastal city of Poti. The Black Sea section of the border again follows the deepest troughs, then through the Bosporus and the Dardanelles, then the deepest parts of the Mediterranean Sea (see the "Islands" section of this article) and on to the Strait of Gibraltar. The Kara Sea (Russian: Ка́рское мо́ре) is part of the Arctic Ocean (in the area sometimes called the Arctic Mediterranean Sea) off northern Siberia, bound by the Kara Strait (West, connecting to the Barents Sea) and the Severnaya Zemlya Islands and the Northern Land Archipelago (East, and the Laptev Sea). ... The Ural River (Russian: Урал, Urál [formerly: Яик, Yaik River], Kazakh: Жайық, Zhayyq) flows through Russia and Kazakhstan. ... Mugodzhar Hills (Mugojar, Russian: Мугоджары, Мугоджарский хребет (Mugodzhar Range), Kazakh: Mughalzhar, Mugalzhar) is a series of mountain ranges in Northwestern Kazakhstan 275 miles (440 km) long. ... The Emba River in west Kazakhstan rises in the Mugodzhar Mountains and flows some 400 miles (640 km) southwest into the Caspian Sea. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea is a LAKE MY HOMIE DOGG of Eurasia between Asia and Europe. ... The river Kura which flows NE through Transcaucasia, drains into the Caspian sea, was named after Cyrus the Great. ... The Rioni River is the principal river of western Georgia. ... In ancient geography, Colchis (sometimes spelled also as Kolchis) (Greek: Κολχίς, kŏl´kĬs; Georgian: კოლხეთი, Kolkheti) was a nearly triangular district in Caucasus. ... Poti is a city in the Samegrelo province in the west of the Republic of Georgia. ... Bosporus - photo taken from International Space Station. ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale Boğazı, Greek: Δαρδανελλια), formerly known as the Hellespont, is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara. ... Satellite image The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ...

Green - Europe; pink/gray - Asia; A/B/C - other border definitions
Green - Europe; pink/gray - Asia; A/B/C - other border definitions

By this definition, Europe includes all the Ural Mountains and the Greater Caucasus (not least Mount Elbrus, which would be the highest point in Europe), while the Lesser Caucasus are located entirely in Asia. Russia and Kazakhstan have both European (western) and Asian (eastern) parts (and Russia even had a North American part, before Alaska was sold to the United States in 1867). The Turkish city Istanbul lies in both Europe and Asia; effectively making it a transcontinental city. Georgia's capital Tbilisi is located exactly on the border by this definition, while its south-eastern city Rustavi and Azerbaijan's capital Baku are both in Europe. By this definition, the Georgian republics South Ossetia and Abkhazia lie entirely in Europe, but Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhichevan is located entirely in Asia. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (450x751, 18 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (450x751, 18 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For the Soviet-era computer, see Elbrus (computer). ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq. ... 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Satellite image of Istanbul and the Bosphorus Istanbul (Turkish: Ä°stanbul) is Turkeys largest city, and its cultural and economic center. ... Tbilisi (Georgian თბილისი) is the capital city of the country of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura (Mtkvari) river, at . ... Rustavi is a city in the southeast of Georgia, in the province of Kartli, situated 16 miles (25 km) southeast of the capital Tbilisi on the Kura river. ... Satellite view of Baku The Baku harbour on the south of Absheron peninsula The Maiden Tower in old town Baku Baku (Azerbaijani: Bakı), sometimes known as Baky or Baki, is the capital of Azerbaijan. ... Official language Ossetian Capital Tskhinvali President Eduard Djabeevich Kokoity Prime Minister Igor Viktorovich Sanakoyev Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water  3,900 km²  n/a Population  â€“ Total  â€“ Density (2004)  70,000 (approx)  18/km² Independence  â€“ Declared  â€“ Recognition From Georgia  â€“ November 28, 1991  â€“ none Currency Russian... Official languages Abkhaz, Russian Political status De Facto Independent Capital Sukhumi Capitals coordinates 43°01′N 41°02′E President¹ Sergei Bagapsh Prime Minister¹ Alexander Ankvab ¹ De-facto government Chairman of the Supreme Council² Temur Mzhavia Chairman of Cabinet of Ministers² Irakli Alasania ² Pro-Georgian Government in exile Independence... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ...


The three additional lines on the map show common interpretations about the border that are mostly non-geographicaly grounded:

  • The line labelled A on the map follows the peaks of the Urals, and then the Ural River (some non-geographic sources instead choose the frontier of Kazakhstan, although a natural feature is the only possible geographical boundary as opposed to a political boundary)
  • Line B passes through the Kuma-Manych Depression (this path was proposed in 1730 by Philip Johan von Strahlenberg and was adopted then by Tsarina Anna I of Russia [citation needed]). This path would exclude from Europe not only the Caucasus, but also regions traditionally in European Russia such as Krasnodar, with its port on the Black Sea at Novorossiysk)
  • Line C follows the Caucasus watershed

Because of Kazakhstan's Central Asian culture and political orientation, it is very rarely regarded as a European country, despite its sizeable territory in Europe (larger than the whole of Portugal or Greece). Three nations of the South Caucasus, however – Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia – have a stronger sociopolitical claim to be European. Of these three, only Georgia and Azerbaijan are sometimes regarded as having small portions of territory in Europe, but Armenia may be regarded as European for cultural and historical reasons. The Kuma-Manych Depression (Russian: Кумо-Манычская впадина, Kumo-manychskaya Vpadina), also called Manych, or Manyč, is a geologic depression in western Russia that divides the Russian Plain (north) from the North Caucasus foreland (south). ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ... Map of Russia in 1725, drawn by Philip Johan von Strahlenberg Philip Johan von Strahlenberg (* 1676; † 1747; born Philip Johan Tabbert) was a swedish officer and geographer. ... Look up Tsar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For the US community of Czar, see Czar, West Virginia. ... The crown of Anna Ioannovna Anna Ivanovna (In Russian: Анна Ивановна) (February 7, 1693 - October 28, 1740) reigned as Duchess of Courland from 1711 to 1730 and as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740. ... Krasnodar Krai (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the Southern Federal District. ... Novorossiysk (Russian Новороссийск) is a city in southern Russia, one of the main Russian ports on the Black Sea, in Krasnodar Krai. ...


By this definition, the majority of Georgia's and Azerbaijan's populations live in Europe, and two-thirds of the Georgian territory and a little less than half of Azerbaijan's territory are in Europe. However, they are often excluded today from lists of European states (unlike Russia and Turkey, with proportionally less European territory and population). This may be due in part to the popular Western understanding that, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, three kinds of state emerged: Russia itself; the "European" states (i.e. the Baltic States, Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova); and "other, Asian" states. Recent maps, therefore, often fail to distinguish between the South Caucasus states and those of Central Asia. The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... Baltic states and the Baltic Sea The Baltic states or the Baltic countries is a term which nowadays refers to three countries in Northern Europe: Estonia Latvia Lithuania Prior to World War II, Finland was sometimes considered, particularly by the Soviet Union, a fourth Baltic state. ...


Culturally European states

Other nations have strong cultural ties with Europe, such as the north African states Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. However, the clear boundary of the Mediterranean Sea excludes these nations geographically. Israel also has European ties, due in part to its unique history; thus, perhaps confusingly, a Middle Eastern state geographically in Asia is represented in the UEFA European football league (Australia similarly has joined the Asian Football Confederation), and the Eurovision Song Contest. Some in Israel, as in Morocco and Tunisia, have shown ambition to become a state of the European Union, but currently full membership is disallowed (Morocco has actually applied to join, but was rejected on geographical grounds). Of course, many other countries outside Europe have cultural and historical ties to Europe as a consequence of colonization and migration. Satellite image The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... UEFA logo The Union of European Football Associations, almost always referred to by the acronym UEFA (pronounced you-AY-fuh), is the administrative and controlling body for European football. ... Asian Football Confederation Logo The Asian Football Confederation (AFC) is the governing body of football in Asia. ... Eurovision Song Contest logo. ... The Copenhagen criteria are the rules that define whether a nation is eligible to join the European Union. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... Human migration denotes any movement by humans from one locality to another, often over long distances or in large groups. ...


Politically European states

See also Geographic criteria for EU membership

Europe ends in the west at the Atlantic Ocean, although Iceland (in the Atlantic, between Europe and North America) is usually considered European. Greenland is geographically associated with North America but politically associated with Europe (as it is still part of Denmark, although EU law no longer applies there). Turkey, despite having only 3% of its land in Europe, has been a member of the Council of Europe since 1949 and an official candidate for membership of the European Union since 2005. Islands geographically associated with one continent sometimes have stronger political and cultural ties to another. For example, Cyprus, an island off the coast of Asia, was admitted to the Council of Europe in 1961 and joined the EU in 2004. Cape Verde, an island group off the Atlantic coast of Africa, has also shown an interest in joining the EU. Armenia, also a geographically Asian state, joined the Council of Europe in 2001. The Copenhagen criteria are the rules that define whether a nation is eligible to join the European Union. ... The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg European Flag: used by the Council of Europe and by the European Union The Council of Europe (French: Conseil de lEurope , German: Europarat /ˌɔɪ.ˈro. ... The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg European Flag: used by the Council of Europe and by the European Union The Council of Europe (French: Conseil de lEurope , German: Europarat /ˌɔɪ.ˈro. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg European Flag: used by the Council of Europe and by the European Union The Council of Europe (French: Conseil de lEurope , German: Europarat /ˌɔɪ.ˈro. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ...


Africa

The natural geographical boundaries of Africa are the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. The boundary between them has been drawn either up the Gulf of Suez or up the Gulf of Aqaba. On purely geological grounds, the boundary could be drawn along the faultline into the Jordan river valley (which would make Israel an African country). Location of the Red Sea Image:Red Seaimage. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez(west), Gulf of Aqaba(east) from Space Shuttle STS-40. ... Sinai Peninsula, with the Gulf of Aqaba (east) and the Gulf of Suez (west), as viewed from the Space Shuttle STS-40. ... This article is about the Jordan River and its valley in western Asia. ...


The usual line today is at the Isthmus of Suez along the path of the Suez Canal. This makes the Sinai Peninsula geographically Asian, and Egypt a transcontinental country. Nevertheless Egypt is commonly referred to as an African state, because most of its population and territory is there. 1881 drawing of the Suez Canal. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ...


In historical geography, several of the larger Mediterranean islands have often been more akin to Africa than to Europe or Asia. Egypt often ruled Cyprus, and sometimes Rhodes. The Roman Empire grouped Crete with Cyrenaica. The Balearic Islands and half of Sicily were ruled from Carthage. For other senses of this name, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Crete (Greek Κρήτη Kriti; called Candia in the Venetian period and Turkish: Girit) is the largest of the Greek islands and the fifth largest in the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official languages Catalan and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4 992 km²  1,0% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 14th  916 968  2,2%  183,69/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Catalan  â€“ Spanish Balearic balear balear Statute of Autonomy March 1, 1983 ISO 3166... Sicilian redirects here. ... Carthaginian settlements in the western Mediterranean. ...


Americas

The border between North America and South America has been drawn variously, generally somewhere along the Isthmus of Panama. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Isthmus of Panama. ...


One common demarcation follows the Darien Mountains watershed divide along the Colombia-Panama boundary where the isthmus meets the South American continent. Another reckons the continental divide at the Panama Canal, whereby Panama has territory on either side in both continents. Geopolitically (i.e., not strictly geophysical), Panama is usually included with the other Central American countries in North America. The border between North and South America has also been drawn (infrequently) between Costa Rica and Panama, or at one of several other lines across the Isthmus of Panama. A canal tug, making its way down to the Caribbean end of the canal, waits to be joined by a ship in the uppermost chamber of the Gatun Locks. ... Map of Central America Central America is a central region of the Americas. ...


In some cultures, America (singular usage) is thought of as one continent or supercontinent encompassing the entire landmass between Alaska and Tierra del Fuego. In this context, North and South America (and sometimes, Central America) are thought of as regions of the greater landmass, rather than continents of their own. In geology, a supercontinent is a land mass comprising more than one continental core, or craton. ... Tierra del Fuego (Spanish: Land of Fire) is an archipelago at the southernmost tip of South America. ... Region can be used to mean either: any more or less well-defined geographical area of a country or continent, defined by geography, culture or history in political geography, an administrative subdivision of a country or of the European Union. ...


This collectivity of lands and regions in the Western hemisphere is referred to as the Americas. From a sociopolitical and cultural perspective, the Americas are generally divided into Anglo-America (namely the U.S. and Canada, where English prevails) and Latin America (the rest of the Americas, where Romance languages generally predominate). Latin America – particularly Hispanic America – is generally considered a transcontinental region straddling two continents, much like the Middle East. Moreover, the Guyanas are sometimes grouped with the Caribbean along with Belize. The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the New World or Western hemisphere consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The term Anglo-America is used to describe those parts of North America in which English is the main language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Romance languages in the world: Blue – French; Green – Spanish; Orange – Portuguese; Yellow – Italian; Red – Romanian The Romance languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, comprise all languages that descended from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Hispanic America (Hispanoamérica in Spanish) refers to those parts of the Americas inhabited by Spanish-speaking peoples. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Central America and the Caribbean (detailed pdf map) The Caribbean, (Spanish: Caribe; French: Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Dutch: Cariben or Caraïben, or more commonly Antillen) or the West Indies, is a group of islands and countries which are in or border the Caribbean Sea which lies on...


Asia and Oceania

Green - Oceania; pink/gray - Asia; M - Melanesia line
Green - Oceania; pink/gray - Asia; M - Melanesia line

Indonesia is a multi-island, transcontinental state belonging both to Asia and to Oceania. The geological and zoological border follows the Wallace line. Alternatively it may be divided according to the Melanesia definition – accounting for human language, genetics, history and crafts – placing more territory in Asia (shown by the line labelled M on the map). Indonesia is today more commonly referred to as one of the Southeast Asian countries, and thus simply Asian. East Timor, an independent state that was formerly a territory of Indonesia, is sometimes considered part of Oceania, but is classified by the United Nations as part of the "South-Eastern Asia" bloc. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1276x802, 48 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1276x802, 48 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Wallaces hypothetical line between Australasian and Southeast Asian fauna. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Oceania

Oceania is not a continent; however, Australia by itself is usually considered one. Therefore the admission of Hawaii to the United States in 1959 did not make the U.S. a transcontinental nation (whether the U.S. was transcontinental from 1898 to 1946, by its possession of the Philippines, is a historical question). Oceania is a geographical, often geopolitical, region consisting of numerous lands – mostly islands but often including Australia – in the Pacific Ocean and vicinity. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,941 sq. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


If Oceania were a continent, rather than the part of the Earth furthest from any of them, the following countries might be considered transcontinental, as occupying both Oceania and a continent:

Definitions of transcontinental nation

A nation divided between two (or more) nationalities may also be termed a transcontinental nation, for several reasons: immigration (e.g. Chinese in the U.S.); historical reasons (colonization, especially of extraterritorial possessions and dependencies of European states – for example Spain's Ceuta and Melilla); islands belonging to the more distant state in a sea shared between continents (such as Yemen's islands of Socotra, east of the Horn of Africa). Sometimes these overseas territories are regarded as an integral part of the main state (e.g. French Guiana, part of France), in which case the state (here, France) could be regarded as a transcontinental nation. Area  â€“ Total   28 km² Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ Density  75,276  2688. ... Area  â€“ Total    20 km² (8 mi²) Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ Density  65,488  3274. ... Map of the Socotra archipelago Socotra or Soqotra (Arabic سقطرى ; Suquá¹­ra) is a small archipelago of four islands and islets in the Indian Ocean off the Horn of Africa, some 350 km south of the Arabian peninsula. ... Nations of the Horn of Africa. ...


List of geographically transcontinental states

A transcontinental state is a country whose contiguous continental territory (or in the case of an island state, its different islands) lies in two (or more) different continents. Non-contiguous parts of countries are not considered (i.e. distant integral parts, extraterritorial possessions, dependencies and the like – examples include French Guiana, Hawaii, Socotra, and Ceuta and Melilla). This list includes the countries meeting that definition and presents tables showing the calculated area and population of the country on each continent.


Methodology of calculation

There are two main methods for non-scientific calculation of parts of the state area:

  • The smaller part of the territory is divided into rectangles, which area can be easily calculated using simple distance tools. This method gives results with moderate errors and can be used only for area, but not for population.
  • If the administrative divisions (sub-regions) of the state are going along the continents geographical border (or near it) then much more correct data (widely available area and population data for the regions) can be added up together.

The total area and population of countries is well known from various sources, so when there is data for the part of the country on one continent - then the other part (on the other continent) and the percentages can be easily calculated.


Countries in both Asia and Europe

green - Europe, pink/gray - Asia
green - Europe, pink/gray - Asia
See "Europe and Asia" section of this article for more details about the geographical border between Europe and Asia.
See also Geographic criteria for EU membership.
  • Azerbaijan - situated in both Western Asia and Eastern Europe.
  • Georgia - situated in both Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
  • Kazakhstan - situated in both Central Asia and Eastern Europe.
  • Russia - situated in both Northern Asia and Eastern Europe.
  • Turkey - situated in both Western Asia and Eastern Europe.
  • Armenia and Cyprus are geographically in Western Asia, but are considered by some as part of Europe for cultural and historical reasons.

Map colors: Geographical Europe is colored green. The Asian territory of states that lie both in Europe and Asia are coloured light pink. Dark-pink are colored states that lie entirely on the Asian continent, but are considered European because of cultural and historical reasons. Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan is also coloured dark-pink because it is not a continuous extension of Azerbaijan's territory.
Download high resolution version (417x909, 26 KB)Geographical border between Europe and Asia based on Image:Europe_political_map. ... Download high resolution version (417x909, 26 KB)Geographical border between Europe and Asia based on Image:Europe_political_map. ... Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... The Copenhagen criteria are the rules that define whether a nation is eligible to join the European Union. ...


Statistics

State Total Area
km²
Area in Asia
km²
Area in Asia
% of total
Area in Europe
km²
Area in Europe
% of total
Georgia 69,700 20,460 29.35 49,240 70.65
Azerbaijan 86,600 46,870 54.12 39,730 45.88
Russia 17,075,200 13,115,200 76.81 3,960,000 23.19
Kazakhstan 2,717,300 2,346,927 86.37 370,373 13.63
Turkey 780,580 756,768 96.95 23,812 3.05
Armenia 29800 29800 100 0 0
Cyprus 9250 9250 100 0 0

Countries are sorted according to percentage of European area.
Source: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [1]
For methodologies of calculation see below.

State Total Population Population in Asia Population in Asia
% of total
Population in Europe Population in Europe
% of total
Russia 143,780,000 37,742,857 26.25 106,037,143 73.75
Georgia 4,479,180 2,032,004 45.37 2,447,176 54.63
Azerbaijan 8,327,618 4,129,127 49.58 4,198,491 50.42
Turkey 68,900,000 57,855,068 83.97 11,044,932 1 16.03 1
Kazakhstan 14,757,767 13,472,593 91.29 1,285,174 8.71
Armenia 3,326,448 3,326,448 100 0 0
Cyprus 775,927 775,927 100 0 0

1 Including the districts of Istanbul city that are lying in Asia.
Countries are sorted according to percentage of European population.
Source: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [2]
For methodologies of calculation see below.
Satellite image of Istanbul and the Bosphorus Istanbul (Turkish: Ä°stanbul) is Turkeys largest city, and its cultural and economic center. ...


Azerbaijan

The Azerbaijan territory is more finely granulated into regions than the territory of the other states in this list. The consequence is that the area and population calculations should be more accurate. Of the regions that touch the border five lie entierly in Europe by this defintion (best accuracy), one lies almost entierly in Asia, eight lie in both Europe and Asia. Another twenty regions lie entierly in Europe, the rest - in Asia.

  • Accuracy of area calculation: high-to-medium
  • Accuracy of population calculation: high-to-medium

Georgia

Georgia regions' borders in most cases follow the geographical Europe/Asia border. The exclusions are two regions that are divided in half, one region that stretches by this definition a little into Asia and one region that has a quarter of it in Europe.

  • Accuracy of area calculation: high (but better is possible)
  • Accuracy of population calculation: high (but better is possible)

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan regions' borders don't follow the Emba river. There is one region entirely in Europe and two regions that are lying in both Europe and Asia by this definition. Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ...

  • Accuracy of area calculation: medium
  • Accuracy of population calculation: medium

Russia

Most of Russia regions' borders follow closely enough the Europe/Asia border. The deviations of the borders are such that if one mainly European region has a small part of its territory in Asia, then another mainly Asian region has a small part of its territory in Europe. Such cases are rare and nearly compensating one-another, so for such a rough calculation high accuracy can be claimed.

  • Accuracy of area calculation: medium-high (Sverdlovsk and Chelyabinsk provinces, and Yamal-Nenets AD borders does not follow Europe/Asia border)
  • Accuracy of population calculation: high (but better is possible)

Turkey

Turkey regions' are helpful for the calculation, but one should note some things. The area that the mainly Asian region of Çanakkale occupies in Europe is compensating the Asian territory of the Istanbul region. The population calculation is more problematic, because it is not sure if the population density (inhabitants/sq. km.) of these two parts are equal and then there is the case with the city of Istanbul, which is lying on both Europe and Asia. Should the city be looked as one big 'dot', located in Europe, or should the population figures be divided? Currently the whole population of the city is added to the table as European. Also, precise data about the particular districts of Istanbul is missing. shows the Location of the Province Canakkale Çanakkale is a province of Turkey, located in the northwestern part of the country. ...

  • Accuracy of area calculation: high (but better is possible)
  • Accuracy of population calculation: high-to-medium 1

1 (wrong if Istanbul statistics are to be divided)


Cyprus

Geographically entirely in Asia, so the accuracy of both area and population percentages is the highest possible. World map showing the location of Asia. ...


Armenia

Geographically entirely in Asia, so the accuracy of both area and population percentages is the highest possible. World map showing the location of Asia. ...


Countries in both Asia and Africa

green - Asia, pink/gray - Africa
green - Asia, pink/gray - Africa
See Geography of Africa and Asia pages for more details about the geographical border between Africa and Asia.
  • The border between the two continents is considered to go along the Isthmus of Suez and the Suez Canal. This border lies in Egypt, so it is considered both North African and Southwest Asian.


Statistics Download high resolution version (1276x833, 35 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Bicontinental country Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (1276x833, 35 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Bicontinental country Categories: GFDL images ... Wikimedia Commons has more media related to: Maps of Africa Africa is a continent comprising 56 countries, representing the largest of the three great southward projections from the main mass of Earths surface. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... 1881 drawing of the Suez Canal. ...

State Total Area
km²
Area in Africa
km²
Area in Africa
% of total
Area in Asia
km²
Area in Asia
% of total
Egypt 1,001,450 937,894 93.65 63,556 6.35

Source: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [3]
For methodologies of calculation see below.

State Total Population Population in Africa Population in Africa
% of total
Population in Asia Population in Asia
% of total
Egypt 74,718,797 73,340,638 98.16 1,378,159 1.84

Source: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [4]
For methodologies of calculation see below.


Egypt

Three of Egypt's regions lie entirely in Asia. One of the regions is nearly equally divided by the Suez Canal and another has a small portion east of the Suez Canal. 1881 drawing of the Suez Canal. ... 1881 drawing of the Suez Canal. ...

  • Accuracy of area calculation: high (but better is possible)
  • Accuracy of population calculation: high-to-medium

Countries in both Asia and Oceania

green - Oceania, pink/gray - Asia
green - Oceania, pink/gray - Asia
See Wallace line and the Oceania and Asia pages for more details about the grouping of the islands between Oceania and Asia.

The best option for geographical definition about which island should be included with Oceania and which with Asia is to use the Wallace line. Download high resolution version (1276x833, 47 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Bicontinental country Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (1276x833, 47 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Bicontinental country Categories: GFDL images ... Wallaces hypothetical line between Australasian and Southeast Asian fauna. ... Oceania is a geographical, often geopolitical, region consisting of numerous lands – mostly islands but often including Australia – in the Pacific Ocean and vicinity. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ...

  • According to this definition some of the eastern Indonesian islands should be considered oceanian. So Indonesia is both in Southeast Asia and in Oceania.
  • According to this definition the whole of the state East Timor lies only in Oceania. But East Timor is considered as a part of Asia, and is regarded as a Southeast Asian state.


Statistics

State Total Area
km²
Area in Asia
km²
Area in Asia
% of total
Area in Oceania
km²
Area in Oceania
% of total
East Timor 15,007 0 0 15,007 100
Indonesia 1,904,443 1,158,645 60.84 745,798 39.16

Countries are sorted according to percentage of Oceanian area.
Source: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [5]
For methodologies of calculation see below.

State Total Population Population in Asia Population in Asia
% of total
Population in Oceania Population in Oceania
% of total
East Timor 1,019,252 0 0 1,019,252 100
Indonesia 238,452,952 208,176,381 87.3 28,159,300 12.7

Countries are sorted according to percentage of Oceanian population.
Source: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [6]
For methodologies of calculation see below.


East Timor

Geographically (and even culturally) entirely in Oceania, so the accuracy of both area and population percentages is the highest possible. Oceania is a geographical, often geopolitical, region consisting of numerous lands – mostly islands but often including Australia – in the Pacific Ocean and vicinity. ...


Indonesia

Nine of Indonesia's provinces (island groups) lie entirely in Oceania, while the others lie in Asia, so the accuracy of both area and population percentages is the highest possible.


Countries in both North America and South America

green - South America, pink/gray - North America
green - South America, pink/gray - North America
See North America and South America pages for more details about the geographical border between the two Americas.
  • Most geographic authorities delineate the land border dividing the Americas somewhere along the Isthmus of Panama. One common demarcation follows the Darien watershed along the Colombia-Panama boundary. Another common dividing line (and herein) is the Panama Canal transecting the isthmus; thus, Panama is reckoned to have territory in both continents. Panama City, Panama's capital, sits on the Pacific (southern) coast near the Panama Canal in the eastern (South American) portion of the country. Geopolitically, all of Panama is often considered a part of North America alone and among the countries of Central America.
  • The sea islands division is more complicated. Culturally and historically all Caribbean islands (and even some smaller continental countries) are very close together (both similar indigenous people and similar colonial past) and all of them are often labeled as North American.
    The dependency Aruba and some parts of the Netherland Antilles (Bonaire and Curaçao islands) and the islands state of Trinidad and Tobago are closer to South America but – by virtue of being in the West Indies – generally considered part of North America. Grenada state can be considered geographically North American. The North-American parts of the Netherland Antilles are Saba, Sint Eustatius and Sint Maarten. Venezuela's Aves Island and other outlying islands are geographically North American, which is also true of the remote Colombian islands of San Andrés and Providencia.


Statistics Download high resolution version (1276x833, 40 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Bicontinental country Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (1276x833, 40 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Bicontinental country Categories: GFDL images ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the New World or Western hemisphere consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The Isthmus of Panama. ... A canal tug, making its way down to the Caribbean end of the canal, waits to be joined by a ship in the uppermost chamber of the Gatun Locks. ... Panama City (Spanish: Ciudad de Panamá), population 708,738, is the capital of Panama, located at the Pacific entrance of the Panama Canal, at . ... Map of Central America Central America is a central region of the Americas. ... Central America and the Caribbean (detailed pdf map) The Caribbean, (Spanish: Caribe; French: Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Dutch: Cariben or Caraïben, or more commonly Antillen) or the West Indies, is a group of islands and countries which are in or border the Caribbean Sea which lies on... Flag of Bonaire Bonaire is an island in the Netherlands Antilles, and as such, is a part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. ... Anthem: Himno di Kòrsou Capital Willemstad Area  - Total  - % water (Not ranked) 450 km² Negligible Population  - Total  - Density 173,400 (2006) 391/km² Curaçao (pronounced [kurasão]) is an island in the southern part of the Caribbean Sea off the coast of Venezuela. ... Central America and the Caribbean (detailed pdf map) The Caribbean, (Spanish: Caribe; French: Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Dutch: Cariben or Caraïben, or more commonly Antillen) or the West Indies, is a group of islands and countries which are in or border the Caribbean Sea which lies on... National motto: Remis Velisque. ... Map showing location of Sint Eustatius relative to Saba and Sint Maarten/Saint Martin Sint Eustatius (also Saint Eustace and Statia) is one of the islands making up the Netherlands Antilles; it is in the northern, Leeward Islands portion of this territory, to the east of the Virgin Islands at... St. ... Isla de Aves (Spanish for Island of Birds) is a Caribbean islet disputed as belonging to Venezuela, lying to the west of the Leeward Islands chain at , . It is 375 meters in length and never more than 50 meters in width, and rises 4 m above the sea on a... Motto: Capital San Andrés Governor Area 52 km² Population  - Total (2003)  - Density   83,491 1,600 people/km² Adjective San Andrés and Providencia (Spanish: San Andrés y Providencia) is one of the departments of Colombia. ...

State Total Area
km²
Area in North America
km²
Area in North America
% of total
Area in South America
km²
Area in South America
% of total
Trinidad and Tobago 5,128 0 0 5,128 100
Aruba 1 180 0 0 180 100
Netherland Antilles 1 800 68 8.5 732 91.5
Panama 78,200 52,853 67.59 25,347 32.41

1 Extraterritorial part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Countries are sorted according to percentage of South American area.
Source: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [7]
For methodologies of calculation see below.

State Total Population Population in North America Population in North America
% of total
Population in South America Population in South America
% of total
Trinidad and Tobago 1,104,209 0 0 1,104,209 100
Aruba 1 103,000 0 0 103,000 100
Netherland Antilles 1 221226 59226 26.77 162000 73.23
Panama 3,000,463 2,498,717 83.28 299,936 16.72

1 Extraterritorial part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Countries are sorted according to percentage of South American population.
Source: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [8]
For methodologies of calculation see below.


Trinidad and Tobago

Geographically entirely in South America, so the accuracy of both area and population percentages is the highest possible. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Aruba

Geographically entirely in South America, so the accuracy of both area and population percentages is the highest possible. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Netherland Antilles

Two of the islands groups lie entirely in South America and the other - in North America, so the accuracy of both area and population percentages is the highest possible. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


Panama

Five of the provinces lie entirely in South America. One of the regions is nearly equally divided between both Americas and another - unequally, nearly 1:4 ratio.

  • Accuracy of area calculation: high-to-medium
  • Accuracy of population calculation: medium

Transcontinental empires in history

Pre-colonial empires straddling at least two continents (number of continents in parentheses):

Colonial-era empires with non-contiguous overseas possessions (number of continents in parentheses): Alexander the Great (in Greek , transliterated Megas Alexandros), (July 356 BC – June 11, 323 BC), King of Macedon (336–323 BC), is considered one of the most successful military commanders in world history, conquering most of the world known to the ancient Greeks before his death. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βυζαντινή Αυτοκρατορία) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl... For other senses of this name, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... Mongol Empires largest extent coloured in blue. ... The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from ca. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ... See colony and colonisation for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism. ...

The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... A map showing the territory that the Netherlands held at various points in history. ... The term French Empire can refer to: The First French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte (1804 - 1814 or 1815) The Second French Empire of Napoleon III (1852 - 1870) The Second French Colonial Empire (1830 - 1960) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... The flag of the Spanish Empire. ... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... This article is about views of the historical expansionism and current international influence of the United States. ... Denmark-Norways possessions c. ... The German colonial empire was an overseas area formed in the late 19th century as part of the Hohenzollern dynastys German Empire. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Sweden between the years 1611 and 1718 is known as the Swedish Empire. ... The Italian empire in 1940 The empire ordinarily associated with geographical Italy is the Roman Empire but modern Italy, by the time of World War II, possessed various overseas territories in the Mediterranean and East Africa. ... The small wealthy former duchy of Courland took part in European colonialism. ... The flag of Imperial Japan is still used as the flag of Japan. ... The Belgian colonian empire was the set of colonies of Belgium, lasting from 1901 to 1962. ...

External link

  • Transcontinental states according to World Gazetteer

 
 

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