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Encyclopedia > Trans fat
Types of Fats in Food
See Also

Trans fat is the common name for a type of saturated fat with trans isomer fatty acid(s). Trans fats may be monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there are one or more double bonds in the fatty acid chain. ... For discussion how dietary fats affect cardiovascular health, see Diet and heart disease. ... // In nutrition, polyunsaturated fat is an abbreviation of polyunsaturated fatty acid. ... Omega-3 fatty acids are a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids which have in common a carbon-carbon double bond in the ω-3 position. ... Omega-6 fatty acids are fatty acids where the term omega-6 signifies that the first double bond in the carbon backbone of the fatty acid, counting from the end opposite the acid group, occurs in the sixth carbon-carbon bond. ... Omega-9 fatty acids are a class of unsaturated fatty acids which have a C=C double bond in the ω-9 position. ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... Interesterified fats are oils (such as soybean oil) that have been chemically modified. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that cannot be constructed within an organism from other components (generally all references are to humans) by any known chemical pathways; and therefore must be obtained from the diet. ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... Cis-2-butene Trans-2-butene In chemistry, geometric isomerism or cis-trans isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism and describes the orientation of functional groups at the ends of a bond around which no rotation is possible. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... For discussion how dietary fats affect cardiovascular health, see Diet and heart disease. ... // In nutrition, polyunsaturated fat is an abbreviation of polyunsaturated fatty acid. ...


Most trans fats consumed today are industrially created by partially hydrogenating plant oils — a process developed in the early 1900s and first commercialized as Crisco in 1911. The goal of partial hydrogenation is to add hydrogen atoms to unsaturated fats, making them more saturated. These more saturated fats have a higher melting point making them attractive for baking, and extending their shelf-life. Another particular class of trans fats, vaccenic acid occurs in trace amounts in meat and dairy products from ruminants. Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions which result an addition of hydrogen (H2) usually to unsaturated organic compounds. ... Cover of original Crisco cookbook, 1912 Crisco, a popular brand of shortening, was first produced in 1911 by Procter & Gamble and was the first shortening to be made entirely of vegetable oil. ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... This pack of diced pork says display until 7 May and use by 8 May Shelf life is that length of time that food, drink, medicine and other perishable items are given before they are considered unsuitable for sale or consumption. ... Vaccenic acid the a trans fat found in dairy products. ... A ruminant is any hooved animal that digests its food in two steps, first by eating the raw material and regurgitating a semi-digested form known as cud, then eating the cud. ...


Unlike other dietary fats, trans fats are neither required nor beneficial for health.[1] Eating trans fats increases the risk of coronary heart disease,[2]. Health authorities worldwide recommend that consumption of trans fat be reduced to trace amounts. Trans fats from partially hydrogenated oils are generally considered to be more of a health risk than those occurring naturally.[3] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Chemically, trans fats are made of the same building blocks as non-trans fats, but have a different arrangement. In trans fatty acid molecules, the hydrogen atoms bonded to pair(s) of doubly bonded carbon atoms (characteristic of all unsaturated fats) are in the trans rather than the cis arrangement. This results in a straight, rather than kinked, shape for the carbon chain, more like the straight chain of a fully saturated fat. Properties For other meanings of Atom, see Atom (disambiguation). ... Trans is a Latin noun or prefix, meaning across, beyond or on the opposite side [of] . It is the opposite of cis, which means on the same side [of]. In chemistry, a double bond (or ring) not subject to free rotation in which the greater radical on both ends is... Cis-2-butene Trans-2-butene In chemistry, geometric isomerism or cis-trans isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism and describes the orientation of functional groups at the ends of a bond around which no rotation is possible. ...

Contents

History

Cover of original Crisco cookbook, 1912

Nobel laureate Paul Sabatier worked in the 1890s to develop the chemistry of hydrogenation which enabled the margarine, oil hydrogenation, and synthetic methanol industries.[4] While Sabatier only considered hydrogenation of vapours, the German chemist Wilhelm Normann showed in 1901 that liquid oils could be hydrogenated, and patented the process in 1902.[5][6] During the years 1905 - 1910 Normann built a fat hardening facility in the Herford company. At the same time the invention was extended to a large scale plant in Warrington, England at Joseph Crosfield & Sons, Limited. It took only two years until the hardened fat could be successfully produced in the plant in Warrington, commencing production in the autumn of 1909. The initial year's production was nearly 3000 tonnes.[7] In 1909, Procter & Gamble acquired the US rights to the Normann patent;[8] in 1911, they began marketing the first hydrogenated shortening, Crisco (composed largely of partially hydrogenated cottonseed oil). Further success came from the marketing technique of giving away free cookbooks in which every recipe called for Crisco. Image File history File links Crisco_Cookbook_1912. ... Image File history File links Crisco_Cookbook_1912. ... The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ), as designated in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, are awarded for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace. ... Paul Sabatier (November 5, 1854 – August 14, 1941) was a French chemist, born at Carcassonne. ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... Wilhelm Normann (1870 - 1939) (sometimes also spelled Norman) was a German chemist who introduced the hydrogenation of fats in 1901, which had a profound influence on the production of margerine. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Herforder Münster Herford is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, located in the lowlands between the mountain chains of the Wiehengebirge and the Teutoburg Forest. ... This article is about the town and Unitary Authority in the north-west of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Joseph Crosfield (5 October 1792 – 16 February 1844) was a businessman who established a soap and chemical manufacturing business in Warrington, which was formerly in Lancashire but is now in the county of Cheshire. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Procter & Gamble Co. ... Shortening is a semisolid fat used in food preparation, especially baked goods, and is so called because it inhibits the formation of long gluten strands in wheat-based doughs, giving them a short texture (as in shortbread). ... Cover of original Crisco cookbook, 1912 Crisco, a popular brand of shortening, was first produced in 1911 by Procter & Gamble and was the first shortening to be made entirely of vegetable oil. ... Cottonseed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the cotton plant after the cotton lint has been removed. ...


Normann's hydrogenation process made it possible to stabilize inexpensive whale oil or fish oil for human consumption, a practice kept secret to avoid consumer distaste.[9] Whale oil is the oil obtained from the blubber of various species of whales of the genus Balaena, as , Greenland or right whale (northern whale-oil), (southern whale-oil), Balaenoptera longimana, Balaenoptera borealis (Finback oil, Finner whale-oil, Humpback oil). ... Fish Oil is oil derived from fishes. ...


Production of hydrogenated fats increased steadily until the 1960s as processed vegetable fats replaced animal fats in the US and other western countries. At first, the argument was a financial one due to lower costs; however, advocates also said that the unsaturated trans fats of margarine were healthier than the saturated fats of butter.[10] The Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) campaigned against the use of saturated fats for fast food cooking starting in 1984. When fast food companies replaced the saturated fat with partially hydrogenated unsaturated fats, CSPI's campaign against them ended. While CSPI defended trans fats in their 1987 Nutrition Action newsletter, by 1992 CSPI began to speak against trans fats and is currently strongly against their use.[11] Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...


There were suggestions in the scientific literature as early as 1988 that trans fats could be a cause of the large increase in coronary artery disease.[10][12] In 1994, it was estimated that trans fats caused 30,000 deaths annually in the US from heart disease.[13]


In January 2007, faced with the prospect of an outright ban on the sale of their product, Crisco was reformulated to meet the US FDA definition of "zero grams trans fats per serving" (that is less than one gram per tablespoon) by boosting the saturation and then cutting the resulting solid with oils. Meanwhile, at the University of Guelph, The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... The University of Guelph is a medium-sized university located in Guelph, Ontario, established in 1964. ...

Alejandro Marangoni's research group found a way to mix oil, water, monoglycerides and fatty acids to form a "cooking fat" that acts the same way as trans and saturated fats — the stuff that makes baked goods taste so good. The big difference here is Marangoni's process works with "healthier" oils like olive, soybean and canola. He's hoping to get food manufacturers interested in the process this year, as the pressure mounts on the makers of commercial foods to dump trans fats.[14][15] General chemical structure of a monoglyceride. ...

Chemistry

Wilhelm Normann patented the hydrogenation of liquid oils in 1902
Wilhelm Normann patented the hydrogenation of liquid oils in 1902

Chemically, fats are large molecules consisting of three fatty acid groups connected to a single glycerol derivative. The term trans fat generally refers to a fat that contains one or more trans fatty acid groups. Fatty acid molecules are essentially long-chain hydrocarbons with a terminal carboxyl group. Fatty acids are characterized as saturated or unsaturated based on the number of hydrogen atoms in the acid. If the molecule contains the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms, it is said to be saturated; otherwise, it is unsaturated to some degree. Image File history File links Wilhelm_Normann. ... Image File history File links Wilhelm_Normann. ... Wilhelm Normann (1870 - 1939) (sometimes also spelled Norman) was a German chemist who introduced the hydrogenation of fats in 1901, which had a profound influence on the production of margerine. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ... In chemistry, a hydrocarbon is a cleaning solution consisting only of carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). ... In chemistry, a carboxyl group is a functional group consisting of a carbon atom doubly bonded to an oxygen atom and single-bonded to a hydroxyl (-OH) group, typically written as -COOH: where R is a hydrogen or an organic group. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ...


Carbon atoms are tetravalent, forming four covalent bonds with other atoms, while hydrogen atoms bond with only one other atom. In saturated fatty acids, each carbon atom is connected to its two neighbour carbon atoms as well as two hydrogen atoms (see structure diagram, below). In unsaturated fatty acids the carbon atoms that are missing a hydrogen atom are joined by double bonds rather than single bonds (see structure graphic below) so that each carbon atom participates in four bonds. In chemistry, a tetravalent atom in a molecule has 4 electrons available for chemical bonding in its outer valence shell. ... Covalent redirects here. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ...


Hydrogenation of an unsaturated fatty acid refers to the addition of hydrogen atoms to the acid, causing double bonds to become single ones as carbon atoms acquire new hydrogen partners (to maintain four bonds per carbon atom). Full hydrogenation results in a molecule containing the maximum amount of hydrogen (in other words the conversion of an unsaturated fatty acid into a saturated one). Partial hydrogenation results in the addition of hydrogen atoms at some of the empty positions, with a corresponding reduction in the number of double bonds. Commercial hydrogenation is typically partial in order to obtain a malleable fat that is solid at room temperature, but melts upon baking (or consumption). Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions which result an addition of hydrogen (H2) usually to unsaturated organic compounds. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... Malleability is a physical property of matter, signifying its capability of deformation, especially by hammering or rolling. ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ...


In most naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acids, the hydrogen atoms are on the same side of the double bonds of the carbon chain (cis' configuration — meaning "on the same side" in Latin). However, partial hydrogenation reconfigures most of the double bonds that do not become chemically saturated, twisting them so that the hydrogen atoms end up on different sides of the chain. This type of configuration is called trans, which means "across" in Latin. The trans conformation is the lower energy form, and is favored in the hydrogenation process. CIS usually refers to: Commonwealth of Independent States, a modern-day political entity consisting of 11 former Soviet Union Republics CIS is also an acronym for: Canadian Interuniversity Sport Cancer Information Service Carcinoma in situ Centre for Independent Studies Center for Immigration Studies Chinese International School Cisalpino Citizenship & Immigration Services... Trans is a Latin noun or prefix, meaning across, beyond or on the opposite side [of] . It is the opposite of cis, which means on the same side [of]. In chemistry, a double bond (or ring) not subject to free rotation in which the greater radical on both ends is...

Diagram of the molecular structure of different fatty acids
Saturated fat Cis-unsaturated fatty acid Trans-unsaturated fatty acid
saturated carbon atoms (each with 2 hydrogens) joined by a single bond unsaturated carbon atoms (each with 1 hydrogen) joined by a double bond. Cis configuration. unsaturated carbon atoms (each with 1 hydrogen) joined by a double bond. Trans configuration.

The same molecule, containing the same number of atoms, with a double bond in the same location, can be either a 'trans or a cis fatty acid depending on the conformation of the double bond. For example, oleic acid and elaidic acid are both unsaturated fatty acids with the chemical formula C9H17C9H17O2. They both have a double bond located midway along the carbon chain. It is the conformation of this bond that sets them apart. The conformation has implications for the physical-chemical properties of the molecule. The trans configuration is straighter, while the cis configuration is noticeably kinked as can be seen from the following three-dimensional representation. Image File history File links Fat-Conformation-Sat. ... Image File history File links Fat-Conformation-Cis. ... Image File history File links Fat-Conformation-Trans. ... Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found in various animal and vegetable sources. ... Elaidic acid the major trans fat found in hydrogenated vegetable oils. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Physical chemistry is the application of physics to macroscopic, microscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems[1]within the field of chemistry traditionally using the principles, practices and concepts of thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and kinetics. ...

Oleic acid Elaidic acid
Oleic acid is a cis unsaturated fatty acid that comprises 55–80% of olive oil. Elaidic acid is a trans unsaturated fatty acid often found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils.
These fatty acids are geometric isomers (chemically identical except for the arrangement of the double bond).

The trans fatty acid elaidic acid has different chemical and physical properties owing to the slightly different bond configuration. Notably, it has a much higher melting point, 46.5 °C rather than oleic acid's 13.5 °C, due to the ability of the trans molecules to pack more tightly, forming a solid that is more difficult to break apart. It is notably a solid at human body temperatures. Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found in various animal and vegetable sources. ... Elaidic acid the major trans fat found in hydrogenated vegetable oils. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1100x487, 123 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Oleic acid Monounsaturated fat ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x311, 84 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Trans fat Elaidic acid ... Image File history File links Oleic-acid-skeletal. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x221, 11 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Trans fat Elaidic acid ... In chemistry, geometric isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism and describes the orientation of functional groups at the ends of a bond around which no rotation is possible. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ...


In food production, the goal is not to simply change the configuration of double bonds while maintaining the same ratios of hydrogen to carbon. Instead, the goal is to decrease the number of double bonds and increase the amount of hydrogen in the fatty acid. This changes the consistency of the fatty acid and makes it less prone to rancidity (in which free radicals attack double bonds). Production of trans fatty acids is therefore a side-effect of partial hydrogenation. Rancidification is the decomposition of fats and other lipids by oxidation. ... In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ...


Researchers at the United States Department of Agriculture have investigated whether hydrogenation can be achieved without the side effect of trans fat production. They varied the pressure under which the chemical reaction was conducted — applying 1400 kPa (200 psi) of pressure to soybean oil in a 2 litre vessel while heating it to between 140 °C and 170 °C. The standard 140 kPa (20 psi) process of hydrogenation produces a product of about 40% trans fatty acid by weight, compared to about 17% using the high pressure method. Blended with unhydrogenated liquid soybean oil, the high pressure processed oil produced margarine containing 5 to 6% trans fat. Based on current U.S. labelling requirements (see below) the manufacturer could claim the product was free of trans fat.[16] The level of trans fat may also be altered by modification of the temperature and the length of time during hydrogenation. “USDA” redirects here. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure or stress (also: Youngs modulus and tensile strength). ... A pressure gauge reading in PSI (red scale) and kPa (black scale) The pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in²) is a non-SI unit of pressure based on avoirdupois units. ...


Trans fat levels may be measured. Measurement techniques include chromatography (by silver ion chromatography on thin layer chromatography plates, or small high performance liquid chromatography columns of silica gel with bonded phenylsulfonic acid groups whose hydrogen atoms have been exchanged for silver ions). The role of silver lies in its ability to form complexes with unsaturated compounds. Gas chromatography and mid-infrared spectroscopy are other methods in use. For the Second Person album, see Chromatography (album). ... Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) is a chromatography technique used to separate chemical compounds [1]. It involves a stationary phase consisting of a thin layer of adsorbent material, usually silica gel, aluminium oxide, or cellulose immobilised onto a flat, inert carrier sheet. ... High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a form of column chromatography used frequently in biochemistry and analytical chemistry. ... Beads of silica gel Silica gel is a granular, porous form of silica made synthetically from sodium silicate. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), or simply gas chromatography (GC) is a type of chromatography in which the mobile phase is a carrier gas, usually an inert gas such as helium or nitrogen, and the stationary phase is a microscopic layer of liquid on an inert solid support. ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. ...


Presence in food

Salers Cow. Milk and meat from cows and other ruminants contains naturally occurring trans fats in small quantities.
Salers Cow. Milk and meat from cows and other ruminants contains naturally occurring trans fats in small quantities.

A type of trans fat occurs naturally in the milk and body fat of ruminants (such as cows and sheep) at a level of 2–5% of total fat.[17] Natural trans fats, which include conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid, originate in the rumen of these animals. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x720, 238 KB) fr: Vache de race salers en: Salers breed cow photo : B.navez - Cantal (France) - 10 AUG 2005 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Trans... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x720, 238 KB) fr: Vache de race salers en: Salers breed cow photo : B.navez - Cantal (France) - 10 AUG 2005 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Trans... Salers cattle The Salers is a breed of cattle which originated in Cantal in the Massif Central of France. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ruminantia. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... Species See text. ... recent research have linked CLA with several negative effects in humans. ... Vaccenic acid the a trans fat found in dairy products. ... The rumen, also known as the fardingbag or paunch forms the larger part of the reticulorumen, which is the first chamber in the alimentary canal of ruminant animals. ...


Animal-based fats were once the only trans fats consumed, but by far the largest amount of trans fat consumed today is created by the processed food industry as a side-effect of partially hydrogenating unsaturated plant fats (generally vegetable oils). These partially hydrogenated fats have displaced natural solid fats and liquid oils in many areas, notably in the fast food, snack food, fried food and baked good industries. A snack food (commonly shortened to snack) is seen in Western culture as a type of food not meant to be eaten as a main meal of the day (breakfast, lunch, dinner) but one that is intended rather to assuage a persons hunger between these meals, providing a brief...


Partially hydrogenated oils have been used in food for many reasons. Partial hydrogenation increases product shelf life and decreases refrigeration requirements. Because baking requires semi-solid fats to suspend solids at room temperature, partially hydrogenated oils can replace the animal fats traditionally used by bakers (such as butter and lard). They are also an inexpensive alternative to other semi-solid oils such as palm oil. Because partially hydrogenated plant oils can replace animal fats, the resulting products can be consumed (barring other ingredient and preparation violations) by adherents to Kashrut (kosher) and Halal, as well as by adherents to vegetarianism in Buddhism, ahimsa in Jainism and Hinduism, veganism, and other forms of vegetarianism. Shelf-life is the length of time that corresponds to a tolerable loss in quality of a processed food. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fat. ... Palm oil from Ghana with its natural dark color visible, 2 litres Palm oil block Palm oil is a form of edible vegetable oil obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. ... Look up kosher in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Halal (حلال, alāl, halaal) is an Arabic term meaning permissible. In the English language it most frequently refers to food that is permissible according to Islamic law. ... In Buddhism, the views on vegetarianism vary from school to school. ... Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... “Vegan” redirects here. ... This article refers to human nutrition and diet. ...


Foods containing artificial trans fats formed by partially hydrogenating plant fats may contain up to 45% trans fat compared to their total fat.[17] Baking shortenings generally contain 30% trans fats compared to their total fats, while animal fats from ruminants such as butter contain up to 4%. Those margarines not reformulated to reduce trans fats may contain up to 15% trans fat by weight.[18]


It has been established that trans fats in human milk fluctuate with maternal consumption of trans fat, and that the amount of trans fats in the bloodstream of breastfed infants fluctuates with the amounts found in their milk. Reported percentages of trans fats (compared to total fats) in human milk range from 1% in Spain, 2% in France, 4% in Germany, and 7% in Canada.[19] It has been suggested that the section Benefits for the infant from the article Breastfeeding be merged into this article or section. ...


Trans fats are also found in shortenings commonly used for deep frying in restaurants. In the past, the decreased rancidity of partially hydrogenated oils meant that they could be reused for a longer time than conventional oils. Recently, however, non-hydrogenated vegetable oils have become available that have lifespans exceeding that of the frying shortenings.[20] As fast food chains routinely use different fats in different locations, trans fat levels in products can have large variation. For example, an analysis of samples of McDonald's french fries collected in 2004 and 2005 found that fries served in New York City contained twice as much trans fat as in Hungary, and 28 times as much trans fat as in Denmark (where trans fats are restricted). At KFC, the pattern was reversed with Hungary's product containing twice the trans fat of the New York product. Even within the US there was variation, with fries in New York containing 30% more trans fat than those from Atlanta.[21] McDonalds Corporation (NYSE: MCD) is the worlds largest chain of fast-food restaurants, primarily selling hamburgers, chicken, french fries, milkshakes and soft drinks. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Atlanta redirects here. ...


Nutritional guidelines

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) advises the United States and Canadian governments on nutritional science for use in Public policy and product labeling programs. Their 2002 Dietary reference intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids[22] contains their findings and recommendations regarding consumption of trans fat (summary). President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ...


Their recommendations are based on two key facts. First, "trans fatty acids are not essential and provide no known benefit to human health",[1] whether of animal or plant origin.[23] Second, while both saturated and trans fats increase levels of LDL cholesterol (so-called bad cholesterol), trans fats also lower levels of HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol);[2] this increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The NAS is concerned "that dietary trans fatty acids are more deleterious with respect to CHD than saturated fatty acids".[2] This analysis is supported by a 2006 New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) scientific review that states "from a nutritional standpoint, the consumption of trans fatty acids results in considerable potential harm but no apparent benefit."[3] Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) refers to a class and range of lipoprotein particles, varying somewhat in their size and contents, which carry cholesterol in the blood and around the body, for use by various cells. ... High density lipoproteins (HDL) form a class of lipoproteins, varying somewhat in their size and contents, that carry cholesterol from the bodys tissues to the liver. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The New England Journal of Medicine (New Engl J Med or NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society. ...


Because of these facts and concerns, the NAS has concluded there is no safe level of trans fat consumption. There is no adequate level, recommended daily amount or tolerable upper limit for trans fats. This is because any incremental increase in trans fat intake increases the risk of coronary heart disease.[2]


Despite this concern, the NAS dietary recommendations have not recommended the elimination of trans fat from the diet. This is because trans fat is naturally present in many animal foods in trace quantities, and therefore its removal from ordinary diets might introduce undesirable side effects and nutritional imbalances if proper nutritional planning is not undertaken. The NAS has therefore "recommended that trans fatty acid consumption be as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet".[24] Like the NAS, the World Health Organization has tried to balance public health goals with a practical level of trans fat consumption, recommending in 2003 that trans fats be limited to less than 1% of overall energy intake.[17] “WHO” redirects here. ...


The US National Dairy Council has asserted that the trans fats present in animal foods are of a different type than those in partially hydrogenated oils, and do not appear to exhibit the same negative effects.[25] While a recent scientific review agrees with the conclusion (stating that "the sum of the current evidence suggests that the Public health implications of consuming trans fats from ruminant products are relatively limited") it cautions that this may be due to the relatively low consumption of trans fats from animal sources compared to artificial ones. [3]


Health risks

Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils have been an increasingly significant part of the human diet for about 100 years (particularly so in the latter half of the 20th century), and some deleterious effects of trans fat consumption are scientifically accepted, forming the basis of the health guidelines discussed above. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ...


The exact biochemical methods by which trans fats produce specific health problems are a topic of continuing research. For example, the mechanisms through which trans fats contribute to coronary heart disease are fairly well understood, while the mechanism for trans fat's effect on diabetes is under investigation. Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Coronary heart disease

The primary health risk identified for trans fat consumption is an elevated risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).[26] A comprehensive review of studies of trans fats was published in 2006 in the New England Journal of Medicine that concludes that there is a strong and reliable connection between trans fat consumption and CHD.[3] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The New England Journal of Medicine (New Engl J Med or NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society. ...


The major evidence for the effect of trans fat on CHD comes from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) — a cohort study that has been following 120,000 female nurses since its inception in 1976. In this study, Hu and colleagues analyzed data from 900 coronary events from the NHS population during 14 years of followup. He determined that a nurse's CHD risk roughly doubled (relative risk of 1.94, CI: 1.43 to 2.61) for each 2% increase in trans fat calories consumed (instead of carbohydrate calories). By contrast, it takes more than a 15% increase in saturated fat calories (instead of carbohydrate calories) to produce a similar increase in risk. Eating non-trans unsaturated fats instead of carbohydrates reduces the risk of CHD rather than increasing it.[27] Hu also reports on the benefits of reducing trans fat consumption. Replacing 2% of food energy from trans fat with non-trans unsaturated fats more than halves the risk of CHD (53%). By comparison, replacing a larger 5% of food energy from saturated fat with non-trans unsaturated fats reduces the risk of CHD by 43%.[27] The Nurses Health Study, established in 1976 by Dr. Frank Speizer, and the Nurses Health Study II, established in 1989 by Dr. Walter Willett, are the most definitive long-term epidemiological studies conducted to date on older womens health. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cohort (statistics). ... In statistics and mathematical epidemiology, relative risk (RR) of an event associated with the exposure is a ratio of probability of outcome of interest in exposed group versus treatment group. ... In this diagram, the bars represent observation means and the red lines represent the confidence intervals surrounding them. ... Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is available through digestion. ...


Another study considered deaths due to CHD, with consumption of trans fats being linked to an increase in mortality, and consumption of polyunsaturated fats being linked to a decrease in mortality.[26][28]


There are two accepted tests that measure an individual's risk for coronary heart disease, both blood tests. The first considers ratios of two types of cholesterol, the other the amount of a cell-signalling cytokine called C-reactive protein. The ratio test is more accepted, while the cytokine test may be more powerful but is still being studied.[26] The effect of trans fat consumption has been documented on each as follows: Blood tests are laboratory tests done on blood to gain an appreciation of disease states and the function of organs. ... A ratio is a quantity that denotes the proportional amount or magnitude of one quantity relative to another. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol), a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and is transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... Cytokines are a group of proteins and peptides that are used in organisms as signaling compounds. ... C-reactive protein (CRP) is a plasma protein, an acute phase protein produced by the liver. ...

  • Cholesterol ratio: This ratio compares the levels of LDL (so-called "bad" cholesterol) to HDL (so-called "good" cholesterol). Trans fat behaves like saturated fat by raising the level of LDL, but unlike saturated fat it has the additional effect of decreasing levels of HDL. The net increase in LDL/HDL ratio with trans fat is approximately double that due to saturated fat.[29] (Higher ratios are worse.) One randomized crossover study published in 2003 comparing the postprandial effect on blood lipids of (relatively) cis and trans fat rich meals showed that cholesteryl ester transfer (CET) was 28% higher after the trans meal than after the cis meal and that lipoprotein concentrations were enriched in apolipoprotein(a) after the trans meals.[30]
  • C-reactive protein (CRP): A study of over 700 nurses showed that those in the highest quartile of trans fat consumption had blood levels of CRP that were 73% higher than those in the lowest quartile.[31]

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) refers to a class and range of lipoprotein particles, varying somewhat in their size and contents, which carry cholesterol in the blood and around the body, for use by various cells. ... High-density lipoproteins (HDL) form a class of lipoproteins, varying somewhat in their size (8–11 nm in diameter), that carry cholesterol from the bodys tissues to the liver. ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... A crossover trial is one where patients are given all of the medications to be studied in random order. ... Look up Postprandial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A cholesteryl ester is, as its name would imply, an ester of cholesterol. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In descriptive statistics, a quartile is any of the three values which divide the sorted data set into four equal parts, so that each part represents 1/4th of the sample or population. ...

Other effects

There are suggestions that the negative consequences of trans fat consumption go beyond the cardiovascular risk. In general, there is much less scientific consensus that eating trans fat specifically increases the risk of other chronic health problems:

  • Cancer: There is no scientific consensus that consumption of trans fats significantly increases cancer risks across the board.[26] The American Cancer Society states that a relationship between trans fats and cancer "has not been determined."[32] However, one recent study has found connections between trans fat and prostate cancer.[33]
  • Diabetes: There is a growing concern that the risk of type 2 diabetes increases with trans fat consumption.[26] However, consensus has not been reached.[3] For example, one study found that risk is higher for those in the highest quartile of trans fat consumption.[34] Another study has found no diabetes risk once other factors such as total fat intake and BMI were accounted for.[35]
  • Obesity: Research indicates that trans fat may increase weight gain and abdominal fat, despite a similar caloric intake.[36] A 6-year experiment revealed that monkeys fed a trans-fat diet gained 7.2% of their body weight, as compared to 1.8% for monkeys on a mono-unsaturated fat diet.[37] Although obesity is frequently linked to trans fat in the popular media,[38] this is generally in the context of eating too many calories; there is no scientific consensus connecting trans fat and obesity.
  • Liver Dysfunction: Trans fats are metabolized differently by the liver than other fats and interfere with delta 6 desaturase. Delta 6 desaturase is an enzyme involved in converting essential fatty acids to arachidonic acid and prostaglandins, both of which are important to the functioning of cells.[39]
  • Infertility: One 2007 study found, "Each 2% increase in the intake of energy from trans unsaturated fats, as opposed to that from carbohydrates, was associated with a 73% greater risk of ovulatory infertility…".[40]

Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... See diabetes mellitus for further general information on diabetes. ... In descriptive statistics, a quartile is any of the three values which divide the sorted data set into four equal parts, so that each part represents 1/4th of the sample or population. ... Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs), which include liver enzymes, are groups of clinical biochemistry laboratory blood assays designed to give information about the state of a patients liver. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... A Desaturase is an enzyme which removes two hydrogen atoms from an organic compound, creating a carbon/carbon double bond. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Arachidonic acid (AA) is an omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6). ... E1 - Alprostadil I2 - Prostacyclin A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. ... Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. ...

Public response and regulation

International

The international trade in food is standardized in the Codex Alimentarius. Hydrogenated oils and fats come under the scope of Codex Stan 19.[41] In 2007, Codex Stan 256, Standard for Fat Spreads and Blended Spreads, is planned. The Codex Alimentarius (Latin for food code or food book) is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines and other recommendations relating to foods, food production and food safety under the aegis of consumer protection. ...


Denmark

Denmark became the first country to introduce laws strictly regulating the sale of many foods containing trans fats in March 2003, a move which effectively bans partially hydrogenated oils. The limit is 2% of fats and oils destined for human consumption. It should be noted that this restriction is on the ingredients rather than the final products. This regulatory approach has made Denmark the only country in which it is possible to eat "far less" than 1 g of industrially produced trans fats on a daily basis, even with a diet including prepared foods.[42] March 2003 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December - → // Events March 1, 2003 Iraq disarmament crisis: The Turkish speaker of Parliament voids the vote accepting U.S. troops involved in the planned invasion of Iraq into Turkey on constitutional grounds. ... A ban is, generally, any decree that prohibits something. ...


Canada

Canada is one of the largest consumers of trans fats in the world.[43] In November 2004, an opposition day motion seeking a ban similar to Denmark's was introduced by Jack Layton of the New Democratic Party, and passed through the House of Commons by an overwhelming 193-73 vote.[44] An opposition day is a day in a legislature using the Westminster System in which an opposition party sets the agenda. ... John Gilbert Jack Layton, PC, MP, PhD (born July 18, 1950) is a social democratic Canadian politician and current leader of Canadas New Democratic Party (since 2003). ... This article is about the Canadian political party. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ...


Since December 2005, Health Canada has required that food labels list the amount of trans fat in the nutrition facts section for most foods. Products with less than 0.2 grams of trans fat per serving may be labled as free of trans fats.[45] These labelling allowances are not widely known, but as an awareness of them develops, controversy over truthful labelling is growing. In Canada, trans fat quantities on labels include naturally occurring trans fats from animal sources.[46] sex Canada (French: Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health. ...


In June 2006, a task force co-chaired by Health Canada and the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada recommended a limit of 5% trans fat (to total fat) ratio in all products sold to consumers in Canada (2% for tub margarines and spreads).[17] The amount was selected such that "most of the industrially produced trans fats would be removed from the Canadian diet, and about half of the remaining trans fat intake would be of naturally occurring trans fats". This recommendation has been endorsed by the Canadian Restaurant and Foodservices Association[47] and Food & Consumer Products of Canada has congratulated the task force on the report,[48] although it did not recommend delaying implementation to 2010 as they had previously advocated.[49] The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada is a registered Canadian charity. ... The Canadian Restaurant and Foodservices Association or CRFA is an industry and advocacy group organizing the Canadian restaurant, foodservice and catering industry. ...


Ten months after submitting their report the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada and Toronto Public Health issued a plea to the government of Canada: "to act immediately on the task force's recommendations and to eliminate harmful trans fat from Canada's food supply."[50] The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada is a registered Canadian charity. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ...


On June 20, 2007, the federal government announced its intention to regulate trans fats to the June 2006 standard unless the food industry voluntarily complied with these limits within two years.[51][52] is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


European Union

The European Food Safety Authority was asked to produce a scientific opinion on trans fats.[53] The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), an agency of the European Union, began operating in 2002. ...


United Kingdom

In October 2005, the Food Standards Agency (FSA) asked for better labelling in the UK.[54] In the July 29, 2006 edition of the British Medical Journal, an editorial also called for better labelling.[55] In January 2007, the British Retail Consortium announced that major UK retailers, including ASDA, Boots, Co-op, Iceland, Marks and Spencer, Sainsbury's, Tesco and Waitrose intend to cease adding trans fatty acids to their own products by the end of 2007.[56] The Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA)which published its first issue in 1845. ... This article is about the supermarket chain. ... Boots is the name of at least five different albums and singles: Boots by Nancy Sinatra (1966) Boots by Mighty Gabby (1984) Boots by Condemned Eighty Four (2001) Boots by KMFDM (2002) Boots by Noe Venable (2003) It is also the name of a large chain of chemists in the... Co-op is: A cooperative education program. ... Marks and Spencer plc (known also as M&S and sometimes colloquially as Marks and Sparks) is the largest retailer in the United Kingdom by sales. ... This article is about the supermarket business. ... For other uses, see Tesco (disambiguation). ... Waitrose is a British supermarket chain owned by the John Lewis Partnership, with 184 branches (November 2006). ...


Sainsburys became the first UK major retailer to ban all trans fat from all their own brand foods. Store brands are brands which are specific to a retail store. ...


Australia

The Australian federal government has indicated that it wants to actively pursue a policy of reducing trans fats from fast foods. The federal assistant health minister, Christopher Pyne has asked fast food outlets to reduce their trans fat usage. A draft plan is being proposed, with a September 2007 timetable, in order to reduce reliance on trans fats and saturated fats.[57] Currently, Australia's food labeling laws do not require Trans Fats to be shown separately from the total fat content.


United States

Poster from New York City's board of health encouraging consumers to limit trans fat consumption.
Poster from New York City's board of health encouraging consumers to limit trans fat consumption.

Before 2006, consumers in the United States could not directly determine the presence (or quantity) of trans fats in food products. This information could only be inferred from the ingredient list, notably from the partially hydrogenated ingredients. Image File history File links Nyc-trans-poster. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


On July 11, 2003, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a regulation requiring manufacturers to list trans fat on the Nutrition Facts panel of foods and some dietary supplements.[58][59] The new labeling rule allowed for immediate voluntary compliance with mandatory compliance by January 1, 2006 (although companies may petition for an extension to January 1, 2008). The regulation allows trans fat levels of less than 0.5 grams per serving to be labeled as 0 grams per serving. The FDA did not approve nutrient content claims such as "trans fat free" or "low trans fat", as they could not determine a "recommended daily value", however the agency is planning a consumer study to evaluate the consumer understanding of such claims and perhaps consider a regulation allowing their use on packaged foods.[60] The FDA defines trans fats as containing one or more trans linkage that are not in a conjugated system. This is an important distinction, as it distinguishes non-conjugated synthetic trans fats from naturally occurring fatty acids with conjugated trans double bonds, such as conjugated linoleic acid. is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “FDA” redirects here. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A chemically conjugated system, is a system of atoms covalently bonded with alternating single and double bonds (e. ... recent research have linked CLA with several negative effects in humans. ...


Critics of the plan, including FDA advisor Dr. Carlos Camargo, have expressed concern that the 0.5 gram per serving threshold is too high to refer to a food as free of trans fat. This is because a person eating many servings of a product, or eating multiple products over the course of the day may still consume a significant amount of trans fat.[61] Despite this, the FDA estimates that by 2009, trans fat labeling will have prevented from 600 to 1,200 cases of coronary heart disease and 250 to 500 deaths each year. This benefit is expected to result from consumers choosing alternative foods lower in trans fats as well as manufacturers reducing the amount of trans fats in their products.


Some US cities are acting to reduce consumption of trans fats. In May 2005, Tiburon, California, became the first American city where all restaurants voluntarily cook with trans fat-free oils.[62] Montgomery County, MD approved a ban on partially hydrogenated oils, becoming the first county in the nation to restrict trans fats.[63] A View of Downtown Tiburon, near the Ferry Docks. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Montgomery County is a suburban county located in the state of Maryland north and west of Washington, D.C.. Its county seat is Rockville. ...


New York City has embarked on a campaign to reduce consumption of trans fats, noting that heart disease is the primary cause of resident deaths. This has included a Public education campaign (see trans fat pamphlet) and a request to restaurant owners to voluntarily eliminate trans fat from their offerings.[64] Finding that the voluntary program was not successful, New York City's Board of Health has solicited public comments on a proposal to ban artificial trans fats in restaurants.[65] The board voted to ban trans fat in restaurant food on December 5, 2006. New York is the first large US city to strictly limit trans fats in restaurants. Restaurants will be barred from using most frying and spreading fats containing artificial trans fats above 0.5 g per serving by July 1, 2007, and will have to meet the same target in all of their foods by July 1, 2008.[66] New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Philadelphia also recently passed a ban on trans fats. Philadelphia's City Council voted unanimously to pass a ban on February 8, 2007, which was signed into law on February 15, 2007, by Mayor John F. Street.[67][68] By September 1, 2007, eateries must cease frying food in trans fats. A year later, trans fat must not be used as an ingredient in commercial kitchens. The law does not apply to prepackaged foods sold in the city. On October 10, 2007, the Philadelphia City Council approved the use of trans-fats by small bakeries throughout the city. [69] For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... John Franklin Street (born October 15, 1943) is the 97th Mayor of the City of Philadelphia. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Albany County of New York passed a ban on trans fats. The ban was adopted after a unanimous vote by the county legislature on May 14, 2007. The decision was made after New York City's decision, but no plan has been put into place. Legislators received a letter from Rick J. Sampson, president and CEO of the New York State Restaurant Association, calling on them to "delay any action on this issue until the full impact of the New York City ban is known." Location in the state of New York Formed November 1, 1683 Seat Albany Area  - Total  - Water 1,381 km² (533 mi²) 25 km² (10 mi²) 1. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Chicago is also considering a ban on oils containing trans fats for large chain restaurants.[70] Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ...


On December 19, 2006, Massachusetts state representative Peter Koutoujian filed the first state level legislation that would ban restaurants from preparing foods with trans fats.[71] Similarly, Maryland, California, and Vermont are also considering statewide bans of trans fats.[72][73] is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Peter Koutoujian is a member of the Massachusetts state house of representatives. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


King County of Washington passed a ban on artificial trans fats effective February 1, 2009.[74] The 2007 Indiana State Fair went to a complete ban on Trans Fats in cooking oils used. King County is the name of a number of counties in the United States of America: King County, Texas: named for William Phillip King, who lost his life in the Battle of the Alamo. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Food industry response

Manufacturer response

The J.M. Smucker Company, American manufacturer of Crisco (the original partially hydrogenated vegetable shortening), in 2004 released a new formulation made from solid saturated palm oil cut with soybean oil and sunflower oil. This blend yielded an equivalent shortening much like the previous partially hydrogenated Crisco, and was labelled zero grams of trans fat per 1 tablespoon serving (as compared with 1.5 grams per tablespoon of original Crisco).[75] As of January 24, 2007, Smucker claims that all Crisco shortening products in the US have been reformulated to contain less than one gram of trans fat per serving while keeping saturated fat content less than butter.[76] The separately marketed trans-fat free version introduced in 2004 was discontinued. The J. M. Smucker Company is a manufacturer and market leader of fruit spreads, ice cream toppings, health and natural foods beverages, and natural peanut butter in North America. ... Cover of original Crisco cookbook, 1912 Crisco, a popular brand of shortening, was first produced in 1911 by Procter & Gamble and was the first shortening to be made entirely of vegetable oil. ... The term saturation generally means thoroughly full, and can refer to the following: In chemistry, see saturation (chemistry) for a number of meanings. ... Palm oil from Ghana with its natural dark color visible, 2 litres Palm oil block Palm oil is a form of edible vegetable oil obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. ... Binomial name Glycine max Merr. ... Sunflower Oil is the non-volatile oil expressed from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds. ... This tablespoon has a capacity of about 1 tbsp. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


On May 22, 2004, Unilever, the corporate descendant of Joseph Crosfield & Sons (the original producer of Wilhelm Normann's hydrogenation hardened oils) announced that they have eliminated transfats from all their margarine products in Canada, including their flagship Becel brand.[77] is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Unilever is a widely listed [2] [3] multi-national corporation, formed of Anglo-Dutch parentage, that owns many of the worlds consumer product brands in foods, beverages, cleaning agents and personal care products. ... Joseph Crosfield (5 October 1792 – 16 February 1844) was a businessman who established a soap and chemical manufacturing business in Warrington, which was formerly in Lancashire but is now in the county of Cheshire. ... Wilhelm Normann (1870 - 1939) (sometimes also spelled Norman) was a German chemist who introduced the hydrogenation of fats in 1901, which had a profound influence on the production of margerine. ...


Agribusiness giant Bunge Limited, through their Bunge Oils division are now producing and marketing an NH product line of non-hydrogenated oils, margarines and shortenings, made from palm, canola, and soya oils, in some cases with added water and/or glycerides.[78] Bunge Limited (formerly Bunge International) is a multinational food conglomerate. ...


Major users' response

Some major food chains have chosen to remove or reduce trans fats in their products. In some cases these changes have been voluntary. In other cases, however, food vendors have been targeted by legal action that has generated a lot of media attention. In May 2003, BanTransFats.com Inc., a U.S. non-profit corporation, filed a lawsuit against the food manufacturer Kraft Foods in an attempt to force Kraft to remove trans fats from the Oreo cookie. The lawsuit was withdrawn when Kraft agreed to work on ways to find a substitute for the trans fat in the Oreo. In November 2006, Arby's announced that they were eliminating all trans-fats from their menu, to be implemented by May 2007, being the first major fast-food restaurant to do so. Kraft Foods Inc. ... For other uses, see Oreo (disambiguation). ...


Similarly, in 2006, the Center for Science in the Public Interest sued KFC over its use of trans fats in fried foods.[79] KFC reviewed alternative oil options, saying "there are a number of factors to consider including maintaining KFC's unique taste and flavor of Colonel Sanders' Original Recipe."[80] On October 30, 2006, KFC announced that it will replace the partially hydrogenated soybean oil it currently uses with a zero-trans-fat low linolenic soybean oil in all restaurants in the US by April 2007, although its biscuits will still contain trans-fats.[81] Despite the US-specific nature of the lawsuit, KFC is making changes outside of the US as well; in Canada, KFC's brand owner is switching to trans-fat free Canadian canola oil by early 2007.[82] Wendy's announced in June 2006 plans to eliminate trans-fats from 6,300 restaurants in the United States and Canada, starting in August 2006.[83] In November 2006, Taco Bell made a similar announcement, pledging to remove Trans Fat from many of their menu items by switching to canola oil. By April 2007, 15 Taco Bell menu items were completely free of Trans Fat. In January 2007, McDonald's announced they will start phasing out the trans fat in their fries after years of testing and several delays.[84] This can be partially attributed to New York's recent ban, with the company stating they would not be selling a unique oil just for New York customers but would implement a nationwide change. The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... KFC, also known as Kentucky Fried Chicken, is a food chain based in Louisville, Kentucky, known mainly for its fried chicken. ... Harland David Sanders, better known as Colonel Sanders (September 9, 1890 – December 16, 1980) was the founder of Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC). ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wendys is an international chain of fast food restaurants founded by Dave Thomas that sells primarily hamburgers, chicken sandwiches, french fries and beverages. ... McDonalds Corporation (NYSE: MCD) is the worlds largest chain of fast-food restaurants, primarily selling hamburgers, chicken, french fries, milkshakes and soft drinks. ...


In response to a May 2007 law suit from the Center for Science in the Public Interest, Burger King announced that its 7,100 US restaurants will begin the switch to zero trans-fat oil by the end of 2007.[85] May 2007 is the fifth month of that year. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Burger King (NYSE: BKC), often abbreviated to BK, is a global chain of hamburger fast food restaurants. ...


The Walt Disney Company announced that they will begin getting rid of trans fats in meals at US theme parks by the end of 2007, and will stop the inclusion of trans fats in licensed or promotional products by 2008.[86] Alternate meanings: Disney (disambiguation) The Walt Disney Company (also known as Disney Enterprises, Inc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

Diet may play an important role in causing or preventing heart disease. ... Interesterified fats are oils (such as soybean oil) that have been chemically modified. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Food and nutrition board, institute of medicine of the national academies (2005). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). National Academies Press, 423. 
  2. ^ a b c d Food and nutrition board, institute of medicine of the national academies (2005). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). National Academies Press, 504. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Mozaffarian D, Katan MB, Ascherio A, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC (April 2006). "Trans Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease". New England Journal of Medicine 354 (15): 1601–1613.  PMID 16611951
  4. ^ (1966) Nobel Lectures, Chemistry, 1901–1921. Elsevier.  Reprinted online: Paul Sabatier, The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1912. Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-01-07.
  5. ^ German patent 141029
  6. ^ Patterson, HBW (1998). "Hydrogenation". Sci Lecture Papers Series. Retrieved on 2007-01-07. 
  7. ^ Normann bio (in German)
  8. ^ Shurtleff, William; Akiko Aoyagi. History of Soybeans and Soyfoods: 1100 B.C. to the 1980s. Archived from the original on 2005-10-18.
  9. ^ Wilhelm Normann - Erfinder der Fetthärtung(in German)
  10. ^ a b Ascherio A, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Trans fatty acids and coronary heart disease. Retrieved on 2006-09-14.
  11. ^ Mary G. Enig, PhD. The Tragic Legacy of Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI). Retrieved on 2006-05-02.
  12. ^ Booyens J, Louwrens CC, Katzeff IE (1988). "The role of unnatural dietary trans and cis unsaturated fatty acids in the epidemiology of coronary artery disease". Medical Hypotheses 25 (3): 175–182.  PMID 3367809
  13. ^ Willett WC, Ascherio A (1995). "Trans fatty acids: are the effects only marginal?". American Journal of Public Health 85 (3): 411–412.  PMID 8179036
  14. ^ CBC Trans Fats Headed for the Exit
  15. ^ Trans fat free future
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External links

  • Ban Trans Fat
  • No Trans Club Malaysia
  • "Ban the Trans: These Sorry Lipids Should Go Away"
  • What's the truth on trans fat?
  • Chemical Structure of Fats and Fatty Acids

  Results from FactBites:
 
Revealing Trans Fats (1680 words)
Trans fat can be found in vegetable shortenings, some margarines, crackers, cookies, snack foods, and other foods made with or fried in partially hydrogenated oils.
Simply put: No. Fat is a major source of energy for the body and aids in the absorption of vitamins A, D, E, and K and carotenoids.
In addition, parents should be aware that fats are an especially important source of calories and nutrients for infants and toddlers (up to 2 years of age), who have the highest energy needs per unit of body weight of any age group.
SingaporeMoms - Parenting Encyclopedia - Trans fat (1485 words)
In the 1950s advocates said that the trans fats of margarine were healthier than the saturated fats of butter.
Trans fatty acids are made when manufacturers add hydrogen to vegetable oil, in the presence of small amounts of catalyst metals such as nickel, palladium, platinum or cobalt -- in a process described as partial hydrogenation.
Trans fat behaves like saturated fat by raising the level of low-density lipoprotein in the blood (LDL or "bad cholesterol") which increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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