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Modelling Bangkok Skytrain. ... Light rail tracks with concrete railroad ties. ... Tram or trams may also mean: passenger rail terminology Transit Museum Society, an organization located in Vancouver, BC ... Trolley is: the term used in non-American English to refer to what Americans know as a cart, especially a shopping cart the term used in American English to refer to an electric streetcar that is elsewhere known as a tram (also known as light rail) the term also refers... The term streetcar or street car has several meanings: // A streetcar or tram is a vehicle that travels on rails, typically in a street. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... Further information: electric bus A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram or simply trolley) is an electric bus powered by two overhead wires, from which it draws electricity using two trolley poles. ... Railway tracks. ... railroads redirects here. ... A rail transport or railroad system is a complex synergy of components which may be classified into two groups: extrinsic factors and intrinsic factors. ... Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street station in 1865. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... Great Western Railway No. ... A railroad car (or, more briefly, car, not to be confused with railcar), also known as an item of rolling stock, is a vehicle on a railroad (or railway) that is not a locomotive — one that provides another purpose than purely haulage, although some types of car are powered. ... Horse drawn railway coach, late 18th century Density of the railway net in Europe 1896 Main article: Rail transport The history of rail transport dates back nearly 500 years, and includes systems with man or horse power and rails of wood or stone. ... // Asia History of rail transport in India Europe Denmark France Germany Great Britain Ireland Spain Sweden North America Canada United States Oceania Australia See also History of rail transport Categories: History of rail transport ... Two rail welds in continuous welded rail in Wisconsin. ... This page provides an index of articles on Rail transport by country. ... HO scale model railroad. ...

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A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, lighter than a train, designed for the transport of passengers (and/or, very occasionally, freight) within, close to, or between villages, towns and/or cities, primarily on streets. A railroad car (or, more briefly, car, not to be confused with railcar), also known as an item of rolling stock, is a vehicle on a railroad (or railway) that is not a locomotive — one that provides another purpose than purely haulage, although some types of car are powered. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... An electric container freight train Freight wagons filled with limestone await unloading, at sidings in Rugby, England An SP freight train west of Chicago in 1992. ...


Tram systems (or "tramways" or "street railways") were common throughout the industrialized world in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but they disappeared from many cities in the mid-20th century. In recent years, they have made a comeback. Many newer light rail systems share features with trams, although a distinction is usually drawn between the two, especially if the line has significant off-street running. This article is about light rail systems in general. ...

Contents

Use of the term

A CLRV Streetcar in the City of Toronto. Toronto's TTC maintains the most extensive system in The Americas (in terms of total track length, number of cars, and ridership).
A CLRV Streetcar in the City of Toronto. Toronto's TTC maintains the most extensive system in The Americas (in terms of total track length, number of cars, and ridership).
Croatian TMK 2200 in Zagreb, made by: CROTRAM, low-floor tram

The terms "tram" and "tramway" were originally Scots and Northern English words for the type of truck used in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran — probably derived from a North Sea Germanic word of unknown origin meaning the "beam or shaft of a barrow or sledge", also "a barrow" or container body. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1232x816, 96 KB)Dundas streetcar with Art Gallery of Ontario (AGO) in background I captured this picture of the Dundas Street streetcar, just a couple of minutes before the sun set (6:20pm), at a time of year when the sun... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1232x816, 96 KB)Dundas streetcar with Art Gallery of Ontario (AGO) in background I captured this picture of the Dundas Street streetcar, just a couple of minutes before the sun set (6:20pm), at a time of year when the sun... The Canadian Light Rail Vehicle is a current streetcar model used by the Toronto Transit Commission. ... The Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) is a public transport authority that operates buses, streetcars, subways, and rapid transit lines in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Croatian TMK 2200 Complete profile of TMK 2200 ZET 2202 low-floor tram CROTRAM is a Croatian consortium of two companies, which produces the first Croatian low-floor tram (the TMK 2200). ... The passenger door of a low-floor tram. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 475 KB) Summary Picture from www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 475 KB) Summary Picture from www. ... The San Diego Trolley is a trolley-style light rail system operating in the metropolitan area of San Diego, California. ... San Diego State University (SDSU), founded in 1897 as San Diego Normal School, is the largest and oldest higher education facility in the greater San Diego area (generally the City and County of San Diego), and is part of the California State University system. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... Northern English is a group of dialects of the English language. ... Surface coal mining in Wyoming. ...


Although "tram" and "tramway" have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English, North Americans preferring "trolley", "trolley car" or "streetcar". The term "streetcar" is first recorded in 1860, and is a North American usage, as is "trolley," which is believed to derive from the "troller," a four wheeled device that was dragged along dual overhead wires by a cable that connected the troller to the top of the car and collected electrical power from the overhead wire, sometimes simply strung, sometimes on a catenary. The trolley pole, which supplanted the troller early-on, is fitted to the top of the car and is spring-loaded in order to keep the trolley wheel, at the upper of the pole, firmly in contact with the overhead wire. The terms trolley pole and trolley wheel both derive from the troller.[1] An electric multiple unit pulling into Tile Hill station; Coventry, England. ... Catenary is a system of overhead wires used to supply electrical power to a locomotive, streetcar, or light rail vehicle. ...


Modern trolleys often do not use a trolley wheel: either they have a metal shoe with a carbon insert or they dispense with the trolley pole completely and have instead a pantograph. Other streetcars are sometimes called trolleys, even though strictly this may be incorrect: cable cars, for example, or conduit cars that draw power from an underground supply. A pantograph is a device that collects electric current from overhead lines for electric trains or trams. ... A conduit car was an electric streetcar (tram) that drew power from an underground third rail, rather than from overhead wire, a wayside energized rail, or an on-board battery. ...


Tourist buses made to look like streetcars are also sometimes called trolleys; see tourist trolley. Likewise, open, low-speed segmented vehicles on rubber tires, generally used to ferry tourists short distances, can be called trams, particularly in the U.S.; a famous example is the tram on the Universal Studios tour. A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ... Autobus redirects here. ... Tourist trolley in Monrovia, California. ... The Backlot Tour also known as The Studio Tour is an attraction at the Universal Studios Hollywood theme park in the USA. // The world-famous Studio Tour, which lasts about 45 minutes, is led by a tour guide (seen throughout the tram on a video screen) and travels through the...


Electric buses, which still overwhelmingly use twin trolley poles (one for live current, one for return) are called trolleybuses, trackless trolleys (particularly in the U.S.), or sometimes also trolleys. The article on electrical energy is located elsewhere. ... Further information: electric bus A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram or simply trolley) is an electric bus powered by two overhead wires, from which it draws electricity using two trolley poles. ...


History

A historic German tram
A historic German tram
Volkswagen Cargo-Tram in Dresden, Germany on a section of grassed track. It delivers parts to the Transparent Factory
Volkswagen Cargo-Tram in Dresden, Germany on a section of grassed track. It delivers parts to the Transparent Factory
Tatra KT8D5R.N2 tram with low floor middle part in Košice, Slovakia
Tatra KT8D5R.N2 tram with low floor middle part in Košice, Slovakia
Main article: History of Trams

The very first tram (streetcar) was the Mumbles Railway (Swansea to Mumbles, Wales, UK) it was horse drawn at first and later by steam power and then electric. The Mumbles Railway Act 1804 was passed by the British Parliament, and the first passenger railway (which acted like streetcars did in the US some 30 years later) started operating in 1807. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1131x840, 194 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Tram TW 2000 Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1131x840, 194 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Tram TW 2000 Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... The TW 2000 is a Stadtbahn vehicle in operation on the Hanover Stadtbahn network in Hanover, Germany. ... Alternate meanings: Hanover (district), Hanover (region), Hanover (state), other uses Map of Germany showing Hanover Hanover (in German: Hannover [haˈnoːfɐ]), on the Leine river, is the capital of the state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen) in Germany. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1064x838, 117 KB) The Volkswagen Cargo-Tram delivers parts to the Transparent Factory in Dresden. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1064x838, 117 KB) The Volkswagen Cargo-Tram delivers parts to the Transparent Factory in Dresden. ... Volkswagen AG (ISIN: DE0007664005), or VW, is an automobile manufacturer based in Wolfsburg, Germany. ... Brühls Terrace and the Frauenkirche Dresden [ˈdreːsdn̩] (Sorbian/Lusatian Drježdźany), the capital city of the German federal state of Saxony, is situated in a valley on the river Elbe. ... Tram tracks are used on tramways, which, together with points, and grooved rails guide tramcars without the need for steering and make street running feasable. ... Transparent Factory Transparent Factory is the English name of an automobile production plant owned by German carmaker Volkswagen and opened in 2002. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 319 KB) Opis súboru KT8D5 tram by Sheep221 Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tram Kosice public transit Metadata This file contains additional information... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 319 KB) Opis súboru KT8D5 tram by Sheep221 Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tram Kosice public transit Metadata This file contains additional information... Passenger door of a low-floor tram Passenger door of a non-low-floor tram In public transportation, low floor is a term describing vehicles such as busses, trolleybusses and trams whose passenger compartment has a floor which is considerably lower than that of traditional cars. ... Location of KoÅ¡ice in Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Slovakia Region KoÅ¡ice Region Districts KoÅ¡ice I-IV City parts First mentioned 1230 Government  - Type City Council  - Mayor FrantiÅ¡ek Knapík Area  - City 243. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 128 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Frankfurt Tram in Germany. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 128 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Frankfurt Tram in Germany. ... The Main Train Station at night S-Bahn, U-Bahn and tram lines The public transit system in Frankfurt consists of several carriers who all utilise the same fare system. ... A modern tram in the Töölö district of Helsinki, Finland A tram (or tramway, trolley, streetcar, tramcar, Straßenbahn) is a railborne vehicle (lighter than a train) for transport of passengers (or, occasionally, freight). ... Tram systems were common throughout the industrialized world in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but they disappeared from many cities in the mid-20th century. ...


The first streetcars, also known as horsecars in North America, were built in the United States and developed from city stagecoach lines and omnibus lines that picked up and dropped off passengers on a regular route and without the need to be pre-hired. These trams were an animal railway, usually using horses and sometimes mules to haul the cars, usually two as a team. Rarely other animals were tried, including humans in emergencies. The first streetcar - the New York and Harlem Railroad's Fourth Avenue Line - ran along the Bowery and Fourth Avenue in New York City, and began service in the year 1832. It was followed in 1835 by New Orleans, Louisiana, which is the oldest continuously operating street railway system in the world, according to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.[2] At first the rails protruded above street level, causing accidents and major trouble for pedestrians. They were supplanted in 1852 by grooved rails or girder rails, invented by Alphonse Loubat. The first tram in Paris, France, was inaugurated in 1853 for the upcoming World's Fair, where a test line was presented along the Cours de la Reine, in the 8th arrondissement. Rapid Transit in San Diego: An original 1886 horse-drawn trolley and its driver participate in a parade celebrating the groundbreaking of the Panama-California Exposition Center in 1911. ... Stagecoach in Switzerland A stagecoach is a type of four-wheeled enclosed passenger and/or mail coach, strongly sprung and drawn by four horses, widely used before the introduction of railway transport. ... Autobus redirects here. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... For other uses, see Mule (disambiguation). ... The New York and Harlem Railroad (now the Metro-North Railroad Harlem Line) was one of the first railroads in the United States, and possibly the first street railway, running north from Lower Manhattan to and beyond Harlem. ... The Fourth and Madison Avenues Line is a public transit line in Manhattan, New York City, United States, running mostly along Park Avenue and Madison Avenue from Lower Manhattan to Harlem. ... Categories: US geography stubs | Streets in Manhattan ... Park Avenue in the Upper East Side (2004) Park Avenue (formerly Fourth Avenue) is a wide boulevard that carries traffic north and south in Manhattan in New York City. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... NOLA redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Vignoles rail be merged into this article or section. ... Light rail tracks with concrete railroad ties. ... Light rail tracks with concrete railroad ties. ... Alphonse Loubat invented the grooved rail in 1852. ... Images of the Palais dIndustrie The Exposition Universelle of 1855 was a Worlds Fair held in Paris, France. ... The 8th arrondissement (VIIIe arrondissement), located on the Right Bank, is one of the 20 arrondissements of Paris, France. ...


One of the advantages over earlier forms of transit was the low rolling resistance of metal wheels on steel rails, allowing the animals to haul a greater load for a given effort. Problems included the fact that any given animal could only work so many hours on a given day, had to be housed, groomed, fed and cared for day in and day out, and produced prodigious amounts of manure, which the streetcar company was charged with disposing of. Since a typical horse pulled a car for perhaps a dozen miles a day and worked for four or five hours, many systems needed ten or more horses in stable for each horsecar. Electric trams largely replaced animal power in the late 19th and early 20th century. New York City had closed its last horsecar line in 1917. The last regular mule drawn streetcar in the U.S.A., in Sulphur Rock, Arkansas, closed in 1926. However during World War II some old horse cars were temporarily returned to service to help conserve fuel. A mule-powered line in Celaya, Mexico, operated until 1956. Horse-drawn trams still operate in Douglas, Isle of Man. There is also a small line operated on Main Street at DisneyWorld, outside of Orlando Florida. A small horse-drawn service operates every 40 minutes at Victor Harbour, South Australia, daily with 20 minute services during tourist seasons. This service runs between the mainland and Granite Island across a causeway.[1] Rolling resistance, sometimes called rolling friction, is the resistance that occurs when an object (e. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Sulphur Rock is a town located in Independence County, Arkansas. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Celayas main icon—a water tower in the heart of the city. ... Location within the British Isles Douglas (Doolish in Manx) is the capital of the Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin) and its largest town. ...


The tram developed after that in numerous cities of Europe (London, Berlin, Paris, etc.) and Asia (Kyoto, Tokyo, Hong Kong). Faster and more comfortable than the omnibus, trams had a high cost of operation because they were pulled by horses. That is why mechanical drives were rapidly developed, with steam power in 1873, and electrical after 1881, when Siemens AG presented the electric drive at the International Electricity Exhibition in Paris. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... A steam engine is a heat engine that makes use of the potential energy that exists as pressure in steam, converting it to mechanical work. ... The article on electrical energy is located elsewhere. ... Siemens redirects here. ...


The convenience and economy of electricity resulted in its rapid adoption once the technical problems of production and transmission of electricity were solved. The first prototype of the electric tram was developed by Russian engineer Fyodor Pirotsky. He modified a Horse tramway car to be powered by electricity instead of horses. The invention was tested in 1880 in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The world's first electric tram line opened in Lichterfelde near Berlin, Germany, in 1881. It was built by Werner von Siemens. (see Berlin Straßenbahn). Fyodor Pirotsky, picture taken in 1898 Fyodor Apollonovich Pirotsky (Russian: ; February 17 [O.S. March 1] 1845- February 28 [O.S. March 12] 1898) was a Russian engineer and inventor. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ernst Werner von Siemens Ernst Werner von Siemens (December 13, 1816 - December 6, 1892) was a German inventor and industrialist. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Berlin Straßenbahn Berlins first tram ran in 1865 from Kupfergraben to Charlottenburg. ...


In Japan, the Kyoto Electric railroad was the first tram system, starting operation in 1865. By 1932, the network had grown to 82 railway companies in 65 cities, with a total network length of 1,479km. By the 1960s, however, the tram had generally died out in Japan. 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


History of the different types of tram

Horse-drawn trams

Horse drawn trams in Calcutta (now Kolkata), India - Life size model at City Centre arcade
Horse drawn trams in Calcutta (now Kolkata), India - Life size model at City Centre arcade
A horse tramway in Gdańsk, Poland (late 19th century)
A horse tramway in Gdańsk, Poland (late 19th century)

In the nineteenth century Calcutta (now Kolkata) was developing fast as a British trading and business centre. Transport was mainly by palanquins carried on men's shoulders, phaetons pulled by horses, etc. In 1867, The Calcutta Corporation, with financial assistance from the Government of Bengal developed mass transport. The first tramcar rolled out on the streets of Calcutta on February 24, 1873, with horse drawn coaches running on steel rails between Sealdah and Armenian Ghat via Bowbazar and Dalhousie Square, (now B. B. D. Bagh). The Corporation entered into an agreement on February 10, 1879 with three English industrial magnates: Robinson Soutter, Alfred Parrish and Dilwyn Parrish. Registered in London, the Calcutta Tramways Company came into existence in 1880 after the sanction of The Calcutta Tramways Act, 1880. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 490 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Calcutta tram, 1880 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 490 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Calcutta tram, 1880 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Gdansk_tramwaj_konny. ... Image File history File links Gdansk_tramwaj_konny. ... For alternative meanings of GdaÅ„sk and Danzig, see GdaÅ„sk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... The litter is a class of wheelless vehicles for transport of persons. ... A phaeton A Jump-seat type phaeton. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Sealdah is one of the major train stations serving Kolkata (Calcutta) in India, the others being Howrah Station and Kolkata Station. ... Bowbazar (also spelt Boubazar) is a neighbourhood and police station[1]in central Kolkata, earlier known as Calcutta, in the Indian state of West Bengal. ... B.B.D. Bagh, formerly called Dalhousie Square, is one of the central business district area of Kolkata, India. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


By 1902 Messrs Kilburn & Co completed the electrification of the Calcutta tramways and the first electric tramcar was introduced in the Kidderpore section.


Calcutta remains the only Indian city which has maintained tramway system. As of now, it remains an unreliable[citation needed] but very comfortable and eco-friendly transport.


Steam trams

Main article: steam dummy
Steam trams in Rockhampton, Queensland - note the small boiler at the front of the leading tram.
Steam trams in Rockhampton, Queensland - note the small boiler at the front of the leading tram.

The first mechanical trams were operated using mobile steam engines. Generally, there were two types of steam tram. The first and most common had a small steam locomotive (called a tram engine in the UK) at the head of a line of one or more carriages, similar to a small train. Systems with such steam trams included Christchurch, New Zealand, Sydney, Australia, and other provincial city systems in New South Wales. A steam dummy or dummy engine, in the United States of America, was a steam engine enclosed in a wooden box structure made to resemble a railroad passenger coach. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x790, 117 KB)Description: Two steam trams (with trailers) in Rockhampton, Queensland Source: John Oxley Library, Queensland Date: 1923 Author: Permission: copyright expired 1means the typographical arrangement and layout of a published work. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x790, 117 KB)Description: Two steam trams (with trailers) in Rockhampton, Queensland Source: John Oxley Library, Queensland Date: 1923 Author: Permission: copyright expired 1means the typographical arrangement and layout of a published work. ... Rockhampton, sometimes abbreviated to Rocky, is a city in Central Queensland, Australia, located 42 kilometres (26 mi) inland from the Capricorn Coast on the Bruce Highway, approximately 640 kilometres (398 mi) north of Queenslands capital city, Brisbane. ... A Tram engine is a locomotive specially built, or modified, to work on a street, or roadside, tramway. ... For other uses, see Christchurch (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... NSW redirects here. ...


The other style of steam tram had the steam engine mounted in the body of the tram. The most notable system to adopt such trams was in Paris. French-designed steam trams also operated in Rockhampton, in the Australian state of Queensland between 1909 and 1939. Stockholm, Sweden, also had a steam tramline at the island of Södermalm between 1887 and 1901. A major drawback of this style of tram was the limited space for the engine, so that these trams were usually underpowered. This article is about the capital of France. ... Rockhampton, sometimes abbreviated to Rocky, is a city in Central Queensland, Australia, located 42 kilometres (26 mi) inland from the Capricorn Coast on the Bruce Highway, approximately 640 kilometres (398 mi) north of Queenslands capital city, Brisbane. ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... Houses of Södermalm, facing Riddarfjärden Small street on Södermalm. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Cable pulled cars

Main article: Cable car (railway)

The next type of tram was the cable car, which sought to reduce labor costs and the hardship on animals. Cable cars are pulled along a rail track by a continuously moving cable running at a constant speed on which individual cars stop and start by releasing and gripping this cable as required. The power to move the cable is provided at a site away from the actual operation. The first cable car line in the United States was tested in San Francisco, California, in 1873. The second city to operate cable trams was Dunedin in New Zealand in 1881. Dunedin's cable trams ceased operation in 1957. Cable Car in San Francisco A San Francisco cable car Winding drums on the London and Blackwall cable-operated railway, 1840. ... Railroad or railway tracks are used on railways, which, together with railroad switches (points), guide trains without the need for steering. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Dunedin (ÅŒtepoti in Maori) is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the region of Otago. ...


Cable cars suffered from high infrastructure costs, since a vast and expensive system of cables, pulleys, stationary engines and vault structures between the rails had to be provided. They also require strength and skill to operate, to avoid obstructions and other cable cars. The cable had to be dropped at particular locations and the cars coast, for example when crossing another cable line. Breaks and frays in the cable, which occurred frequently, required the complete cessation of services over a cable route, while the cable was repaired. After the development of electrically-powered trams, the more costly cable car systems declined rapidly. For other uses, see Cable (disambiguation). ... For the band, see Pulley (band). ... A stationary engine is an engine that does not move. ...


Cable cars were especially useful in hilly cities, partially explaining their survival in San Francisco, though the most extensive cable system in the U.S. was in Chicago, a much flatter city. The largest cable system in the world which operated in the flat city of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, had, at its peak, 592 trams running on 74 kilometres of track. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre. ... VIC redirects here. ...


The San Francisco cable cars, though significantly reduced in number, continue to perform a regular transportation function, in addition to being a tourist attraction. Single lines also survive on hilly parts of Wellington, New Zealand (rebuilt in 1979 to a funicular system but still called the 'Wellington Cable Car') and Hong Kong. San Francisco Cable Car No. ... For the first Duke of Wellington, see Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Angels Flight, Los Angeles, California with gantlet track configuration Duquesne Incline, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania with full length parallel tracks The Gütschbahn in Lucerne, Switzerland – from an 1893 guidebook A funicular, also called funicular railway, inclined railway, inclined plane, or, in the United Kingdom, a cliff railway, is a system of... The Wellington Cable Car is a funicular railway in Wellington, New Zealand. ...


Other power sources

The only petrol driven tram of Stockholms Spårvägar on its line 19 in the 1920s
The only petrol driven tram of Stockholms Spårvägar on its line 19 in the 1920s

In some places, other forms of power were used to power the tram. Hastings and some other tramways, for example Stockholms Spårvägar in Sweden, used petrol driven trams and Lytham St Annes used gas powered trams. Paris successfully operated trams that were powered by compressed air using the Mekarski system. In New York City, some minor lines used storage batteries rather than installing an expensive conduit current collection system in the street. Image File history File links Bensinmotorvagn. ... Image File history File links Bensinmotorvagn. ... AB Stockholms SpÃ¥rvägar (SS) was a company founded in 1915 to coordinate tram traffic in Stockholm. ... For other uses, see Hastings (disambiguation). ... AB Stockholms SpÃ¥rvägar (SS) was a company founded in 1915 to coordinate tram traffic in Stockholm. ... A Petrol engine or Gasoline engine is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition designed to run on petrol (gasoline) and similar volatile fuels. ... , Lytham St Annes is a conurbation in the Fylde district of Lancashire, England. ... In the UK a Gas engine means an engine running on gas, such as coal gas or producer gas. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Pneumatics is the use of pressurized air to effect mechanical motion. ... The Mekarski system was a compressed-air propulsion system for trams invented by Louis Mékarski or Louis Mékarsky (the correct spelling is uncertain) in the 1870s. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... It has been suggested that secondary cell be merged into this article or section. ... Conduit current collection was a system of current collection used by electric trams where the power supply was located in a channel under the roadway, rather than located overhead. ...


Electric trams (trolley cars)

A historic postcard showing electric-powered trolley streetcars in Richmond, Virginia, where Frank J. Sprague successfully demonstrated his new system on the hills in 1888
A historic postcard showing electric-powered trolley streetcars in Richmond, Virginia, where Frank J. Sprague successfully demonstrated his new system on the hills in 1888
Tramways on ice of the River Neva in Saint Petersburg
Tramways on ice of the River Neva in Saint Petersburg

Multiple functioning experimental electric trams were exhibited at the 1884 World Cotton Centennial World's Fair in New Orleans, Louisiana; however they were deemed as not yet adequately perfected to replace the Lamm fireless engines then propelling the St. Charles Avenue Streetcar in that city. 8th & Broad Streets, Richmond, Virginia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States. ... 8th & Broad Streets, Richmond, Virginia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic dic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... Frank Julian Sprague (1857-1934) American inventor, Father of Electric Traction Frank Julian Sprague (1857–1934) was an American naval officer and inventor who contributed to the development of the electric motor, electric railways, and electric elevators. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Piter_ice_tram. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Piter_ice_tram. ... The River Neva (Russian: Нева́) is a 74 km-long Russian river flowing from Lake Ladoga (Ладожское Озеро, Ladožskoe Ozero) through the Karelian Isthmus (Карельский Перешеек, Karelskij PereÅ¡eek) and the city of Saint Petersburg (Санкт-Петербург, Sankt-Peterburg) to the Gulf of Finland (Финский Залив, Finskij Zaliv). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... The 1884 Worlds Fair was held in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... NOLA redirects here. ... Emile Lamm (24 November 1834 - 12 July 1873) was an inventor and dentist. ... The St. ...


Electric-powered trams (trolley cars, so called for the trolley pole used to gather power from an unshielded overhead wire), were first successfully tested in service in Richmond, Virginia, in 1888, in the Richmond Union Passenger Railway built by Frank J. Sprague. There were earlier commercial installations of electric streetcars, including one in Berlin, as early as 1881 by Werner von Siemens and the company that still bears his name, and also one in Saint Petersburg, Russia, invented and tested by Fyodor Pirotsky in 1880. Another was by John Joseph Wright, brother of the famous mining entrepreneur Whitaker Wright, in Toronto in 1883. The earlier installations, however, proved difficult and/or unreliable. Siemens' line, for example, provided power through a live rail and a return rail, like a model train setup, limiting the voltage that could be used, and providing unwanted excitement to people and animals crossing the tracks.[3] Siemens later designed his own method of current collection, this time from an overhead wire, called the bow collector. Once this had been developed his cars became equal to, if not better than, any of Sprague's cars. The first electric interurban line connecting St. Catharines and Thorold, Ontario was operated in 1887, and was considered quite successful at the time. While this line proved quite versatile as one of the earliest fully functional electric streetcar installations, it still required horse-drawn support while climbing the Niagara Escarpment and for two months of the winter when hydroelectricity was not available. This line continued service in its original form well into the 1950s. This article refers to the mass transit vehicle running on rails. ... Trolley poles are usually tapered cylindrical poles of wood or metal, used to transfer electricity from a live overhead wire to the control and propulsion equipment of a trolley car, tram or trolley bus. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic dic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... Richmond Union Passenger Railway. ... Frank Julian Sprague (1857-1934) American inventor, Father of Electric Traction Frank Julian Sprague (1857–1934) was an American naval officer and inventor who contributed to the development of the electric motor, electric railways, and electric elevators. ... Werner von Siemens Ernst Werner von Siemens (known as Werner von Siemens) (December 13, 1816 – December 6, 1892) was a German inventor and industrialist. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Fyodor Pirotsky, picture taken in 1898 Fyodor Apollonovich Pirotsky (Russian: ; February 17 [O.S. March 1] 1845- February 28 [O.S. March 12] 1898) was a Russian engineer and inventor. ... Whitaker Wright (1846-1904) was an English company promoter, and elder brother of electrical engineer John Joseph Wright (1847-1922) He was born James Whitaker Wright in Stafford, England, the son of James Wright (1815-1870), a dissenting Methodist Minister, and Matilda Whitaker (1815-1890), a tailors daughter. ... This article needs cleanup. ... International safety symbol Caution, risk of electric shock (ISO 3864), colloquially known as high voltage symbol. ... An old tram with a bow collector built in 1907 still running in Oberbozen, South Tyrol, Italy A bow collector is one of the three main devices used on tramcars to transfer electric current from the wires above to the tram below, the other devices being the pantograph and trolley... An interurban, also called a radial railway in parts of Canada, is a streetcar line running between urban areas or from urban to rural areas. ... Nickname: Motto: Industry and Liberality Location of St. ... City of Thorold Flag. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Rattlesnake Point near Milton, Ontario. ... Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ...


Since Sprague's installation was the first to prove successful in all conditions, he is credited with being the inventor of the trolley car. He later developed Multiple unit control, first demonstrated in Chicago in 1897, allowing multiple cars to be coupled together and operated by a single motorman. This gave birth to the modern subway train. For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... This article is about Multiple Units vehicles. ...

A 1925 vintage British tram, a common sight until the 1950s
A 1925 vintage British tram, a common sight until the 1950s

Two rare but significant alternatives were conduit current collection, which was widely used in London, Washington, D.C. and New York, and the Surface Contact Collection method, used in Wolverhampton (The Lorain System) and Hastings (The Dolter Stud System), UK. Download high resolution version (700x649, 165 KB)A vintage British tram. ... Download high resolution version (700x649, 165 KB)A vintage British tram. ... A vintage car is commonly defined as a car built between the start of 1919 and the end of 1930. ... Conduit current collection was a system of current collection used by electric trams where the power supply was located in a channel under the roadway, rather than located overhead. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ... The Stud Contact System is an obsolete ground-level power supply system for electric trams. ... // Wolverhampton is a City in the historical county of Staffordshire and metropolian county of the West Midlands. ... For other uses, see Hastings (disambiguation). ...


Attempts to use on-board batteries as a source of electrical power were made from the 1880s and 1890s, with unsuccessful trials conducted (among other places) in Bendigo and Adelaide in Australia, although run for about 14 years as Hague accutram of HTM in the Netherlands. A valve-regulated, sometimes called sealed, lead acid battery Lead-acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté, are the oldest type of rechargeable battery. ... // Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no... Bendigo is a large regional town in central Victoria, Australia, located in the City of Greater Bendigo. ... For other uses, see Adelaide (disambiguation). ... Arms of The Hague The Hague (with capital T; Dutch: Den Haag, or officially s-Gravenhage) is the administrative capital of the Netherlands, located in the west of the country, in the province South Holland of which it is also the capital. ... HTM Personenvervoer NV (HTM, from the former name Haagsche Tramweg Maatschappij) is a public transport company in the Netherlands operating trams and buses in The Hague, Rijswijk, Leidschendam-Voorburg, Delft, and Nootdorp. ...


A very famous Welsh example of a tram system was usually known as the Mumbles Train, or more formally as the Swansea and Mumbles Railway. Originally built as the Oystermouth Railway in 1804, on March 25, 1807 it became the first passenger-carrying railway in the world. Converted to an overhead cable-supplied system it operated electric cars from March 2, 1929 until its closure on January 5, 1960. These were the largest tram cars built for use in Britain and could each seat 106 passengers. The Swansea and Mumbles Railway was the worlds first public passenger railway[1]. Originally built in 1804 to move limestone from the quarries of Mumbles to Swansea and to the markets beyond, it carried its first passengers on the day the British Parliament abolished the transportation of slaves from... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Another early tram system operated from 1886 until 1930 in Appleton, Wisconsin, and is notable for being powered by the world's first hydroelectric power station, which began operating on September 30, 1882 as the Appleton Edison Electric Company. Appleton is a city in the U.S. state of Wisconsin, on the Fox River, 100 miles (161 km) north of Milwaukee. ... Hydroelectricity is a form of hydropower used to produce electricity. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Low floor

For more details on this topic, see Low floor.
and Ultra Low Floor
A Bulgarian built T8M-900 tram with low floor middle section in Sofia.

The latest generation of LRVs has the advantage of partial or fully low-floor design, with the floor of the vehicles only 300 to 360 mm (12-14 inches) above top of rail, a capability not found in either rapid rail transit vehicles or streetcars. This allows them to load passengers, including ones in wheelchairs, directly from low-rise platforms that are not much more than raised sidewalks. This satisfies requirements to provide access to disabled passengers without using expensive wheelchair lifts, while at the same time making boarding faster and easier for other passengers as well. The City Class LRV (Citytram) is one example of a low floored vehicle, 300 mm above rail height, with 70% of the 29 m long and 75% of the 38 m long versions low floor. The low floor extends across the articulation. The City Class has been designed to operate around 15 m curves and climb 10% gradients, and therefore allow new systems to be built in existing urban streets without the need to demolish buildings. Passenger door of a low-floor tram Passenger door of a non-low-floor tram In public transportation, low floor is a term describing vehicles such as busses, trolleybusses and trams whose passenger compartment has a floor which is considerably lower than that of traditional cars. ... The Ultra Low Floor tram (ULF) is a low floor tram currently operating only in Vienna, Austria. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... Wheelchair seating in a theater. ...


Articulated

Articulated trams are tram cars that consist of several sections held together by flexible joints and a round platform. Like articulated buses, they have an increased passenger capacity. These trams can be up to forty metres in length, while a regular tram has to be much shorter. With this type, a Jacobs bogie supports the articulation between the two or more carbody sections. An articulated tram may be low floor variety or high (regular) floor variety. Since 1981 onwards, nearly 150 articulated LRV-trams of the last kind are e.g. to be found in The Hague Netherlands. Look up joint in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Mississauga Transit bus in Mississauga Ontario. ... Class 423 EMU with Jacobs bogies A closeup of a bogie on the preserved Nebraska Zephyr. ... Passenger door of a low-floor tram Passenger door of a non-low-floor tram In public transportation, low floor is a term describing vehicles such as busses, trolleybusses and trams whose passenger compartment has a floor which is considerably lower than that of traditional cars. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ...


Ref.: HTM LRV nl:GTL8 / D.A. Borgdorff / The Hague - 2000 / ISBN 9090139354 HTM Personenvervoer NV (HTM, from the former name Haagsche Tramweg Maatschappij) is a public transport company in the Netherlands operating trams and buses in The Hague, Rijswijk, Leidschendam-Voorburg, Delft, Nootdorp. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ...


Tram-train

Main article: Tram-train

Tram-train operation uses vehicles such as the Flexity Link and Regio-Citadis which are suited for use on urban tram lines, but also meet the necessary indication, power, and resistance requirements to be certified for operation on main line railways. This allows passengers to travel from suburban areas into city-centre destinations without having to change from a train to a tram when they arrive at the central station. This article is about trams sharing tracks with main-line railways. ... This article is about trams sharing tracks with main-line railways. ... The Flexity Link is a low-floor tram-train manufactured by Bombardier Transportation. ... A Citadis 202 tram in Melbourne, Australia The Citadis is a low-floor tram built by Alstom in La Rochelle, France, and Barcelona, Spain. ...


It has been primarily developed in Germanic countries, in particular Germany and Switzerland. Karlsruhe is a notable pioneer of the tram-train. Karlsruhe (population 285,812 in 2006) is a city in the south west of Germany, in the Bundesland Baden-Württemberg, located near the French-German border. ...


Cargo trams

Image:33119 - weymouth hbr - August 1981.jpg

Goods have been carried on rail vehicles through the streets, particularly near docks and steelworks, since the 19th century (most evident in Weymouth), and some Belgian vicinale routes were used to haul timber. At the turn of the 21st century, a new interest has arisen in using urban tramway systems to transport goods. The motivation now is to reduce air pollution, traffic congestion and damage to road surfaces in city centres. Dresden has a regular CarGoTram service, run by the world's longest tram trainsets (59.4 m), carrying car parts across the city centre to its Volkswagen factory. Vienna and Zürich use trams as mobile recycling depots. Kislovodsk had a freight-only tram system comprising one line which was used exclusively to deliver bottled Narzan mineral water to the railway station. The Tramway in use in 1981 Near the former cargo loading stage, 2005 The Tramway 1938 curve Weymouth, Dorset, England had an unusual railway feature, a goods and passenger railway constructed entirely on the towns streets along a route from the main station to the harbour. ... , Weymouth is a town in Dorset, England, United Kingdom, situated on a sheltered bay at the mouth of the River Wey on the English Channel coast. ... For other uses, see Dresden (disambiguation). ... The CarGoTram. ... Volkswagen AG (ISIN: DE0007664005), or VW, is an automobile manufacturer based in Wolfsburg, Germany. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Zurich, see Zurich (disambiguation). ... Kislovodsk (Russian: ) is a city in Stavropol Krai, Russia. ...


As of 7 March 2007, Amsterdam is piloting a cargo tram operation, which could reduce particulate pollution by 20% by halving the number of lorries – currently 5,000 - unloading in the inner city during the permitted ‘window’ from 07:00 till 10:30. is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... A lorry is an expression for a truck an open railroad car with a tipping trough, often found in mines The word originally meant a sort of heavy horsedrawn wagon. ... The term inner-city is often applied to the poorer parts at the centre of a major city. ...


The pilot, operated by City Cargo Amsterdam, involves two cargo trams, operating from a distribution centre at Lutkemeerpolder, on the A10 ring motorway near the Osdorp terminus of tram no. 1. Each cargo tram can transport the load of 4 lorries (roughly 100 tonnes) to a ‘hub’ at Frederiksplein, where electric trucks deliver to the final destination. Motorway symbol in UK, France and Ireland. ... Terminus can refer to: Terminal station, a bus or rail station acting as an end destination Terminus (mythology), a Roman god Jupiter (god) (also known by this name) Atlanta, Georgia, which was originally called Terminus Terminus (planet), the home planet of the Foundation in Isaac Asimovs Foundation series Terminus...


If the trial is successful an investment of 100 million euro would see a fleet of 52 cargo trams distributing from four peripheral ‘cross docks’ to 15 inner-city hubs by 2012. These specially-built vehicles would be 30 metres long with 12 axles and a payload of 30 tonnes. // Look up fleet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. ... Look up payload in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


(Source: Samenwest 5 December 6, NOS3 television news 7 March 7) is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Model trams

Models of trams are popular in HO scale and sometimes in 1:50 scale. They typically are powered and will accept plastic figures inside. Common manufacturers are Roco and Lima with many custom models being made as well. The German firm Hödl and the Austrian Halling specialize in trams in 1:87 scale. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... HO scale (H0 scale in continental Europe) is the most popular scale of model railway in most of the world (outside the United Kingdom, where the slightly larger 00 gauge is most common). ... Roco, based in Salzburg, Austria, is a manufacturer of model railway equipment, The company was founded in 1960 by Ing. ... Lima S.p. ...


A number of 1:76.2 scale tram models, especially kits, are made in the UK. Many of these run on 16.5 mm gauge track, which is incorrect for the representation of standard (4ft 8½ins) gauge, as it represents 4ft 1½ins in 4 mm (1:76.2) scale. This scale/gauge hybrid is called OO scale.


There are some Russian tram models available in 1:48 scale

Pros and cons of tram systems

tram in Strasbourg, 2004.
tram in Strasbourg, 2004.
A Citadis class Melbourne tram.
A Citadis class Melbourne tram.
Tram tracks can be hazardous to cyclists
Tram tracks can be hazardous to cyclists

All transit service involves a tradeoff between speed and frequency of stops. Services that stop frequently have lower overall speed, and are therefore less attractive for longer trips. Metros, light rail, monorail, and bus rapid transit are all forms of rapid transit — which generally signifies high speed and widely-spaced stops. Trams are a form of local transit, making frequent stops. Thus, the most meaningful comparison of advantages and disadvantages is with other forms of local transit, primarily the local bus. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Strasbourg_Tram. ... Image File history File links Strasbourg_Tram. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... this photo was taken by me, User:Adam Carr, and is released by me into the public domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... this photo was taken by me, User:Adam Carr, and is released by me into the public domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A Citadis 202 tram in Melbourne, Australia The Citadis is a low-floor tram built by Alstom in La Rochelle, France, and Barcelona, Spain. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 859 KB) A road sign warning cyclists that the tram tracks in the road ahead might be slippy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 859 KB) A road sign warning cyclists that the tram tracks in the road ahead might be slippy. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... The KL Monorail in Kuala Lumpur, a colorful straddle-beam monorail A monorail is a single rail serving as a track for a wheeled vehicle; also, a vehicle traveling on such a track. ... This article is about high-capacity bus transit systems. ... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ...


Advantages

  • Multiple entrances allow trams to load faster than suburban coaches, which tend to have a single entrance. This, combined with swifter acceleration and braking, lets trams maintain higher overall speeds than buses, if congestion allows.
  • Trams can adapt to the number of passengers by adding additional cars during rush hour (as well as removing excess cars during off-peak hours). No additional driver is then required for the trip in comparison to buses.
  • In general, trams provide a higher capacity service than buses.
  • Unlike buses, but like trolleybuses, (electric) trams give off no exhaust emissions at point of use. Compared to motorbuses the noise of trams is generally perceived to be less disturbing.
  • Rights-of-way for trams are narrower than for buses. This saves valuable space in cities with high population densities and/or narrow streets.
  • Because they are rail-bound, trams command more respect from other road users than buses do, when operating on-road. In heavy traffic conditions, rogue drivers are less likely to hold up trams, for example by blocking intersections or parking on the road. This often leads to fewer delays. As a rule, especially in European cities and Melbourne, trams always have priority.
  • Passenger comfort is normally superior to buses because of controlled acceleration and braking and curve easement. Rail transport such as used by trams provides a smoother ride than road use by buses.
  • In most countries, trams don't suffer from the image problem that plagues buses. On the contrary — most people associate trams with a positive image. Unlike buses, trams tend to be popular with a wider spectrum of the public, including better-off people who often shun buses. This high level of customer acceptance means higher ridership and public support for investment in new tram infrastructure.

All transit service involves a tradeoff between speed and frequency of stops. Services that stop frequently have lower overall speed, and are therefore less attractive for longer trips. Further information: electric bus A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram or simply trolley) is an electric bus powered by two overhead wires, from which it draws electricity using two trolley poles. ... This article is about noise as in sound. ...


Disadvantages

Tram accident in Amsterdam
Tram accident in Amsterdam
  • The capital cost is higher than for buses, hence the usual preference for the latter in smaller cities
  • When operated in mixed traffic, trams are more likely to be delayed by disruptions in their lane. Buses, by contrast, can easily maneuver around obstacles. Opinions differ about whether deference that drivers show to trams — a cultural issue that varies by country — is sufficient to counteract this disadvantage.
  • Tram tracks can be dangerous for cyclists, as bikes, particularly those with narrow tyres, may get their wheels caught in the track grooves. It is also possible to close the grooves of the tracks on critical sections by rubber profiles that are pressed down by the wheelflanges of the passing tram, but cannot be lowered by the weight of a cyclist. These tend not to be maintained, lessening their effectiveness over time. Crossing tracks without trouble requires a sufficient angle of crossing, constraining cyclists' ability to manouvre other road hazards where tracks run along the road, especially in wet weather. This and problems with parked cars are lessened by building tracks and platforms in the middle of the road.
  • Tram infrastructure occupies urban space above ground and requires modifications to traffic flow.
  • Steel wheel trams are noisier than rubber-wheeled trolleybuses when cornering.
  • Tram drivers can control the switches ahead of them. This caused a major derailment in Geneva, Switzerland. A Wikinews article on the derailment
  • In urban areas where stops are close together, trams tend to coast between stops.
  • Light rail vehicles are often heavier per passenger carried than heavy rail and monorail cars.
  • The opening of new tram and light rail systems has sometimes been accompanied by a marked increase in car accidents, as a result of drivers' unfamiliarity with the physics and geometry of trolleys.[4] Though such increases may be temporary, long-term conflicts between motorists and light rail operations can be alleviated by segregating their respective rights-of-way and installing appropriate signage and warning systems.[5]
  • Rail transport can expose neighboring populations to moderate levels of low-frequency noise. However, transportation planners use noise mitigation strategies to minimize these effects.[6] Most of all, the potential for decreased private motor vehicle operations along the trolley's service line due to the service provision could result in lower ambient noise levels than without.

Image File history File linksMetadata Tram_accident. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tram_accident. ... // A tram in Helsinki, Finland A tram accident is generally an accident in which a tram is involved. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... The KL Monorail in Kuala Lumpur, a colorful straddle-beam monorail A monorail is a single rail serving as a track for a wheeled vehicle; also, a vehicle traveling on such a track. ... In an accident resulting from excessive speed, this concrete truck rolled over into the front garden of a house. ... Noise mitigation is a set of strategies to reduce unwanted environmental sound. ...

On Balance

Many of the pros and cons depend on the system design itself. A tram system with little distance between stops that has single unit vehicles which run in mixed traffic will see far less of an advantage over other transit alternatives than a tram system with a greater distance between stops, runs in multiple units, and runs in a dedicated right of way. Overall trams have a greater versatility in design, however as shown above, whether that is a pro or a con is debatable.


Regional variations

A Peter Witt tram in Milan
A Peter Witt tram in Milan

Around the world there are many tram systems; some date back from the early 20th century but countless number of the old systems were closed down with the exception of many Eastern Europe countries in the mid-20th century. Even though many of the systems have closed down over the years there are still tram systems that have been operating much like they did when they were first built over a century ago. Some cities that have once closed down their tram networks are now in the stages of reconstructing their tramways. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1184x1792, 274 KB) Milano: tram number 23 waiting at the end of line in the square in front of Lambrate train station. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1184x1792, 274 KB) Milano: tram number 23 waiting at the end of line in the square in front of Lambrate train station. ... A Peter Witt tram in front of Milan Central Station Peter Witt was a Cleveland Street Railway commissioner, who designed a model of streetcar, which is known by his name, and was used in many North American cities, (most notably in Toronto and Cleveland) and also Milan, Italy, where 200...


Europe

Main article: Trams in Europe

In many European cities, as in other parts of the world, tramway infrastructure was lost in the mid-20th century, though not always on the same scale as in other cities (in America, for example). Much of Eastern Europe lost less tramway infrastructure but some cities are now reconsidering their transport priorities, while some Western European cities are rehabilitating, upgrading and even reconstructing their old tramway lines. Europe, particularly Germany,France,Italy, Finland, Austria, Switzerland, Netherlands, Sweden and Belgium, has an extensive number of tramway networks. ...


North America

Note that in North America, especially the United States, trams are generally known as streetcars or trolleys, while the term tram is more likely to be understood as a tourist trolley, an aerial tramway, or a people-mover. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Light rail in North America. ... Tourist trolley in Monrovia, California. ... An Aerial tramway in Italy. ... Singapores LRT system is considered a people mover system. ...


Streetcars were largely torn down in the mid-20th century with exception including New Orleans' streetcars, Newark,Seattle, Philadelphia (with a much smaller network than once had existed), and San Francisco which still have them. Pittsburgh kept the majority of its streetcar system serving the city and many suburbs until January, 27th 1967, making it the longest-lasting large-network US streetcar system. Toronto has the largest streetcar system in the Americas. In the later 20th century, several light rail systems have been installed in cities in North America, in part along the same corridor as the old streetcars. Some have even restored their old streetcars and run them as a heritage line for tourists like the Vancouver Downtown Historic Railway. Streetcars in New Orleans have been an integral part of the citys public transportation network since the first half of the 19th century. ... Nickname: Map of Newark in Essex County Coordinates: , Country State County Essex Founded/Incorporated 1666/1836 Government  - Mayor Cory Booker, term of office 2006–2010 Area [1]  - Total 26. ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... The Vancouver Downtown Historic Railway is a historic railway that runs between Granville Island and Science World in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ...


South America

Argentina

Buenos Aires Vintage Subte line A.

The Buenos Aires street tramway network was once one of the most extensive in the world with over 857 km (535 mi) of track, most of it dismantled during the 1960s in favor of bus transportation. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 514 pixelsFull resolution (1008 × 648 pixel, file size: 612 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Personal Photo I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 514 pixelsFull resolution (1008 × 648 pixel, file size: 612 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Personal Photo I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ...


The Anglo-Argentine Tramways Company opened Latin America's first "underground tramway" system, (Subte line A) in 1913. The original route was partially underground and on street level until 1926, for this reason these "pantograph" cars built by La Brugeoise in Belgium had both low doors at the ends for boarding from the street and high doors in the middle for loading from platforms in the tunnel, therefore, "Subte" line A might also be considered one of the continent's first light rail trams. These vintage carriages (sans end doors) are still in operation.


A 2-km experimental Puerto Madero Tramway has recently been inaugurated with extensions to Retiro Rail Terminal Station and La Boca neighborhood being talked about; these are ultra-modern Citadis 302 cars from France. There are also talks about a “heritage tram” to be put in service in colonial San Telmo. Tranvía del Este is a public tram line currently in development in the Puerto Madero neighborhood of Buenos Aires. ... Estación Retiro (Spanish for Retiro Station) is a large train station in central Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... La Boca is a neighborhood, or barrio of the Argentine capital, Buenos Aires. ... A Citadis 202 tram in Melbourne, Australia The Citadis is a low-floor tram built by Alstom in La Rochelle, France, and Barcelona, Spain. ...


In the city of Mendoza a proposed Ferro Tranvía Urbano (interurban tramway) to be inaugurated in two years will operate on abandoned railroad tracks, one of its stations will connect to the planned "Wine Train". Mendoza is a city in the west of Argentina, and the capital of the Mendoza Province. ...


Asia

A broken-down tram may result in serious traffic congestion
A broken-down tram may result in serious traffic congestion
Main article: Trams in Asia

Tramway systems were well established in the Asian region at the start of the 20th Century but started a steady decline during the mid to late 30s. The 1960s marked the end of its dominance in public transportation with most major systems closed and the equipment and rails sold for scrap; however, some extensive original lines still remain in service in Hong Kong and Japan. In recent years there has been renewed interest in the tram with modern systems being built in South Korea, Japan, and the Philippines. Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 688 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 688 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Tramway Systems where well established in the Asian region at the start of the 20th century but strated to decline in use in the 1930s and began to be dismantled by the time it was the 1960s the majority of systems had been closed down. ...


The first Japanese tram line was inaugurated in 1895 as the Kyoto Electric Railroad. The tram reached its zenith in 1932 when 82 rail companies operated 1,479 kilometers of track in 65 cities. The tram declined in popularity through the remaining years of the 30s, a trend that was accelerated by the damages of the War and continued through the Occupation and rebuilding years. During the 1960s many of the remaining operational tramways were shut down and dismantled in favor of auto, bus, and rapid rail service; however, when one compares the number of operational lines that survived this era to their American counterparts, they can be defined as quite extensive.


Australasia

A newer C class Melbourne tram.
A newer C class Melbourne tram.
A heritage H-Class model (foreground) and modern Flexity tram (background) in Glenelg, Adelaide
A heritage H-Class model (foreground) and modern Flexity tram (background) in Glenelg, Adelaide
Main article: Trams in Australia
Main article: Trams in New Zealand

In Australasia, trams are used extensively only in Melbourne, and to a lesser extent, Adelaide, all other major cities having largely dismantled their networks by the 1970s. this photo was taken by me, User:Adam Carr, and is released by me into the public domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... this photo was taken by me, User:Adam Carr, and is released by me into the public domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre. ... Image File history File linksMetadata JettyRd_Glenelg. ... Image File history File linksMetadata JettyRd_Glenelg. ... This article replaces Trams in Australasia. ... A MOTAT to Zoo tram, Auckland, 2006 Trams in New Zealand were a major form of transport from the 19th century into the mid 20th century. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre. ... For other uses, see Adelaide (disambiguation). ...


A distinctive feature of many Australasian trams was the early use of a lowered central section between bogies (wheel-sets). This was intended to make passenger access easier, by reducing the number of steps required to reach the inside of the vehicle. It is believed that the design first originated in Christchurch in the first decade of the 20th century. Cars with this design feature were frequently referred to as "drop-centres". Bogies This game was started by BBCs Dick and Dom as part of their hit childrens TV show, Dick and Dom in da Bungalow. ...


The trams made by Boon & Co of Christchurch, New Zealand in 1906-07 for use in Christchurch may have been the first with this feature; they were referred to as drop-centres or Boon cars. Trams for Christchurch and Wellington built in the 1920s with an enclosed section at each end and an open-sided middle section were also known as Boon cars, but did not have the drop-centre.


Africa

Former Copenhagen articulated car in service on Alexandria's urban tramway
Former Copenhagen articulated car in service on Alexandria's urban tramway
A tram from Heliopolis terminates at Cairo's Ramses Station
A tram from Heliopolis terminates at Cairo's Ramses Station

Africa has tramway systems at present in Egypt and Tunisia. Tram. ... Tram. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... A tram from Heliopolis terminates at Ramses Station Cairo, Egypt Photo taken by Hajor, Dec. ... A tram from Heliopolis terminates at Ramses Station Cairo, Egypt Photo taken by Hajor, Dec. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ...


Egypt

In Egypt, both Cairo and Alexandria have historic systems that still exist.


In Greater Cairo, the once-extensive Cairo urban system is now all but defunct.
The express tramway system to and within the suburb of Masr el-Djedida, or Heliopolis, is still in operation, as one of the world's oldest examples of Light Rail.
So is the small 1970s system in the satellite town of Helwan, 25 km to the south. For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Modern Heliopolis (properly known as مصر الجديدة, Miṣr al-ǧidīdah – literally New Egypt) is a district of Cairo, Egypt (not to be confused with the ancient Egyptian city of the same name. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... Helwan, also spelled Hilwan or Hulwan is a city in Egypt on the bank of the Nile river, opposite the ruins of Memphis, with a population of about 230,000 (1989). ...


In Alexandria, both the urban system and the express routes to eastern suburbs are still in operation. The urban system operates yellow cars, including some acquired second-hand from Copenhagen, on largely street track. The express tramway (Ramleh routes) operates 3-car trains of blue cars, including some double-deck cars, on largely reserved track. There are also some dual-system routes. This article is about the city in Egypt. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ...


Tunisia

Tunis had traditional trams up to about 1960. In 1985, a new Light Rail line began operation and has since been followed by more. This article is about light rail systems in general. ...


South Africa

Public transport in South Africa commenced in Cape Town in May 1801, when a weekly coach service from Cape Town to Simon's Town was announced. Around 1838, the Cape's first horse-drawn omnibus was introduced, based on George Shilbeer's model. In September 1862 the Cape Town and Green Point Tramway Company was formed, and began operations on 1 April 1863. Both single- and double-deck horse-drawn trams were used. In 1896, the power station at Toll Gate, Cape Town (with two stacks supplied by Milliken Brothers of New York), was completed, and the old horse sheds were remodelled. Cape Town's electric tram system initially had ten cars, built in Philadelphia, USA. On 6 August 1896 Lady Sivewright, wife of Sir James Sivewright, opened the new system. At Queen Victoria's Jubilee in 1897, Cape Town and suburbs had thirty-two electric trams running on about twenty-three miles of track. The new power station was proving inadequate and had to be enlarged. The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area  - City 2,499 km²  (964. ... Simons Town Harbour, looking roughly to the south and showing the waters of False Bay Simons Town (also widely written Simonstown and, in Afrikaans, Simonstad), is a village and a naval base in South Africa, near Cape Town. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Autobus redirects here. ... This article is about 1862 . ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area  - City 2,499 km²  (964. ... This article is about the state. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Tram services also existed in Johannesburg (where the suburban railway to Boksburg, opened in 1890, was also called the Rand Tram), Pretoria, and Durban, but were all replaced by petrol, diesel and trolley bus systems by the early 1960s. This article is about the city in South Africa. ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country South Africa Province Gauteng Established 1855 Area  - City 1,644 km²  (634. ... For other uses, see Durban (disambiguation). ...


Trams in literature

Tramway in Grenoble, France.
Tramway in Grenoble, France.

One of the earliest literary references to trams occurs on the second page of Henry James's novel The Europeans:
Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 283 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions no File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 283 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions no File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Grenoble (Arpitan: Grenoblo) is a city and commune in south-east France situated at the foot of the Alps where the Drac joins the Isère River. ... For other uses of this name, see Henry James (disambiguation). ... The Europeans: A sketch is a short novel by Henry James, published in 1878. ...

From time to time a strange vehicle drew near to the place where they stood - such a vehicle as the lady at the window, in spite of a considerable acquaintance with human inventions, had never seen before: a huge, low, omnibus, painted in brilliant colours, and decorated apparently with jingling bells, attached to a species of groove in the pavement, through which it was dragged, with a great deal of rumbling, bouncing, and scratching, by a couple of remarkably small horses.

Published in 1878, the novel is set in the 1840s, though horse trams were not in fact introduced in Boston till the 1850s. Note how the tram's efficiency surprises the "European" visitor; how two "remarkably small" horses sufficed to draw the "huge" tramcar. A groove is a slot cut into a hard material such as wood, stone, or metal, often to provide a location for another component. ... For a pedestrian path situated alongside a road, see sidewalk. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ...


Gdansk trams figure extensively in the early stages of Günter Grass's Die Blechtrommel (The Tin Drum). Then in its last chapter, the novel's hero Oskar Matzerath, along with his friend Gottfried von Vittlar, steal a tram late at night from outside the Unterrath depot on the northern edge of Düsseldorf. For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (Neither rashly nor timidly) Voivodship Pomeranian Municipal government Rada miasta Gdańska Mayor Paweł Adamowicz Area 262 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 461 400 (2003) Ranked 6th 1... Günter Wilhelm Grass (born October 16, 1927) is a Nobel Prize-winning German author and playwright. ... The Tin Drum (German: Die Blechtrommel) is a 1959 novel by Günter Grass. ... The Tin Drum (German: Die Blechtrommel) is a 1959 novel by Günter Grass. ... The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Duesseldorf. ...


It is a surreal journey. Gottfried von Vittlar drives the tram through the night, south to Flingern and Haniel and then east to the suburb of Gerresheim. Meanwhile, inside, Oskar tries to rescue the half-blind Victor Weluhn (a character who had escaped from the siege of the Polish post office in Danzig at the beginning of the book and of the war) from his two green-hatted would-be executioners. Oskar deposits his briefcase, which contains Sister Dorotea's severed ring finger in a preserving jar, on the dashboard "where professional motorman put their lunchboxes". They leave the tram at the terminus, and the executioners tie Weluhn to a tree in Vittlar's mother's garden and prepare to machine-gun him. But Oskar drums, Victor sings, and together they conjure up the Polish cavalry, who spirit both victim and executioners away. Oskar asks Vittlar to take his briefcase in the tram to the police HQ in the Fürstenwall, which he does. A cow standing on a pole. ... Gerresheim is one of the oldest parts of the City of Düsseldorf. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Combatants Poland Nazi Germany Commanders Konrad Guderski † Alfons Flisykowski Willi Bethke Strength 55 post office employees 1 Danzig railwayman [1] Armament: 3 x Browning wz. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The ring finger is the fourth digit of the human hand, and the second most ulnar finger, located between the middle finger and the little finger. ... A rubber-sealed, screw-topped jar used for the storage of food, invented by the Kilner family and produced by John Kilner & Co, Yorkshire, England. ... Categories: Stub ... Terminus can refer to: Terminal station, a bus or rail station acting as an end destination Terminus (mythology), a Roman god Jupiter (god) (also known by this name) Atlanta, Georgia, which was originally called Terminus Terminus (planet), the home planet of the Foundation in Isaac Asimovs Foundation series Terminus... A . ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ...


The latter part of this route is today served by tram no. 703 terminating at Gerresheim Stadtbahn station ("by the glassworks" as Grass notes, referring to the famous glass factory in Gerresheim). Stadtbahn signet as used in North Rhine-Westphalia Stadtbahn (literally in German: city railway) is a term for light rail systems in operation in Germany. ...


[Reference: The chapter Die letzte Straßenbahn oder Anbetung eines Weckglases (The last tram or Adoration of a Preserving Jar). See page 584 of the 1959 Büchergilde Gutenberg German edition and page 571 of the 1961 Secker & Warburg edition, translated into English by Ralph Manheim]


Trams in popular culture

Wilbert Vere Awdry, OBE, (June 15, 1911 – March 21, 1997), better known as the Reverend W. Awdry, was a clergyman, railway enthusiast and childrens author. ... Toby the Tram Engine. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: The Railway Series The Railway Series is a set of story books about a fictional railway system located on the fictional Island of Sodor and the engines that lived on it. ... Henrietta is a feminine given name. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... A Streetcar Named Desire is an Academy Award-winning 1951 film adaptation of the Pulitzer Prize-winning play of the same name by Tennessee Williams. ... Mister Rogers Neighborhood was a childrens television show created and hosted by Fred Rogers which was produced by Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania public broadcaster WQED and Rogers not-for-profit production company Family Communications, Inc. ... The Italian Job is a British caper film, written by Troy Kennedy Martin, produced by Michael Deeley and directed by Peter Collinson. ... Alfred Hawthorn Hill (21 January 1924 – 19 April 1992), better known as Benny Hill, was a prolific English comic, actor and singer, best known for his television programme, The Benny Hill Show. ... For other uses, see Turin (disambiguation). ... Who Framed Roger Rabbit is a 1988 film produced by Amblin Entertainment and The Walt Disney Company (released on its Touchstone Pictures banner), which blends traditional animation and live action. ... Meet Me in St. ... The 1944 World Series featured a crosstown matchup between the St. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Luis Buñuel (February 22, 1900 - July 29, 1983) was a surrealist filmmaker. ... Kurosawa redirects here. ... Dodesukaden (どですかでん) is a film by Akira Kurosawa set in a Japanese rubbish dump in the period immediately following World War II. The film focuses on the fantasy life of its characters, focusing primarily on a mentally retarded boy who pretends to be a tram conductor by following a set route... Trolley dodger was a pejorative term for residents of Brooklyn, New York from the late 19th century the middle of the 20th century. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Brooklyn Dodgers were a Major League Baseball team that played from 1890-1957. ...

See also

Piping diagram from 1920 of a Westinghouse E-T Air Brake system. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... The Trampower City Class Light Rail Vehicle as a prototype is currently being tested on the Blackpool Tramway. ... Some of the tram controls discussed in this article. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Luas stop at Harcourt in Dublin, Ireland A tram stop is a place designated for a tram to stop in order to have passengers board or leave it. ... Light rail tracks with concrete railroad ties. ... Bordeaux trams run without overhead wires. ... The General Motors streetcar conspiracy refers to a contention that General Motors (GM), acting in conjunction with several other companies and through the National City Lines (NCL) holding company, illegally acquired many streetcar systems in various cities around the United States, dismantled and replaced them with buses for the express... The following is a list of cities that have tram / light-rail systems as part of their public transport system. ... This page provides links to list of cities that have, or once had, town tramway (urban tramway, or streetcar) systems as part of their public transport system. ... This is a list of transport museums throughout the world. ... The Presidents Conference Car was a model used by the Toronto Transit Commission. ... Specification may refer to several different concepts: Specification (standards) refers to specific standards Specificatio - a legal concept Specification (regression) refers to the practice of translating theory into a regression model Category: ... Adelaide O-Bahn The guide wheel of a guided bus in Mannheim, Germany A Fastway bus in the guided bus lane on Southgate Avenue, Crawley Guided buses are buses steered for part or all of their route by external means, usually on a dedicated track. ... Museum LM-49 tramcar in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. ... Museum MTV-82 tramcar in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. ... A streetcar suburb is a community whose growth and development was strongly shaped by the use of streetcar lines as a primary means of transportation. ... Tourist trolley in Monrovia, California. ... This page refers to urban rail mass transit systems. ... The Haytor Granite Tramway was a unique granite-railed tramway on Hay Tor, Dartmoor, Devon. ... A scene on a heritage railway. ... Talkoot (from Finnish: talkoo, almost always used in plural, talkoot) is a group of people gathering to work together, for instance, to build or repair something. ... Europe, particularly Germany,France,Italy, Finland, Austria, Switzerland, Netherlands, Sweden and Belgium, has an extensive number of tramway networks. ... // A tram in Helsinki, Finland A tram accident is generally an accident in which a tram is involved. ...

Types of trams

This article describes the mass transit vehicle. ... A Citadis 202 tram in Melbourne, Australia The Citadis is a low-floor tram built by Alstom in La Rochelle, France, and Barcelona, Spain. ... The Trampower City Class Light Rail Vehicle as a prototype is currently being tested on the Blackpool Tramway. ... Combino Tram in Basel Combino tram in Poznań on PST line Combino D1 class in Melbourne The Combino is a low floor tram produced by Siemens Transportation Systems (formerly Duewag). ... A double-decker tram is a tram that has two levels. ... The modernist Eurotram was first used in Strasbourg. ... Rapid Transit in San Diego: An original 1886 horse-drawn trolley and its driver participate in a parade celebrating the groundbreaking of the Panama-California Exposition Center in 1911. ... A Peter Witt tram in front of Milan Central Station Peter Witt was a Cleveland Street Railway commissioner, who designed a model of streetcar, which is known by his name, and was used in many North American cities, (most notably in Toronto and Cleveland) and also Milan, Italy, where 200... A Twin City Rapid Transit PCC streetcar in museum operation. ... Sirio in Athens Sirio in Gothenburg Sirio (Italian for Sirius) is a low-floor tram built by Ansaldobreda, an Italian manufacturer of trains, trams and LRVs. ... T3 is the name of a tramcar produced by Tatra. ... The Ultra Low Floor tram (ULF) is a low floor tram currently operating only in Vienna, Austria. ... New 100% low-floor tram by CroTram ZET 2200 is a 100% low-floor tram made by the Croatian consortium CroTram led by Končar. ... The Tramway Français Standard is a tramcar used on tramway systems in France. ... Tram, Stadtbahn, U-Bahn and S-Bahn schemes in Germany Germany has an extensive number of tramway networks (Straßenbahn in German). ...

References

  1. ^ Trolleys or streetcars are electrified through a single trolley wheel and pole and were grounded through the wheels and rails. The motorizing circuit must be designed to allow electrical current to flow through the undercarriage. Electrified buses with their rubber tires require dual trolleys for positive and negative anodes.
  2. ^ Bellis, Mary. History of Streetcars and Cable Cars. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  3. ^ Wood, E. Thomas. Nashville now and then: From here to there. Retrieved on 2007-08-07.
  4. ^ Charles S. McCaleb, Rails, Roads & Runways: The 20-Year Saga of Santa Clara County's Transportation Agency, (San Jose: Santa Clara County Transportation Agency, 1994), 67. Besides recounting statistics and anecdotes, this source also reprints a San Jose Mercury News cartoon of one such accident, in which a bemused tow truck driver quips, "Dang! Rod Diridon was right! The trolley does reduce the number of vehicles on the road!"
  5. ^ Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 69: Light Rail Service: Pedestrian and Vehicular Safety, Transportation Research Board http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2536
  6. ^ Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 23: Wheel/Rail Noise Control Manual, Transportation Research Board, http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2593

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mercs sections vary by day of the week, but Business, Sports, and The Valley are standard daily fare. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Cable car line (US/NY) Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Logo of the CTC The Calcutta Tramways Company Limited (CTC) is a West Bengal state government undertaken company that runs trams in Kolkata and buses in and around Kolkata. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Christchurch Tramway : Christchurch Attractions, Christchurch Dining, Christchurch Functions, Christchurch Tram (59 words)
Christchurch Tramway : Christchurch Attractions, Christchurch Dining, Christchurch Functions, Christchurch Tram
Christchurch Tramway is a quality inner city tour experience that combines the heritage of the trams, attractions and historic buildings with the culture of the Garden City.
The beautifully restored heritage trams are also available for cocktail functions or a unique dining experience on the Christchurch Tramway Restaurant.
Tram - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6863 words)
The first tram in France was inaugurated in 1853 for the upcoming World's Fair, where a test line was presented along the Cours de la Reine, in the 8th arrondissement.
In 1994 Strasbourg opened a system with novel British-built trams, specified by the city, with the goal of breaking with the archaic conceptual image that was held by the public.
In Australasia, trams are used extensively only in Melbourne, all other major cities having largely dismantled their networks by the mid 20th century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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