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Encyclopedia > Transatlantic telegraph cable

The first transatlantic telegraph cable crossed the Atlantic Ocean from Foilhommerum, Valentia Island, in western Ireland to Heart's Content, in eastern Newfoundland. The transatlantic cable bridged North America and Europe, and expedited communication between the two. Whereas it would normally take at least ten days to deliver a message by ship, it now took a matter of minutes by telegraph. Five attempts were made over a nine year period—in 1857, two in 1858, 1865, and 1866—before lasting connections were finally achieved by the SS Great Eastern with the 1866 cable and the repaired 1865 cable. Additional cables were laid between Foilhommerum and Heart's Content in 1873, 1874, 1880 and 1894. By the end of the 19th century, British-, French-, German- and American-owned cables linked Europe and North America in a sophisticated web of telegraphic communications. Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... 6 or 15cm outside diameter, oil-cooled cables, traversing the Grand Coulee Dam throughout. ... Valentia Island (Dairbhre in Irish), is one of Europes westernmost inhabited locations, lying off the Iveragh Peninsula in the southwest of County Kerry in the Republic of Ireland. ... Hearts Content ( NST) an incorporated town in Trinity Bay on the Bay de Verde Peninsula of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... The SS Great Eastern was an iron sailing steam ship designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel. ...


Cyrus West Field was the force behind the first transatlantic telegraph cable, attempted unsuccessfully in 1857 and completed on August 5, 1858. Although not considered particularly successful or long-lasting, it was the first transatlantic cable project to yield practical results. The first official telegram to pass between two continents was a letter of congratulation from Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom to the President of the United States James Buchanan on August 16. The cable was destroyed the following month when Wildman Whitehouse applied excessive voltage to the cable while trying to achieve faster telegraph operation. The shortness of the period of use undermined public and investor confidence in the project, and delayed efforts to restore a connection. Cyrus West Field Cyrus West Field c. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... James Buchanan (April 23, 1791 – June 1, 1868) was the 15th president of the United States (1857–1861). ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Edward Orange Wildman Whitehouse (1816 - January 26, 1890) was an English surgeon, better-known for his ultimately unsuccessful endeavours at electrical engineering on the transatlantic telegraph cable. ...


A next attempt was undertaken in 1865 with much-improved material and, following some setbacks, a connection was completed and put into service on July 28, 1866. This time the connection was more durable, and even more public confidence resulted when the 1865 cable was repaired and put into service shortly afterwards. is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...

Map of the 1858 trans-Atlantic cable route
Map of the 1858 trans-Atlantic cable route

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1493x600, 135 KB) Map of the 1858 Atlantic Cable route This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1493x600, 135 KB) Map of the 1858 Atlantic Cable route This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years...

Origins of the idea

After William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone had introduced their working telegraph in 1839, the idea of a submarine line across the Atlantic Ocean began to be thought of as a possible triumph of the future. Samuel F. B. Morse proclaimed his faith in it as early as the year 1840 and the following decade saw a period of experimentation and growth of knowledge in underwater telegraph cables culminating in the 1850 link between England and France. That same year, Bishop John T. Mullock, head of the Roman Catholic Church in Newfoundland, proposed a line of telegraph through the forest from St. John's to Cape Ray, and cables across the mouth of the St. Lawrence River from Cape Ray to Nova Scotia across the Cabot Strait. The multitude of layers in a submarine communications cable is revealed by its Cross section. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Charles Wheatstone Sir Charles Wheatstone (February 6, 1802 - October 19, 1875) was the British inventor of many innovations including the English concertina the Stereoscope an early form of microphone the Playfair cipher (named for Lord Playfair, the person who publicized it) He was a major figure in the development of... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American painter of portraits and historic scenes, the creator of a single wire telegraph system, and co-inventor, with Alfred Vail, of the Morse Code. ... A submarine communications cable is a cable laid beneath the sea to carry telecommunications between countries. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Bishop John T. Mullock . John Thomas Mullock (1807 - March 26, 1869) was Roman Catholic bishop of St. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... St. ... Cape Ray (, NST) is a headland located at the southwestern extremity of the island of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Cabot Strait is a strait in eastern Canada approximately 110 kilometres wide between Cape Ray, Newfoundland Island and Cape North, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. ...


At about the same time, a similar plan occurred to Frederick Newton Gisborne, a telegraph engineer in Nova Scotia. In the spring of 1851, Gisborne procured a grant from the legislature of Newfoundland, and having formed a company, began the construction of the landline. However, in 1853 his company collapsed. He was arrested for debt and lost everything. The following year, he was introduced to Cyrus West Field. Field invited Gisborne to his house to discuss the project. From his visitor, Field extended the idea that the telegraph to Newfoundland might be extended across the Atlantic Ocean. Frederick N. Gisborne (1824-1892) was a Canadian inventor and electrician, born in Broughton, Lancashire, England. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English, Canadian Gaelic Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Cyrus West Field Cyrus West Field c. ...


Field was ignorant of submarine cables and the deep sea. He consulted Morse as well as Lieutenant Matthew Maury, an authority on oceanography. Field adopted Gisborne's scheme as a preliminary step to the bigger undertaking, and promoted the New York, Newfoundland and London Telegraph Company to establish a telegraph line between America and Europe. Matthew Fontaine Maury Matthew Fontaine Maury (January 14, 1806 – February 1, 1873), nicknamed Pathfinder of the Seas, was an oceanographer who made important contributions to charting wind and ocean currents. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanography (from Ocean + Greek γράφειν = write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... The New York, Newfoundland and London Telegraph Company was a company in a series of conglomerations of several companies that eventually layed the first Trans-Atlantic cable. ...


St. John's to Nova Scotia

The first step was to finish the line between St. John's and Nova Scotia, and in 1855 an attempt was made to lay a cable across the Cabot Strait in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. It was laid out from a barque in tow of a steamer. When half was laid a gale rose and, to keep the barque from sinking, the line was cut away. Next summer a steamboat was fitted out for the purpose and the link from Cape Ray, Newfoundland to Aspy Bay, Nova Scotia was successfully laid.[1] St. John's was now connected with New York by a thousand statute miles (1600 km) of land and undersea telegraph. Cabot Strait is a strait in eastern Canada approximately 110 kilometres wide between Cape Ray, Newfoundland Island and Cape North, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. ... Bathymetry of the Gulf, with the Laurentian Channel visible Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French: golfe du Saint-Laurent), the worlds largest estuary, is the outlet of North Americas Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. ... A barc is a type of sailing vessel. ... A mile is any of several units of distance, or, in physics terminology, of length. ...


Transatlantic

Field then directed the efforts to the transoceanic section with Charles Tilston Bright as chief engineer. A special survey was made along the proposed route of the cable and revealed that the proposed route was possible. Funds were raised from both American and British sources by selling shares in the Atlantic Telegraph Company. Field himself supplied a quarter of the needed capital. Charles Tilston Bright c. ... The Atlantic Telegraph Company was a company formed in 1856 to undertake and exploit a commercial telegraph cable across the Atlantic ocean, the first such telecommunications link. ...


The cable consisted of seven copper wires, each weighing 26 kg/km (107 pounds per nautical mile), covered with three coats of gutta-percha, weighing 64 kg/km (261 pounds/nautical mile) and wound with tarred hemp, over which a sheath of eighteen strands, each of seven iron wires, was laid in a close spiral. It weighed nearly 550 kg/km (1.1 ton per nautical mile), was relatively flexible and able to withstand a pull of several 10's of kN (several tons). It was made jointly by two English firms — Glass, Elliot & Co., of Greenwich, and R. S. Newall & Co., of Liverpool. The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States, #) is a unit of mass (sometimes called weight in everyday parlance) in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ... Species About 100-120 species, including: Palaquium amboinense Palaquium barnesii Palaquium bataanense Palaquium beccarianum Palaquium borneense Palaquium burckii Palaquium clarkeanum Palaquium cochleariifolium Palaquium dasyphyllum Palaquium ellipticum Palaquium formosanum Palaquium galactoxylum Palaquium gutta Palaquium herveyi Palaquium hexandrum Palaquium hispidum Palaquium hornei Palaquium impressinervium Palaquium kinabaluense Palaquium lanceolatum Palaquium leiocarpum Palaquium lobbianum... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... For other uses, see Newton (disambiguation). ... This article is about Greenwich in England. ...


The British Government gave Field a subsidy of £1,400 a year and loaned the ships to lay the cable. Field solicited aid from the United States Congress; the vote was very close with a number of anglophobe senators opposing any grant. The Bill was passed by a single vote. In the House of Representatives it encountered a similar hostility, but was ultimately signed by President Franklin Pierce. Anglophobia is the fear or hatred of England, particularly its inhabitants or anything of its origin. ... Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. ...


The first attempt, in 1857, was a failure. The cable-laying vessels were the converted warships HMS Agamemnon and USS Niagara. The cable was started at the white strand near Ballycarbery Castle County Kerry, the southwest coast of Ireland, on August 5, 1857.[2] The cable broke on the first day, but was grappled and repaired; it broke again over the 'telegraph plateau,' nearly 3200 m (2 statute miles) deep, and the operation was abandoned for the year. The Royal Naval battleship H.M.S Agamemnon was ordered by the Admiralty in 1849, in response to the perceived threat from France by their possession of ships of the Napoleon class. ... The second USS Niagara was a steam frigate in the United States Navy. ... Ballycarbery Castle. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Tralee Code: KY Area: 4,746 km² Population (2006) 139,616 Website: www. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

A U.S. postage stamp commemorating the atlantic cable.
A U.S. postage stamp commemorating the atlantic cable.

The following summer the Agamemnon and Niagara, after experiments in the Bay of Biscay, tried again. The vessels were to meet in the middle of the Atlantic, where the two halves of the cable were to be spliced together, and while the Agamemnon paid out eastwards to Valentia Island the Niagara was to pay out westward to Newfoundland. On June 26, the middle splice was made and the cable was dropped. Again the cable broke, the first time after less than 5.5 km (three nautical miles), again after some 100 km (54 nautical miles) and for a third time when about 370 km (200 nautical miles) of cable had run out of each vessel. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... 48-star flag, 1957 This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of the United States. ... Map of the Bay of Biscay. ... Look up Splice in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The expedition returned to Queenstown and set out again on July 17 with little enthusiasm amongst the crews. The middle splice was finished on July 29, 1858. The cable ran easily this time. The Niagara arrived in Trinity Bay, Newfoundland on August 4 and the next morning the shore end was landed. The Agamemnon made an equally successful run. On August 5, the Agamemnon arrived at Valentia Island, and the shore end was landed at Knightstown and then laid to the nearby cable house.[3] is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Trinity Bay is a large bay on the northeastern coast of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


First contact

Telegraph Field, Valentia Island: Site of the earliest message sent from Ireland to America. In October, 2002, a memorial to mark the laying of the transatlantic cable to Newfoundland was unveiled on top of Foilhomerrum Cliff. Made of Valentia slate and designed by local sculptor Alan Hall, the memorial marks the history of the telegraph industry to the island from 1857 forward.
Telegraph Field, Valentia Island: Site of the earliest message sent from Ireland to America. In October, 2002, a memorial to mark the laying of the transatlantic cable to Newfoundland was unveiled on top of Foilhomerrum Cliff. Made of Valentia slate and designed by local sculptor Alan Hall, the memorial marks the history of the telegraph industry to the island from 1857 forward.

On August 16, Queen Victoria sent a telegram of congratulation to President Buchanan through the line, and expressed a hope that it would prove "an additional link between the nations whose friendship is founded on their common interest and reciprocal esteem." The President responded that, "it is a triumph more glorious, because far more useful to mankind, than was ever won by conqueror on the field of battle. May the Atlantic telegraph, under the blessing of heaven, prove to be a bond of perpetual peace and friendship between the kindred nations, and an instrument destined by Divine Providence to diffuse religion, civilization, liberty, and law throughout the world." Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Valentia Island (Dairbhre in Irish), is one of Europes westernmost inhabited locations, lying off the Iveragh Peninsula in the southwest of County Kerry in the Republic of Ireland. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... For the economist of this name, see James M. Buchanan. ...


These messages were the signal for an outburst of enthusiasm. Next morning a grand salute of 100 guns resounded in New York City, the streets were decorated with flags, the bells of the churches rung, and at night the city was illuminated [4]. The Atlantic cable was a theme for innumerable sermons and a prodigious quantity of doggerel. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Doggerel describes verse considered of little literary value. ...


Disappointment in great ideas

However, in September, after several days of progressive deterioration of the insulation, the cable failed. The reaction at this news was tremendous. Some writers even hinted that the line was a mere hoax, and others pronounced it a stock exchange speculation.


Field was undaunted by the failure. He was eager to renew the work, but the public had lost confidence in the scheme, and his efforts to revive the company were futile. It was not until 1864 that with the assistance of Thomas Brassey, and John Pender, that he succeeded in raising the necessary capital. The Glass, Elliot, and Gutta-Percha Companies were united to form the Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company (Telcon, later part of BICC), which undertook to manufacture and lay the new cable. C.F. Varley replaced Whitestone as chief electrician. Thomas Brassey (1805-1870) was an English railway contractor, born in Cheshire. ... Sir John Pender (September 10, 1816-July 7, 1896), British Submarine communications cable pioneer, was born in the Vale of Leven, Scotland, and after attending school in Glasgow became a successful merchant in textile fabrics in that city and in Manchester. ... British Insulated Callenders Cables (BICC) was a 20th century British cable manufacturer and construction company, now renamed after former subsidiary Balfour Beatty. ... Cromwell Fleetwood Varley (April 6, 1828 - September 2, 1883) was an English engineer, particularly associated with the development of the electric telegraph and the transatlantic telegraph cable. ...


Much experience had been gained in the meantime. Long cables had been submerged in the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. With this experience, an improved cable was designed. The core consisted of seven twisted strands of very pure copper weighing 300 lb per nautical mile (73 kg/km), coated with Chatterton's compound, then covered with four layers of gutta-percha, alternating with four thin layers of the compound cementing the whole, and bringing the weight of the insulator to 400 lb/nmi (98 kg/km). This core was covered with hemp saturated in a preservative solution, and on the hemp were spirally wound eighteen single wires of soft steel, each covered with fine strands of manila yarn steeped in the preservative. The weight of the new cable was 35.75 long hundredweight (4000 lb) per nautical mile (980 kg/km), or nearly twice the weight of the old. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Chatterton’s compound was an adhesive waterproof insulating compound made of gutta-percha, resin, and Stockholm tar. ... Manila hemp, also known as manilla, is a type of fiber obtained from the leaves of the abaca (Musa textilis), a relative of the banana. ... Hundred weight or hundredweight is a unit of measurement for mass in both the system of measurement used in the United Kingdom (and previously throughout the British Commonwealth), and in the system used in the United States. ...


The Great Eastern

The new cable was laid by the ship Great Eastern. Her immense hull was fitted with three iron tanks for the reception of 2,300 nautical miles (4260 km) of cable, and her decks furnished with the paying-out gear. At noon on July 15, 1865, the Great Eastern left the Nore for Foilhommerum Bay, Valentia Island, where the shore end was laid by the Caroline. This attempt failed on July 31 when, after 1,062 miles (1968 km) had been paid out, the cable snapped near the stern of the ship, and the end was lost. [5] The SS Great Eastern was an iron sailing steam ship designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Great Eastern steamed back to England, where Field issued another prospectus, and formed the Anglo-American Telegraph Company, to lay a new cable and complete the broken one. On July 13, 1866 the Great Eastern started paying out once more. Despite problems with the weather on the evening of Friday, July 27, the expedition made the entrance of Trinity Bay in a thick fog. The next morning at 9 a.m. a message from England cited these words from the leader in The Times: "It is a great work, a glory to our age and nation, and the men who have achieved it deserve to be honoured among the benefactors of their race." "Treaty of peace signed between Prussia and Austria." The shore end was landed during the day by the Medway. Congratulations poured in, and friendly telegrams were again exchanged between Queen Victoria and the United States. is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up editorial, op-ed in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ...

Grappling hook used for lifting the cable.
Grappling hook used for lifting the cable.

On August 9 the Great Eastern put to sea again in order to grapple the lost cable of 1865, and complete it to Newfoundland. [6] They were determined to find it. There were some who thought it hopeless to try, declaring that to locate a cable two-and-a-half miles down would be like looking for a small needle in a large haystack. For days, the Great Eastern moved slowly here and there, "fishing" for the lost cable with a grapnel at the end of a stout rope. Suddenly, the cable was "caught" and brought to the surface, but while the men cheered it slipped from the grapnel's hold and vanished again. It was not until a fortnight later that it was once more fished up; then it took 26 hours to get it safely on board the Great Eastern. The cable was carried to the electrician's room where it was determined that the cable was connected. All on the ship cheered or wept as rockets were sent up into the sky to light the sea. The recovered cable was then spliced to a fresh cable in her hold, and paid out to Heart's Content, Newfoundland, where she arrived on Saturday, September 7. There were now two working telegraph lines. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... A soilder loading the hook. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hearts Content (47° 52′ 13″ N 53° 21′ 52″ W NST) an incoporated town in Trinity Bay on the Bay de Verde Peninsula of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Communication speeds

Initially messages were sent by an operator sending Morse code, a series of dots and dashes. On the 1858 cable, the reception was very bad and it took 2 minutes to transmit just one character (a single letter or a single number), which translates to about 0.1 words per minute. This is despite the use of a highly sensitive mirror galvanometer, a new invention of the time. Basically, a light shining on an armature operated by the coil moved across a screen to indicate the marks and spaces. 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting telegraphic information, using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters, numerals, punctuation and special characters of a message. ... Words per minute, commonly abbreviated wpm, is a measure of input or output speed. ... A mirror galvanometer A mirror galvanometer is a mechanical meter that senses electric current, except that instead of moving a needle, it moves a mirror. ...


The first message on the 1858 cable took over 17 hours to transmit[7]. For the 1866 cable, the methods of cable manufacture, as well as sending messages, had been vastly improved. The 1866 cable could transmit eight words a minute[8] -- over 50 times faster than the 1858 cable. Heaviside and Pupin in later decades understood that the problem was an imbalance between capacitive and inductive reactance, to be solved by iron tape or by load coils. It was not until the 20th century that message transmission speeds over transatlantic cables would reach even 120 words per minute. Despite this, London had become the world centre in telecommunications. Eventually, no fewer than 11 cables radiated from Porthcurno Cable Station near Land's End and formed with their Commonwealth links a "live" girdle around the world. Oliver Heaviside (May 18, 1850 – February 3, 1925) was a self-taught British engineer, mathematician and physicist. ... Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin (1854-1935) Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin, Ph. ... It has been suggested that Electric reactance be merged into this article or section. ... In electronics, a loading coil is a coil (inductor) that does not provide coupling to any other circuit, but is inserted in a circuit to increase its inductance. ... Aerial photo of Porthcurno Beach showing the Minack Theatre in the cliff face and Green Bay In the 19th Century Porthcurno was connected to the rest of the World by telegraph cables. ... Lands End shown within Cornwall Lands End, the most westerly point in England The wreck of the RMS Mülheim at Lands End, 2003 This article is about the location at the western tip of Cornwall. ...


Relays

The original cables were not fitted with relays, which would have amplified the signal along the way. This was because there was no practical way to power the relays. As technology advanced, intermediate relays did become possible. Automotive style miniature relay A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of another electrical circuit. ...


See also

Robert Charles Halpin (born February 16, 1836 in Wicklow, Ireland) captained the gigantic SS Great Eastern which laid transoceanic telegraph cables in the late 1800s. ... A transatlantic telephone cable is a submarine communications cable that carries telephone traffic under the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Western Union Telegraph Expedition of 1865 was an overland exploration of a possible telegraph route across Alaska undertaken by the Western Union Company. ... The 1929 Grand Banks earthquake occured on November 18 of that year. ...

Fiction

This article is about the literary concept. ... The Nautilus, as pictured in The Mysterious Island The Nautilus was the fictional submarine featured in Jules Vernes novels Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1870) and The Mysterious Island (1874). ... This article is about the French author. ... Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea is a classic science fiction novel by French writer Jules Verne (1828–1905), published in 1870 under the title Vingt mille lieues sous les mers. ...

Non-Fiction

  • The novel Thunderstruck (2006) by Erik Larson discusses the transatlantic cable as part of the story of Marconi and the invention of wireless telegraphy.
  • The Victorian Internet (1998) by Tom Standage. ISBN 0-75380-703-3. This is the story of the men and women who were the earliest pioneers of the on-line frontier, and the global network they created - a network that was in effect the Victorian Internet.

Erik Larson (born January 1, 1954) is an American author. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Voice Across the Sea (1958) and How the World was One (1992) by Arthur C. Clarke. (The two books include some of the same material.)
  • John Steele Gordon, [9] A Thread across the Ocean: The Heroic Story of the Transatlantic Cable

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Arthur C. Clarke Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (born 16 December 1917) is a British science-fiction author and inventor, most famous for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, and for collaborating with director Stanley Kubrick on the film of the same...

External links

  • Travelogue around the world's communications cables by Neal Stephenson

  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia: Transatlantic telegraph cable (1071 words)
The Transatlantic telegraph cable is a telegraph cable that crossed the Atlantic Ocean from Valentia Island, in western Ireland to Trinity Bay, in eastern Newfoundland.
The Transatlantic cable bridged the North American continent with that of Europe, and expedited communication between the two; whereas a message would normally take days to physically deliver by ship would now be a matter of minutes using a telegraph system.
Cyrus Field was the instigator of the laying of the first transatlantic telegraph cable between North America and Europe August 5th 1858.
Transatlantic telegraph cable - definition of Transatlantic telegraph cable in Encyclopedia (1441 words)
The cable broke on the first day but was grappled and repaired, it broke again over the 'telegraph plateau,' nearly two statute miles (3200 m) deep, and the operation was abandoned for the year.
The weight of the new cable was 35.75 long hundredweight (4000 lb) per nautical mile (980 kg/km), or nearly twice the weight of the old.
Her immense hull was fitted with three iron tanks for the reception of 2,300 nautical miles (4260 km) of cable, and her decks furnished with the paying-out gear.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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