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Encyclopedia > Trans World Airlines
Trans World Airlines
IATA
TW
ICAO
TWA
Callsign
TWA
Founded 1925 (as Western Air Express)
Hubs Lambert-Saint Louis International Airport
John F. Kennedy International Airport
Focus cities Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport
Los Angeles International Airport
Charles de Gaulle International Airport
Zürich Airport
Leonardo Da Vinci International Airport
Member lounge Ambassadors Club
Fleet size 190
Destinations 132
Parent company Trans World Airlines, Inc.
Headquarters St. Louis, Missouri, USA
Key people Dick Robbins (1930-34), Jack Frye and Paul E. Richter (1931-1947),Howard Hughes (1939-65), Ralph Damon (1949-56), Carter Burgess (1956-57), Charles Thomas (1958-60), Charles Tillinghast (1961-76), L.E. Smart (1976-), C.E. Meyer Jr. (1976-85), Carl Icahn (1985-93), William R. Howard (1993-94), Jeffrey H. Erickson (1994-97), Gerald L. Gitner (1997-99), William Compton (1999-01)

Trans World Airlines (IATA: TW, ICAO: TWA, and Callsign: TWA), commonly known as TWA, was an American airline company that was acquired by American Airlines in April 2001. For many years it was headquartered at the Kansas City Downtown Airport, as well as midtown Manhattan in New York City. At the time of its buyout, it was headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri, and used Lambert-Saint Louis International Airport, as its major hub. TWA once shared the U.S. international air market with fellow pioneer Pan American World Airways. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links TWA.png‎ Summary TWA Logo at the time of AA acquisition. ... IATA airline designators, sometimes called IATA reservation codes, are two-character codes assigned by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) to the worlds airlines in accordance with the provisions of Resolution 762. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with ICAO airline code. ... Most airlines employ a distinctive and internationally recognised call sign that is normally spoken during airband radio transmissions as a prefix to the flight number. ... An airline hub is an airport that an airline uses as a transfer point to get passengers to their intended destination. ... Diagram of STL. Lambert-Saint Louis International Airport (IATA: STL, ICAO: KSTL) is the primary airport for Saint Louis, Missouri and the surrounding area. ... John F. Kennedy International Airport (IATA: JFK, ICAO: KJFK), originally known as Idlewild Airport and colloquially known as JFK, is an international airport located in Jamaica, Queens, in southeastern New York City about 12 miles (19 km) from Lower Manhattan. ... In the airline industry, a focus city is a location that is not a hub, but from which the airline has flights to at least several destinations other than its hubs. ... SJU redirects here. ... Runway layout at LAX “LAX” redirects here. ... The new logo of Aéroports de Paris used since 6 June 2005 Charles de Gaulle International Airport (IATA: CDG, ICAO: LFPG) (French: ), also known as Roissy Airport (or just Roissy in French), in Paris, is one of Europes principal aviation centres, as well as Frances main international... Skymetro Terminal in dock E Zürich Airport (IATA: ZRH, ICAO: LSZH) also called Kloten Airport, is located in Kloten, canton of Zürich, Switzerland and managed by Unique Airport. ... Leonardo da Vinci International Airport (IATA: FCO, ICAO: LIRF), also known as Fiumicino International Airport, is Italys largest airport, with over 30 million passengers in the year 2006. ... The lounge at ZRH, Switzerland An airport lounge is a lounge owned by a particular airline (or jointly operated by several carriers). ... A holding company is a company that owns enough voting stock in another firm to control management and operations by influencing or electing its board of directors. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Paul E. Richter, 1896 to 1949, Aviation pioneer, co-founder of TWA. The Airline Run by Flyers During the Golden Age of flying, Paul E. Richter played a decisive role in creating and building all aspects of commercial aviation and military air transport. ... For the Welsh murderer, see Howard Hughes (murderer). ... ... Charles C. Tillinghast Jr. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... IATA airline designators, sometimes called IATA reservation codes, are two-character codes assigned by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) to the worlds airlines in accordance with the provisions of Resolution 762. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with ICAO airline code. ... Most airlines employ a distinctive and internationally recognised call sign that is normally spoken during airband radio transmissions as a prefix to the flight number. ... A Boeing 747-400 belonging to Virgin Atlantic Airways, one of the UKs largest airlines. ... American Airlines, Inc. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Kansas City Downtown Airport, also known as Charles B. Wheeler Downtown Airport, (IATA: MKC, ICAO: KMKC) is an airport in Kansas City, Missouri, Clay County, Missouri. ... Main article: New York City Midtown Manhattan viewed from the Brooklyn Bridge. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Diagram of STL. Lambert-Saint Louis International Airport (IATA: STL, ICAO: KSTL) is the primary airport for Saint Louis, Missouri and the surrounding area. ... Pan Ams seaplane terminal at Dinner Key in Miami, Florida, was a hub of inter-American travel during the 1930s and 1940s. ...

Contents

Early history

On May 1, 1930, Western Air Express, with Harris "Pop" Hanshue as President, acquired the successful Standard Airlines, subsidiary of Aero Corp. of California founded in 1926 by Jack Frye, Paul E. Richter and Walter Hamilton (known as "The Three Musketeers of Aviation"). Transcontinental and Western Air (TWA) emerged in October 1930, with Hanshue as the first President, when Postmaster General Walter Folger Brown, under President Herbert Hoover, forced Western Air Express and Transcontinental Air Transport (T-A-T) to merge in order to get an air mail contract. This became known as the Air Mail Scandal. Transcontinental was the bigger of the two airlines and had the marquee expertise of Charles Lindbergh and economic power of founder Clement Melville Keys (chairman of airplane manufacturer Curtiss-Wright), while Western Air was the slightly older line (founded in July 13, 1925). They agreed to merge on July 16, 1930. The newly merged company's headquarters was in Kansas City, Missouri.[1] A new restoration of a Convair 240 sports a Western Airlines paint scheme. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Paul E. Richter, 1896 to 1949, Aviation pioneer, co-founder of TWA. The Airline Run by Flyers During the Golden Age of flying, Paul E. Richter played a decisive role in creating and building all aspects of commercial aviation and military air transport. ... The United States Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... Walter Folger Brown (May 31, 1869–January 26, 1961) was Postmaster General of the United States from 1929 through 1933. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... Transcontinental Air Transport (T-A-T) was airline founded in 1928 by Clement Melville Keys that was to merge in 1930 with Western Air Express to form what became TWA. Keys enlisted the help of Charles Lindbergh to design a transcontinental network to get government airmail contracts. ... The Air Mail Scandal is the name that the American press of the 1930s gave to the results of a meeting (the so-called Spoils Conference) of Postmaster General Walter Folger Brown and the executives of the top airlines, effectively dividing among them the air mail routes, and to the... For Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Junior, see Lindbergh kidnapping. ... Clement Melville Keys (1876-1952) who as a financier who was involved with founding of aviation companies Curtiss-Wright, China National Aviation Corporation, North American Aviation and TWA. Keys was born in Canada and attended Toronto University and taught classics there before becoming a reporter for the Wall Street Journal... The Curtiss-Wright Corporation was once a leading aircraft manufacturer of the United States, but has since become a component manufacturer, specializing in actuators, controls, valves, and metal treatment. ...


Transcontinental in 1929 had initiated a 48-hour cross country train and plane route with a stopover in Kansas City. The merged airline offered a plane-only cross country trip, inaugurated October 25, 1930, called the Lindbergh Route. The route took 36 hours coast to coast that initially also called for overnights in Kansas City.


Golden era

Jack Frye, Paul E. Richter, Walter Hamilton

In 1931 Jack Frye, Paul E. Richter and Walter Hamilton transitioned into TWA through Western Air Express and their Standard Airlines. This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Paul E. Richter, 1896 to 1949, Aviation pioneer, co-founder of TWA. The Airline Run by Flyers During the Golden Age of flying, Paul E. Richter played a decisive role in creating and building all aspects of commercial aviation and military air transport. ...


The airline nearly went out of business in the wake of the 1931 crash of TWA Flight 599 from Kansas City to Wichita that killed University of Notre Dame coach Knute Rockne. On May 4, 1931, the U.S. Department of Commerce grounded all Fokker F-10s, the type of aircraft involved in the Rockne crash. Transcontinental and Western Air Flight 599 was a Fokker F-10 Trimotor en route from Kansas City, Missouri to Los Angeles, California on March 31, 1931. ... The University of Notre Dame IPA: is a Catholic[4] institution located in Notre Dame, an unincorporated section of St. ... 1927 Time cover featuring Rockne Knute (pronounced kah-noot) (noot is the anglicized nickname) Kenneth Rockne (March 4, 1888 – March 31, 1931) was an American football player and is regarded by many as the greatest coach in college football history. ...


On May 20, 1931, Northrop Alpha service started from Los Angeles to Newark.


TWA relocated from New York to Kansas City, Mo., in summer 1931.


Keys left the aviation business in 1932 when government regulation forced aircraft builders to divest themselves of airline subsidiaries.


In 1932 Richard Robbins, TWA's President, requested that Vice Pres. Jack Frye write to aircraft companies for replacement of the company's fleet of Fokker Trimotors, the type that was involved in the Rockne crash. Donald Douglas responded and Frye, Richter, D.W. "Tommy" Tomlinson and Lindbergh went to Douglas with their request. The specifications were the result of Tomlinson's "High Altitude Research" testing and his engineering expertise. In 1932 the Northrop Gamma was put in service for mail and overweather high altitude research. This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The Fokker F.VII was a small airliner originally produced by Anthony Fokkers Atlantic Aircraft Company, and later by other companies under licence. ...


On September 20, 1932, the contract was signed with Douglas and the DC-1 was delivered to TWA in December 1933. The result was the one and only DC-1. The new aircraft was ultimately to evolve into the DC-3. Throughout 1934 Tomlinson and Richter tested the DC-1 and Tomlinson's extensive testing in 1934 and 1935 lead to higher altitude "over weather flying" and cabin pressurization. The Douglas DC-2 was a 14-seat, twin-propeller airliner produced by the Douglas Aircraft Corporation starting in 1934. ... Douglas DC-3 VH-AES at Avalon in 2003. ...


On February 9, 1934, President Franklin Roosevelt hit the airline hard by cancelling all mail contracts and instead allowing the Army Air Corps to carry the mail, which proved deadly. The Air Mail Act of 1934 dissolved the forced Transcontinental and Western merger. However, Transcontinental & Western Air added Inc. to the name and remained TWA. Hanshue split off with his Western Air. On February 18, 1934, Captain Eddie Rickenbacker, Frye and a TWA team including "Tommy" Tomlinson, Larry Fritz and Paul E. Richter, Si Morehouse, Harlan Hull, John Collings and Andy Andrews flew a prototype of the DC-1 from Burbank, California, to Newark, New Jersey, in a record-breaking 13 hours and 4 minutes. This flight was to prove the benefit of airline mail contracts, but Roosevelt's decree still resulted in the furlough of all TWA personnel on February 28, 1934. Roosevelt doomed the airlines and the many inexperienced Army airmen that lost their lives until the last Air Corps flight on June 1. In May 1934, the airlines were again awarded mail routes and resumed contract mail service. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd (1933–1945) President of the United States. ... The Air Mail Scandal is the name that the American press of the 1930s gave to the results of a meeting (the so-called Spoils Conference) of Postmaster General Walter Folger Brown and the executives of the top airlines, effectively dividing among them the air mail routes, and to the... Eddie Rickenbacker (October 8, 1890 – July 27, 1973) was best known as a World War I fighter ace and Medal of Honor recipient. ... Paul E. Richter, 1896 to 1949, Aviation pioneer, co-founder of TWA. The Airline Run by Flyers During the Golden Age of flying, Paul E. Richter played a decisive role in creating and building all aspects of commercial aviation and military air transport. ... The Douglas DC-2 was a 14-seat, twin-propeller airliner produced by the Douglas Aircraft Corporation starting in 1934. ... Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... Nickname: Map of Newark in Essex County County Essex Founded/Incorporated 1666/1836 Government  - Mayor Cory Booker, term of office 2006–2010 Area [1]  - City 67. ...


On May 18, 1934, the DC-2 production version of the DC-1 and forerunner of the DC-3 entered commercial service on TWA's Columbus-Pittsburgh-Newark route.

A TWA Douglas DC-3 is prepared for takeoff from Columbus, Ohio in 1940.

On December 27, 1934 Jack Frye became President, Paul E. Richter, Vice Pres., Walt Hamilton, V.P. Maintenance with managers Lawrence G. "Larry" Fritz, and Tommy Tomlinson, the leader in "High Altitude Research" for Over Weather Flying. Image File history File linksMetadata TWA_1940. ... Image File history File linksMetadata TWA_1940. ... The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing, propeller-driven aircraft, which revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s and is generally regarded as one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made (also see Boeing 707 and Boeing 747). ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Paul E. Richter, 1896 to 1949, Aviation pioneer, co-founder of TWA. The Airline Run by Flyers During the Golden Age of flying, Paul E. Richter played a decisive role in creating and building all aspects of commercial aviation and military air transport. ...


In 1935 Tomlinson and Northrop Gamma (turbo-supercharged) began High Altitude research, and the last of 14 TWA Northrop Alphas were phased out.


On November 16, 1936, Paul E. Richter headed the airline's Boeing 307 talks. Paul E. Richter, 1896 to 1949, Aviation pioneer, co-founder of TWA. The Airline Run by Flyers During the Golden Age of flying, Paul E. Richter played a decisive role in creating and building all aspects of commercial aviation and military air transport. ...


On January 29, 1937, TWA contracted with Boeing for five Boeing 307 "Stratoliners", the first commercial plane with a pressurized cabin. The first TWA Stratoliner was delivered on May 6, 1940. A restored Boeing 307 on display at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center The Boeing Model 307 Stratoliner was the first commercial transport aircraft with a pressurized cabin. ...


In 1938 Paul E. Richter was elected Executive Vice President, Lawrence G. "Larry" Fritz became Vice Pres. of Operations, and Tomlinson Vice Pres. of Engineering. TWA received the San Francisco to Chicago route. Paul E. Richter, 1896 to 1949, Aviation pioneer, co-founder of TWA. The Airline Run by Flyers During the Golden Age of flying, Paul E. Richter played a decisive role in creating and building all aspects of commercial aviation and military air transport. ...


Jack Frye, Paul E. Richter, Howard Hughes

Jack Frye, President, and Paul E. Richter, Executive Vice President of Transcontinental & Western Air, Inc. owned TWA stock with the controlling interest of Lehman Bros. and Hertz. This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Paul E. Richter, 1896 to 1949, Aviation pioneer, co-founder of TWA. The Airline Run by Flyers During the Golden Age of flying, Paul E. Richter played a decisive role in creating and building all aspects of commercial aviation and military air transport. ...


In April 1939, in an effort to gain greater control of the airline, Richter and Frye convinced a friend from the 1920s, Howard Hughes, to buy into TWA. According to John Keats's biography of Hughes, he grumbled "$15 million! That's a small fortune!" before he agreed. Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Welsh murderer, see Howard Hughes (murderer). ...


Transcontinental & Western Air, TWA, was known as "The Airline Run by Flyers". An award winning ad in 1939 featured Executive Vice President, Paul E. Richter, in captain's uniform in the left seat of a DC-3. It was entitled "The Boss is Bringing in the Sky Chief". As a full-page ad, it appeared in all the major newspapers in the country and was acclaimed as the best ad of the year.


On June 22, 1939, Hughes Tool Co. ordered 40 Lockheed Constellations. On July 8, 1940, TWA inaugurated Boeing 307 Stratoliner service.


The airline expanded dramatically under the leadership of President Jack Frye and Exec. V.P. Paul Richter.


Hughes's involvement was his interest in and financing of the Lockheed Constellation. On April 17, 1944, Hughes and Frye flew the Constellation (C-69 USAAF #43-10310) from Burbank to Washington, D.C. in an unofficial record 6 hours 58 minutes.


After breaking Pan American World Airways' legal designation as the United States' sole international carrier, TWA began trans-Atlantic service in 1946 using new elegant Lockheed Constellation (the "Connies") aircraft, changing its name to The Trans World Airline. Pan Ams seaplane terminal at Dinner Key in Miami, Florida, was a hub of inter-American travel during the 1930s and 1940s. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lockheed Constellation, affectionately known as the “Connie”, was a four-engine propeller-driven airliner built by Lockheed between 1943 and 1958 at its Burbank, California, USA, facility. ...


After WWII TWA was also a major force in the founding of Saudi Arabian Airlines, Ethiopian Airlines, and a newly revived Lufthansa. Airlines from around the world sent their pilots to TWA for training. Saudi Arabian Airlines (Arabic: الخطوط الجوية العربية السعودية) is the national airline of Saudi Arabia, based in Jeddah. ... Ethiopian Airlines is an airline based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ... The Luftansa headquarters in Cologne, Germany. ...


In 1946, one of the most difficult times for the entire airline industry, Howard Hughes offered $10 million to stem the tide for TWA. United reportedly needed $53 million to stay in business. Not until late 1946 did Hughes take an active part in the administration of the airline. He had marginal knowledge of operating a business, much less an airline, but had acquired controlling interest during WWII. Through his man, Noah Dietrich, Hughes dictated to management a 50% cut across the board as a solution to the financial problems. Earlier in 1946 Richter and Frye proposed issuing additional stock when the market was at $53 a share. That sale would have comfortably financed TWA through the tough times of a recession, the first pilots strike and grounding of the Constellation. Hughes refused to dilute his shares at the most advantageous time and by fall of 1946 the stock had fallen to $10. In December 1946, Hughes loaded the TWA Board of Directors with men from the Hughes Tool Co., and by January 1947 only two of the original TWA executives, Paul E. Richter and John A. Collings, remained. Paul E. Richter, 1896 to 1949, Aviation pioneer, co-founder of TWA. The Airline Run by Flyers During the Golden Age of flying, Paul E. Richter played a decisive role in creating and building all aspects of commercial aviation and military air transport. ...


Frye and Richter disagreed with the policies of Howard Hughes and his non-flying board. Jack Frye resigned in February 1947, leaving Paul Richter to operate the airline until his resignation from the Board of Directors and as Executive Vice President in April 1947.


Thus ended the era of "The Airline Run by Flyers". Beginning in 1926 with their Aero Corp. of Ca. and Standard Airlines, a one-plane operation, Jack Frye and Paul E. Richter and Walter Hamilton pioneered Transcontinental & Western Air to a Trans World Airline. TWA had established routes from Europe to Asia during the late 1940s and 1950s, flying its aircraft as far east as Hong Kong. This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Paul E. Richter, 1896 to 1949, Aviation pioneer, co-founder of TWA. The Airline Run by Flyers During the Golden Age of flying, Paul E. Richter played a decisive role in creating and building all aspects of commercial aviation and military air transport. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ...


Throughout the next two decades, TWA suffered constant short-term and short-sighted management, with the exception of the able and highly regarded Ralph Damon. TWA survived partly due to the airline's legal maneuvering of the 40's that eliminated a possible competitive threat from American Overseas Airlines, affiliated with American Airlines, relegating them to non-scheduled charter service only and eventually forcing them out of all European-U.S. service by 1950. As a result, TWA and Pan Am were the only U.S. airlines that served Europe until the 1970s. American Overseas Airlines (AOA) was an airline that flew between the USA and Europe between 1945 and 1950. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1950, the airline officially changed its name to Trans World Airlines. Between 1954 and 1958 it moved its executive offices from its landmark downtown Kansas City building to New York City. However, the servicing of the fleet continued to be handled in Kansas City, Kansas. Initially, servicing was at a former B-25 Mitchell bomber factory at Fairfax Airport. When the Great Flood of 1951 destroyed the facility, the city of Kansas City built TWA a 5,000-acre airport on farmland 15 miles north of downtown at what was to become Kansas City International Airport. At its peak, the airline was one of Kansas City's biggest employers with more than 20,000 employees. TWA headquarters in downtown Kansas City being renovated in August 2006. ... Nickname: Location in Wyandotte, County in the state of Kansas. ... Lt. ... Margaret Truman and Harry Truman visiting Fairfax Airport in 1945 as well as a 1950 circa photo of the Fairax control tower set against a USGS map of Fairfax and Kansas City Downtown Airport This image shows that the airport is east of the confluence of Kansas River and Missouri... Flooding in northeast Topeka, 1951 In mid-July 1951, heavy rains led to a great rise in the Kansas River and other surrounding areas. ... Kansas City International Airport (IATA: MCI, ICAO: KMCI), originally named Mid-Continent International Airport, is a public airport located 15 miles (24 km) northwest of the central business district (CBD) of Kansas City, in Platte County, Missouri, USA. In 2006 10. ...


In the 1950s the TWA Moonliner was the tallest structure at Disneyland and depicted atomic-powered travel to come in 1986. Rendering of the final renovation which will bring back the TWA Mooncruiser to downtown Kansas City at the renovated headquarters building of TWA. The TWA Moonliner was a futuristic exhibit at Tomorrowland at Disneyland in the 1950s that marked TWA product placement by Howard Hughes. ... For other uses, see Disneyland (disambiguation). ...

TWA's maintenance hangar at Philadelphia airport, built in 1956, from an undated photo from Historic American Engineering Record.
TWA's maintenance hangar at Philadelphia airport, built in 1956, from an undated photo from Historic American Engineering Record.

TWA suffered from its late entry to the jet age and in 1956 Hughes placed an order for 63 Convair 880s at a cost of $400 million. The transaction was to ultimately result in Hughes losing control of the airline because outside creditors financing the deal did not want Hughes controlling development and operation of aircraft. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 751 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 818 pixel, file size: 90 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://memory. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 751 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 818 pixel, file size: 90 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://memory. ... The first Convair 880 The Convair 880 was a jet airliner produced by the Convair division of General Dynamics. ...


Charles C. Tillinghast Jr.

In 1961, TWA became the first international all-jet airline, with their last piston-powered flight in the Lockheed 1649 Starliner from Rome to New York. That same year, TWA began showing the first inflight movies. Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Hughes formally relinquished power in 1961 in the battle of the purchase of the Convairs. In the deal, Charles C. Tillinghast Jr. became chairman and was to oversee the airline until 1976. The battle over Hughes' control was to continue until a court order in 1966 forced him to sell his stock at a profit of $546 million (which he used to create new airline Hughes Airwest). Charles C. Tillinghast Jr. ... Hughes Airwest (IATA: RW, ICAO: n/a , and Callsign: Airwest) was an airline that was backed by multi-millionaire Howard Hughes. ...


Under new corporate management, the Trans World Corporation (TWA's holding company) expanded to purchase the overseas operations of Hilton Hotels. Trans World Corporation was the original name of the holding company set up to own Trans World Airlines. ... Entrance of the Beverly Hilton Hotel in Beverly Hills, California Beverly Hilton Hotel viewed from Wilshire Boulvard Hilton is a brand of the Hilton Hotels Corporation, based in Beverly Hills, California. ...


Revolutionary airport design

TWA was one of the first airlines in the world to embrace the spoke-hub distribution paradigm. TWA was one of the first airlines to use the Boeing 747 and it planned to use the 747 along with the anticipated supersonic transport to whisk people between the West/Midwest (via Kansas City) and New York City (via John F. Kennedy International Airport) to European and other world destinations. As part of this strategy, TWA's hub airports were to be designed so that gates would be close to the street. However the TWA-style airport design was to prove impractical and costly when Cuban hijackings in the late 1960s, followed by more sinister and deadly Mideast hijackings, required central security checkpoints. The Spoke-hub distribution paradigm (also known as a hub and spoke model) derives its name from a bicycle wheel, which consists of a number of spokes jutting outward from a central hub. ... The Boeing 747, commonly nicknamed the Jumbo Jet, is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing. ... The Concorde supersonic transport has a delta wing, a slender fuselage and four underslung Olympus engines. ... John F. Kennedy International Airport (IATA: JFK, ICAO: KJFK), originally known as Idlewild Airport and colloquially known as JFK, is an international airport located in Jamaica, Queens, in southeastern New York City about 12 miles (19 km) from Lower Manhattan. ... Aircraft hijacking incidents between the United States and Cuba reached their peak in 1969. ...


John F. Kennedy International Airport
TWA's famous Terminal 5.
TWA's famous Terminal 5.

In 1962 TWA opened Terminal 5 at New York City's JFK Airport. The TWA Flight Center, as it was originally known, was designed by Eero Saarinen. The terminal has been described as a "lyrical expression of the unified sculptural forms that could be created in reinforced concrete before the age of computer-aided design." But it proved to be a costly security nightmare. After the demise of TWA, the terminal was disused for airline service but served as a filming location for several productions including Steven Spielberg's "Catch Me if You Can", Law & Order: Special Victims Unit and Law & Order: Criminal Intent. The terminal is now being renovated for JetBlue Airways' future Kennedy Airport operations. The historic structure will be linked to a new structure.[2] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1940x952, 1129 KB) Summary TWA Flight Center, soon to be part of a new Jetblue Terminal Photographed by Marc N. Weissman (2004) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1940x952, 1129 KB) Summary TWA Flight Center, soon to be part of a new Jetblue Terminal Photographed by Marc N. Weissman (2004) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under... Year 1965 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... John F. Kennedy International Airport (IATA: JFK, ICAO: KJFK), originally known as Idlewild Airport and colloquially known as JFK, is an international airport located in Jamaica, Queens, in southeastern New York City about 12 miles (19 km) from Lower Manhattan. ... John F. Kennedy International Airport (IATA: JFK, ICAO: KJFK), originally known as Idlewild Airport and colloquially known as JFK, is an international airport located in Jamaica, Queens, in southeastern New York City about 12 miles (19 km) from Lower Manhattan. ... The TWA Flight Center Building - thin-shell structure by Eero Saarinen TWA Flight Center was the original name for the Eero Saarinen designed terminal at John F. Kennedy International Airport for Trans World Airlines. ... Saarinens Gateway Arch frames The Old Courthouse, which sits at the heart of the city of Saint Louis, near the rivers edge. ... “CAD” redirects here. ... Steven Allan Spielberg KBE (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director and producer. ... Catch Me If You Can is a 2002 motion picture set in the 1960s. ... Law & Order: Special Victims Unit - Season 5 DVD Law & Order: Special Victims Unit (also known as Law & Order: SVU) is the first of three spin-offs of Law & Order (the other two being Law & Order: Criminal Intent and Law & Order: Trial by Jury; all series are presented on the NBC... Law & Order: Criminal Intent is a United States crime drama television series that began in 2001. ... JetBlue Airways is a major American low-cost airline owned by JetBlue Airways Corporation (NASDAQ: JBLU). ...


Kansas City International Airport

Kansas City approved a $150 million bond issue for the TWA hub there. TWA vetoed plans for a Dulles International Airport-style hub-and-spoke gate structure. Following union strife, the airport ultimately cost $250 million when it opened in 1972, with Spiro Agnew officiating. TWA's gates, which were conceived of being within 100 feet of the street, were likewise to become obsolete because of security. When Kansas City refused to rebuild its terminals (even as Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport rebuilt its similarly designed terminals), TWA began looking elsewhere. Missouri politicians moved to keep it in the state. In 1982 TWA began a decade long move to Lambert International Airport in St. Louis, Missouri. Aerial photo Washington Dulles International Airport (IATA airport code IAD, ICAO airport code KIAD) serves the greater Washington, DC metropolitan area. ... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States serving under President Richard M. Nixon, and the fifty-fifth Governor of Maryland. ... DFW redirects here. ... Diagram of STL. Lambert-Saint Louis International Airport (IATA: STL, ICAO: KSTL) is the primary airport for Saint Louis, Missouri and the surrounding area. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ...


All-jet fleet

On April 7, 1967, TWA became one of the world's first all-jet airlines with the retirement of their last Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation and L-1649 Starliner aircraft. That morning throughout the TWA system, aircraft ground service personnel placed a booklet on every passenger seat titled "Props Are For Boats." Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ...

The recognizable TWA logotype
The recognizable TWA logotype

By 1969, TWA had eclipsed Pan American World Airways' one-time Atlantic dominance. And in the Transpacific Route Case of 1969, TWA was given authority to extend its route network across the Pacific Ocean to Hawaii, Japan, and Taiwan. Image File history File links TWA.svg‎ Summary From Image:Logo_TWA_Stripes. ... Image File history File links TWA.svg‎ Summary From Image:Logo_TWA_Stripes. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... The Transpacific Route Case was a major administrative law case argued before the Civil Aeronautics Board for much of the 1960s. ...


In 1969 TWA opened the Breech Academy on a 25-acre campus in the Kansas City suburb of Overland Park, Kansas, to train its flight attendants, ticket and travel agents, as well as providing flight simulators for its pilots. It became the definitive training facility and other airlines sent their staff to it. Breech Academy (also called Breech Training Academy) was a school operated by TWA to train flight attendants. ... Location within the state of Kansas Coordinates: County Johnson County Government  - Mayor Carl R. Gerlach Area  - City 147. ...


The airline continued to aggressively expand European operations throughout the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. In 1987, TWA could boast of a trans-Atlantic system that stretched from Los Angeles to Bombay, including virtually every major European population center, with gateways from the United States in 10 major cities. Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...


Dominance of the trans-Atlantic market

TWA's zenith would occur in the summer of 1988, when, for the first and only time, the airline would carry more than 50 percent of all the trans-Atlantic passengers to fly across the ocean. Every day, Boeing 747, Lockheed L-1011, and Boeing 767 aircraft would depart to more than 30 cities in Europe, fed by a small but effective domestic operation focused on moving U.S. passengers to New York or other gateway cities for widebody service across the Atlantic, while a similar inter-European operation would shuttle non-U.S. passengers to TWA's European gateways for travel to the U.S. This glory would be short lived with entry into the trans-Atlantic market by additional U.S. carriers such as American Airlines, Continental Airlines, Delta Air Lines, and United Airlines, all hungry to expand and with the financing to back aggressive European expansion plans. Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The Boeing 747, commonly nicknamed the Jumbo Jet, is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing. ... The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, commonly referred to as just L-1011 (pronounced ell-ten-eleven), was the third widebody passenger jet airliner to enter operation, following the Boeing 747 and the McDonnell Douglas DC-10. ... American Airlines Boeing 767-300 at Gatwick Airport, England. ... American Airlines, Inc. ... Continental Airlines (NYSE: CAL) is a US certificated air carrier. ... Delta Air Lines, Inc. ... United Airlines, also known as United Air Lines, Inc. ...


Financial difficulties

1992 bankruptcy

Although Tillinghast continued a golden era for TWA, he ignored the trans-Pacific market and the dedicated air cargo market. He was accused of saying, "There's no money in the Pacific and there's no money in cargo. We're gonna' shrink this airline 'til it's profitable." These two oversights are said to be the undoing of TWA. FedEx DC-10 Cargo airlines are airlines dedicated to the transport of cargo. ...


Airline deregulation hit TWA hard in the 1980s. TWA had badly neglected domestic U.S. expansion at a time when the newly deregulated domestic market was growing at an exponential rate. TWA's holding company, Trans World Corporation, spun off the airline. But the airline became starved for capital after having been spun off. The airline briefly considered selling itself to corporate raider Frank Lorenzo in the 1980s, but ended up selling to corporate raider Carl Icahn in 1985. Under Icahn's direction, many of its most profitable assets were sold to competitors, much to the detriment of TWA. Icahn also moved the company's headquarters from New York City to his hometown Mt. Kisco, New York. Icahn was eventually ousted in 1993, though not before the airline was forced to file for bankruptcy in 1992. Icahn emerged unscathed. TWA moved its headquarters from Mt. Kisco to the former headquarters building of McDonnell Douglas in St. Louis soon after Icahn left. Airline deregulation is the process of removing restrictions on airlines affecting, in particular, which carriers are permitted to serve particular routes. ... Francisco A. Lorenzo (b. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ... Mount Kisco is both a village and a town located in Westchester County, New York. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... DC-10, retired from American Airlines fleet at gate McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturer, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft. ...


1995 bankruptcy

When Carl Icahn left in 1993, he arranged to have TWA give Karabu Corp., an entity he controlled, the rights to buy TWA tickets at 45 percent off published fares through September 2003. This was named "The Karabu deal".[3] The ticket program agreement, which began on June 14, 1995, excluded tickets for travel which originated or terminated in St. Louis, Missouri. Tickets were subject to TWA's normal seat assignment and boarding pass rules and regulations, were non-assignable to any other carrier and were non-endorsable. No commissions were paid to Karabu by TWA for tickets sold under the ticket program agreement. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ...


By agreement dated August 14, 1995, Lowestfare.com LLC, a Karabu wholly owned operating subsidiary, was joined as a party to the ticket program agreement. Pursuant to the ticket program agreement, Lowestfare.com LLC could purchase an unlimited number of system tickets. System tickets are tickets for all applicable classes of service which were purchased by Karabu from TWA at a 45 percent discount from TWA's published fare. In addition to system tickets, Lowestfare.com LLC could also purchase domestic consolidator tickets, which are tickets issued at bulk fare rates and were limited to specified origin/destination city markets and did not permit the holder to modify or refund a purchased ticket. Karabu's purchase of domestic consolidator tickets was subject to a cap of $70 million per year based on the full retail price of the tickets.


Hence, on most TWA flights, Karabu could buy and then sell a sizable portion of the available seats, leaving TWA to pay for its operating cost with the revenue accrued through the sale of any remaining ticket sales. In other words, TWA was flying passengers who were not paying them, but someone else. This deal left the company powerless. If TWA wanted to increase revenue on busy routes by putting a large plane into service, Karabu could only claim more seats. It is estimated TWA was losing around $150 million a year in revenue with this deal.


In trying to ameliorate the Karabu deal, TWA went in and out of bankruptcy in 1995.


TWA Flight 800

Main article: TWA Flight 800

On July 17, 1996, TWA Flight 800 exploded over the Atlantic Ocean near Long Island, killing all aboard. The National Transportation Safety Board concluded that the most likely cause of the disaster was a center fuel tank explosion sparked by exposed wiring. The cause is debated but the media focused heavily on the fact that TWA's airline fleet was among the oldest in service. Trans World Airlines (TWA) Flight 800, a Boeing 747-131, N93119, crashed on July 17, 1996, about 20:31 EDT, in the Atlantic Ocean near East Moriches, New York. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Trans World Airlines (TWA) Flight 800, a Boeing 747-131, N93119, crashed on July 17, 1996, about 20:31 EDT, in the Atlantic Ocean near East Moriches, New York. ... Map showing Long Island; to the north is Connecticut and to the west are New York City and New Jersey. ... Seal of the National Transportation Safety Board The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is a U.S. government independent organization responsible for investigation of accidents involving aviation, highway, marine, pipelines and railroads in the United States. ...


Short turn around

By 1998, TWA had reorganized as a primarily domestic carrier, with routes centered around hubs at St. Louis and New York. Partly in response to TWA Flight 800 and the age of its fleet, TWA announced a major fleet renewal, ordering 125 new aircraft. TWA paid for naming rights for the new Trans World Dome, home of the St. Louis Rams in its corporate hometown. Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Trans World Airlines (TWA) Flight 800, a Boeing 747-131, N93119, crashed on July 17, 1996, about 20:31 EDT, in the Atlantic Ocean near East Moriches, New York. ... The Edward Jones Dome is a 66,000 sports stadium in Saint Louis, Missouri, and home of the St. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


TWA's fleet renewal program included adding newer and smaller, more fuel efficient longer-range aircraft such as the Boeing 757 and 767 and short-range aircraft such as the McDonnell Douglas MD-80 and Boeing 717. Aircraft such as the Boeing 727 and 747, along with the Lockheed L-1011 and older DC-9s, some from Ozark and the 1960s, were retired. TWA also became one of the early customers for the small Airbus A318 through the ILFC. TWA, had it continued operating through 2003, would have been the first U.S. carrier to fly the type.


A code-share agreement with America West Airlines was started, with long-term plans for a merger considered. However the 1995 Karabu ticketing deal with Icahn proved to be an obstacle. America West Airlines (IATA: HP, ICAO: AWE, and Callsign: Cactus), operating as US Airways, is one of the United States ten major airlines. ...


The routes that TWA flew were also changed. Several international destinations were dropped or changed, and the focus of the airline became domestic routes through its St. Louis hub and smaller New York (JFK) and San Juan hubs. Domestically, the carrier improved services with redesigned aircraft and new services, including "Pay in Coach, Fly in First", where passengers could be upgraded to first class from coach when flying through St. Louis. Internationally, services were cut. European destinations eventually were limited to London, Paris, Lisbon, and Milan, and in the Middle East, to Cairo, Riyadh, and Tel Aviv.


2001 bankruptcy and acquisition by American Airlines

Financial problems began to resurface shortly afterward, and TWA's airline assets were acquired by American Airlines in April of 2001. As part of the deal, TWA declared Chapter 11 bankruptcy (for the third time) the day after it agreed to the purchase. The terms of the deal was a $500 million payment however since American assumed TWA's liabilities the deal was estimated to have cost American $2 billion.[4] American did not claim the naming rights for the Rams home, which eventually became the Edward Jones Dome, named after the financial services company with the same name. Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


Trans World Airlines flew its last flight on December 1, 2001. The ceremonial last flight was Flight 220 from Kansas City, Missouri, to St. Louis, with CEO Captain William Compton at the controls. However, the final flight before TWA officially became part of American Airlines was completed between St. Louis and Las Vegas, Nevada, also on December 1, 2001. At 10:00 p.m. CST on that date, employees began removing all TWA signs and placards from airports around the country, replacing them with American Airlines signs. At midnight, all TWA flights officially became listed as American Airlines flights. Some aircraft carried hybrid American/TWA livery during the transition, with American's tricolor stripe on the fuselage and TWA's name on the tail. Signage still bears the TWA logo in portions of Concourse D at Lambert St. Louis International Airport. One lighted TWA sign still exists (as of 2006) on the runway side of Saarinen's New York JFK terminal. According to Dave Barger, COO of JetBlue Airways, JetBlue intends to retain the lit TWA sign on the Saarinen terminal after the renovation of Terminal 5. is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... For further information, see Las Vegas metropolitan area and Las Vegas Strip. ... Official language(s) English Capital Carson City Largest city Las Vegas Area  Ranked 7th  - Total 110,567 sq mi (286,367 km²)  - Width 322 miles (519 km)  - Length 490 miles (788 km)  - % water 0. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... JetBlue Airways is a major American low-cost airline owned by JetBlue Airways Corporation (NASDAQ: JBLU). ...


TWA's St. Louis hub suffered after the merger due to its proximity to American's larger hub at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport. As a result, American initially replaced TWA's St. Louis mainline hub with regional jet service (going from over 800 operations a day to fewer than 300) and downsized TWA's maintenance base in Kansas City. (St. Louis, as of January 2007, is American's fourth main hub.) Furloughs and layoffs have left fewer than 1,500 of 24,000 TWA employees with American Airlines jobs. Although American Airlines acquired over 200 aircraft from TWA (MD80s, 717s, 757s, and 767s), many analysts believe the TWA assets were not worth the additional debt inherited from TWA — however American did eliminate one of its prime competitors. Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... OHare International Airport (IATA: ORD, ICAO: KORD, FAA LID: ORD) is an airport located in Chicago, Illinois, United States, 17 miles (27 km) northwest of the Chicago Loop. ... SN Brussels Airlines Avro RJ85 Air France ERJ 145 A regional jet (RJ) is a small jet aircraft that is intended to fly passengers from point to point as efficiently as possible. ...


Terrorist target

See also: List of accidents and incidents on commercial airliners grouped by airline

From 1969 to 1986 five TWA airliners were terrorist targets for Palestinian guerilla groups, because of the fact that the airline had a strong European presence, represented the United States of America, and flew to Israel. JetBlue Airways Flight 292 making an emergency landing with the nose landing gear turned sideways The following is a list of accidents and incidents on commercial airlines grouped by airline. ...

  • In 1969 TWA Flight 840 from Rome to Athens was hijacked to and forcibly diverted to Damascus. Nobody was injured and its nose was blown up (although replaced and the plane returned to service).
  • In 1970 TWA Flight 74 was hijacked after taking off from Frankfurt am Main, Germany, to New York. It was taken to Dawson's Field in Jordan with two other hijacked aircraft. All three aircraft were empty of passengers and crew before being destroyed. A fourth aircraft that landed in Cairo, Egypt suffered a similar fate.
  • In 1974 TWA Flight 841 from Tel Aviv to New York crashed shortly after takeoff from Athens after a bomb believed to have been in the cargo hold exploded, killing all 88 onboard.
  • In 1985 TWA Flight 847 from Athens to Rome was hijacked first to Beirut, then to Algiers, back to Beirut, back to Algiers, and finally back to Beirut — with some of its fuel being paid for by the Shell credit card of flight attendant Uli Derickson.
  • In 1986 TWA Flight 840 was again attacked with an onboard bomb, ejecting four Americans to their deaths.

In addition, five Croatian separatists hijacked TWA flight 355 on September 10, 1976, as it flew from New York-LaGuardia to Chicago. They ordered the pilot to Montreal, where the plane was refueled, and then made additional refueling stops in Gander and Keflavik; at some of these stops, the hijackers unloaded propaganda pamphlets that they demanded to be dropped over Montreal, Chicago, New York, London, and Paris. At the plane's final stop at Paris-Charles de Gaulle, the hijackers surrendered after direct talks with U.S. ambassador Kenneth Rush, and their explosives were revealed to be fakes. [5] In August 1969, leaders in the Palestinian left-wing organization PFLP learned that Yitzak Rabin, the Israeli Ambassador to the United States was scheduled to be aboard the flight. ... Main article: Black September in Jordan The Dawsons Field hijacking occurred on September 6, 1970. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... “NY” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... On September 8, 1974, a Boeing 707-331B (tail number N8734) operating as TWA Flight 841 took off from Ben Gurion International Airport, Tel Aviv en route to JFK International Airport, New York City. ... Two hijackers in the cockpit with Captain Testrake TWA Flight 847 was an international Trans World Airlines flight which was hijacked by the Organization for the Oppressed of the Earth, a group with alleged links to Hezbollah, on Friday morning, June 14, 1985, while flying from Athens, Greece to Rome... Royal Dutch Shell PLC is a multinational oil company (oil major) of British and Dutch origins. ... Ulrike Patzelt (August 8, 1944 – February 18, 2005), better known as Uli Derickson, was a flight attendant during the June 14, 1985 hijacking of TWA Flight 847 by Hezbollah terrorists. ... Trans World Airlines Flight 840, registration N54340, was a Boeing 727-231 flying enroute from Romes Fiumicino Airport to Athens, Greece. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... LaGuardia Airport (IATA: LGA, ICAO: KLGA, FAA LID: LGA) is an airport serving New York City, New York, United States, located on the waterfront of Flushing Bay, and borders the neighborhoods of Astoria, Jackson Heights and East Elmhurst in the borough of Queens. ... OHare International Airport (IATA: ORD, ICAO: KORD, FAA LID: ORD) is an airport located in Chicago, Illinois, United States, 17 miles (27 km) northwest of the Chicago Loop. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Gander International Airport (IATA: YQX, ICAO: CYQX) is located in Gander, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada and is currently run by the Gander Airport Authority. ... Keflavík International Airport (also known as Flugstöð Leifs Eiríkssonar) is the largest airport in Iceland. ... “NY” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The new logo of Aéroports de Paris used since 6 June 2005 Charles de Gaulle International Airport (IATA: CDG, ICAO: LFPG) (French: ), also known as Roissy Airport (or just Roissy in French), in Paris, is one of Europes principal aviation centres, as well as Frances main international... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ...


Fleet

The Trans World fleet included the following aircraft during its final full year of operation (2000)

TWA Trans World Airlines Fleet
Type Total Passengers
(Ambassador[First]/Economy)
Routes Notes
Airbus A318-100 (50 Orders) Domestic Order canceled by American Airlines
Boeing 757-200 Long-haul domestic; international Currently operated by American Airlines; now being sold to Delta Airlines.
Boeing 767-200/-300 Long-haul international routes
McDonnell Douglas MD-81 8 Short to Medium-haul domestic routes; Caribbean
McDonnell Douglas MD-82 35 Short to Medium-haul domestic routes; Caribbean
McDonnell Douglas MD-83 64 Short to Medium-haul domestic routes; Caribbean
Boeing 717 28
(50 Ordered)
Short to Medium-haul domestic routes Majority were later sold to AirTran Airways while others went to other carriers.
Douglas DC-9 Short-haul domestic routes

The Airbus A320 family of short-to-medium range commercial passenger aircraft are manufactured by Airbus S.A.S.. Family members include the A318, A319, A320, and A321, as well as the ACJ business jet. ... The Boeing 757 is a medium-range transcontinental commercial passenger airplane manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. ... American Airlines Boeing 767-300 at Gatwick Airport, England. ... The McDonnell Douglas MD-80 and McDonnell Douglas MD-90 are twin-engine, single-aisle jet commercial aircraft derived from the DC-9. ... The McDonnell Douglas MD-80 and McDonnell Douglas MD-90 are twin-engine, single-aisle jet commercial aircraft derived from the DC-9. ... The McDonnell Douglas MD-80 and McDonnell Douglas MD-90 are twin-engine, single-aisle jet commercial aircraft derived from the DC-9. ... The Boeing 717 is a twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliner. ... It has been suggested that AirTran Holdings be merged into this article or section. ... The Douglas DC-9 is a twin-engined jet airliner, first manufactured in 1965 and, in much modified form and under a succession of different names. ...

Retired fleet

TWA Trans World Airlines retired Fleet
Type Years Routes Notes
Douglas DC-2
Douglas DC-3
Douglas DC-9
Boeing 707
Boeing 727-100
Boeing 727-200
Boeing 747-100
Boeing 747-200
Boeing 747-SP
Convair 880
Lockheed L-1011
Lockheed Constellation

TWA at one time also held orders for the BAC-Aerospitale Concorde, Sud Aviation Carvelle, Boeing 2707, and the Airbus A330. The A330 order was eventually converted to A318 orders. The Douglas DC-2 was a 14 seat, twin-propeller airliner produced by the Douglas Aircraft Corporation starting in 1934. ... The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing, propeller-driven aircraft, which revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s and is generally regarded as one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made (also see Boeing 707 and Boeing 747). ... The Douglas DC-9 is a twin-engined jet airliner, first manufactured in 1965 and, in much modified form and under a succession of different names. ... The Boeing 707 is an American four-engine commercial passenger jet airliner developed by Boeing in the early 1950s. ... The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine commercial jet airliner. ... The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine commercial jet airliner. ... The Boeing 747, commonly nicknamed the Jumbo Jet, is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing. ... The Boeing 747, commonly nicknamed the Jumbo Jet, is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing. ... The Boeing 747, commonly nicknamed the Jumbo Jet, is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing. ... The first Convair 880 The Convair 880 was a jet airliner produced by the Convair division of General Dynamics. ... The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, commonly referred to as just L-1011 (pronounced ell-ten-eleven), was the third widebody passenger jet airliner to enter operation, following the Boeing 747 and the McDonnell Douglas DC-10. ... The Lockheed Constellation, affectionately known as the “Connie”, was a four-engine propeller-driven airliner built by Lockheed between 1943 and 1958 at its Burbank, California, USA, facility. ...


References

  1. ^ When did Charles Lindbergh come to Kansas City? Kansas City Public Library. Last accessed March 3, 2007.
  2. ^ TWA Terminal Takes Off, National Trust for Historic Preservation, August 31, 2005.
  3. ^ Form 10-Q, Trans World Airlines, Inc. August 16, 1999.
  4. ^ American-TWA merger could hurt isles, Honolulu Star-Bulletin, January 8, 2001.
  5. ^ Bombs for Croatia

External links

  • Internet Archive of Trans World Airlines' website
  • TWAlive
  • Fly TWA Historical Site

  Results from FactBites:
 
Trans World Airlines - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2760 words)
TWA was also a major force in the founding of Saudi Arabian Airlines, Ethiopian Airlines, and a newly revived Lufthansa after World War II.
TWA was one of the first airlines in the world to embrace the spoke-hub distribution paradigm.
TWA was one of the first airlines to use the Boeing 747 and it planned to use the 747 along with the anticipated supersonic transport to whisk people between the West/Midwest (via Kansas City) and New York City (via John F. Kennedy International Airport) to European and other world destinations.
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