FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Trajan" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Trajan
Trajan
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Marble bust of Trajan at the Glyptothek, Munich
Reign January 28, 98-
August 9, 117
Full name Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus
Born September 18, 53(53-09-18)
Italica
Died August 9, 117 (age 64)
Selinus
Buried Rome (ashes in foot
of Trajan's Column, now lost.)
Predecessor Nerva
Successor Hadrian
Wife/wives Pompeia Plotina
Issue Hadrian (adoptive)
Dynasty Nervan-Antonine
Father Marcus Ulpius Traianus
Mother Marcia

Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus, commonly known as Trajan (September 18, 53August 9, 117), was a Roman Emperor who reigned from 98 until his death in 117. Born into a wealthy patrician family in the Hispania Baetica province, Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian, serving as a general in the Roman army along the German frontier, and successfully crushing the revolt of Antonius Saturninus in 89. On September 18, 96, Domitian was succeeded by Marcus Cocceius Nerva, an old and childless senator who proved to be unpopular with the army. After a brief and tumultuous year in power, a revolt by members of the Praetorian Guard compelled him to adopt the more popular Trajan as his heir and successor. Nerva died on January 27, 98, and was succeeded by his adopted son without incident. Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... Traian or Trajan can refer to: Trajan, the Roman emperor Traian, a commune in Bacău County Traian, a commune in Brăila County Traian, a commune in Ialomiţa County Traian, a commune in Olt County Traian, a commune in Teleorman County Traian, a village in Săcele Commune... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 417 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1683 × 2420 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Glyptothek is a museum in Munich, Germany, which was commissioned by the Bavarian King Ludwig I to house his collection of Greek and Roman sculptures (hence Glypto-, from the Greek root glyphein, to carve). ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Roman emperor Nerva succeeded by Trajan Tacitus finished his Germania (approximate date) Births Deaths January 27: Nerva, Roman emperor Apollonius of Tyana, Greek/Roman philosopher and mathematician (b. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Trajan subdued a Judean revolt, then fell seriously ill, leaving Hadrian in command of the east. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 53. ... The Roman amphitheatre at Italica seated 25,000 Italicas amphitheatre pit Pits were filled with water for the naumachia A walkway in Italica A hallway that circles the ampitheatre The House of the Birds complete with mosaic floor The House of the Planetarium The city of Italica (north of... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Trajan subdued a Judean revolt, then fell seriously ill, leaving Hadrian in command of the east. ... Selinunte is an ancient Greek archaeological site in the south province of Trapani, in the island of Sicily. ... Trajans Column is a monument in Rome raised by Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Senate. ... For other uses, see Nerva (disambiguation). ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... Pompeia Plotina Claudia Phoebe Piso or Pompeia Plotina or Plotina (died c. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... The Five Good Emperors. ... Marcus Ulpius Traianus Major (about 30 - before 100) (Latin: Major, the elder) was a Roman senator who lived in the first century and father of Emperor Trajan. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 53. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Trajan subdued a Judean revolt, then fell seriously ill, leaving Hadrian in command of the east. ... This is a list of Roman Emperors with the dates they controlled the Roman Empire. ... Events Roman emperor Nerva succeeded by Trajan Tacitus finished his Germania (approximate date) Births Deaths January 27: Nerva, Roman emperor Apollonius of Tyana, Greek/Roman philosopher and mathematician (b. ... Trajan subdued a Judean revolt, then fell seriously ill, leaving Hadrian in command of the east. ... Roman province of Hispania Baetica, 120 CE In Hispania, which in Greek is called Iberia, there were three Imperial Roman provinces, Hispania Baetica in the south, Lusitania, corresponding to modern Portugal, in the west, and Hispania Tarraconensis in the north and northeast. ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... The Roman army was a set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... Map of Upper Germanic Limes The Limes Germanicus (Latin for Germanic frontier) was a remarkable line of frontier (limes) forts that bounded the ancient Roman provinces of Germania Superior and Raetia, and divided the Roman Empire and the unsubdued Germanic tribes, from the years 83 to 260. ... Lucius Antonius Saturninus was the governor of Germania Superior, that in 89 rebelled against Domitian with the support of the legions XIV Gemina and XXI Rapax, camped in Moguntiacum (Mainz). ... This article is about the year 89. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see number 96. ... For other uses, see Nerva (disambiguation). ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Roman emperor Nerva succeeded by Trajan Tacitus finished his Germania (approximate date) Births Deaths January 27: Nerva, Roman emperor Apollonius of Tyana, Greek/Roman philosopher and mathematician (b. ...


As a civilian administrator, Trajan maintained good relations with the Roman Senate, and is best known for his extensive public building program, which reshaped the city of Rome and left multiple enduring landmarks such as Trajan's Forum, Trajan's Market and Trajan's Column. It was as a military commander however that Trajan celebrated his greatest triumphs. In 101, he launched a punitive expedition into the kingdom of Dacia against king Decebalus, defeating the Dacian army near Tapae in 102, and finally conquering Dacia completely in 105. In 107, Trajan pushed further east and conquered Nabatea, gaining the short-lived province of Arabia Petraea. After a period of relative peace within the Empire, he launched his final campaign in 113 against Parthia, advancing as far as the city of Susa in 116, and expanding the Roman Empire to its greatest extent. During this campaign Trajan was struck by illness, and late in 117, while sailing back to Rome, he died of stroke on August 9, in the city of Selinus. He was deified by the Senate and his ashes were laid to rest in the Mausoleum of Augustus. He was succeeded by his first cousin once removed Publius Aelius Hadrianus—commonly known as Hadrian. The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Trajans Forum Trajans Forum (Latin: Forum Traiani) is chronologically the last of the Imperial fora of Rome. ... Trajans Market, 2006 Trajans Market (Mercatus Traiani) is a large complex of ruins in the city of Rome, located on the Via dei Fori Imperiali, at the opposite end to the Colosseum. ... Trajans Column is a monument in Rome raised by Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Senate. ... A Roman Triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. ... boobs Births Herodes Atticus, Greek rhetoritician Ptolemy, Greek mathematician, astronomer and geographer. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Decebalus, from Trajans Column Decebalus (ruled 87 – 106) (Decebal in Romanian) was a Dacian king. ... Combatants Dacia Roman Empire Commanders Decebalus Trajan Strength unknown unknown Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Tapae (101) was the decisive battle of the first Dacian War, in which Roman Emperor Trajan defeated the Dacian King Decebaluss army. ... For other uses, see number 102. ... Events Roman Empire Trajan starts the second expedition against Dacia. ... For other uses, see number 107. ... Petra, the Nabataean capital The Nabataeans, a people of ancient Arabia, whose settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the border-land between Syria and Arabia from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. ... Arabia Petraea Arabia Petraea, also called Provincia Arabia or simply Arabia, was a frontier province of the Roman Empire beginning in the second century; it consisted of the former Nabataean kingdom in modern Jordan, southern modern Syria Sinai, and northwestern Saudi Arabia. ... Events Trajan starts an expedition against Armenia. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Events Roman Emperor Trajan completes his invasion of Parthia by capturing the cities of Seleucia, Ctesiphon and Susa, marking the high-water mark of the Roman Empires eastern expansion. ... Trajan subdued a Judean revolt, then fell seriously ill, leaving Hadrian in command of the east. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Selinunte is an ancient Greek archaeological site in the south province of Trapani, in the island of Sicily. ... Look up Apotheosis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The entryway to the Mausoleum of Augustus. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ...


As an emperor, Trajan's legacy proved to be one of the most enduring in the history of the Roman Empire, and in reputation second only to that of Augustus. Every new emperor after Trajan was honoured by the Senate with the prayer felicior Augusto, melior Traiano, meaning "may he be luckier than Augustus and better than Trajan". Contrary to many lauded rulers in history, this reputation survived nearly undiminished for over nineteen centuries. Among medieval Christian theologians, Trajan was considered a virtuous pagan, while the 18th century historian Edward Gibbon popularized the notion of the Five Good Emperors, of which Trajan was the second. For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... The Five Good Emperors is a term used by the 18th century historian, Edward Gibbon, in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. ...

Contents

Early life and rise to power

Roman imperial dynasties
Nervo-Trajanic Dynasty
Nerva
Children
   Natural - (none)
   Adoptive - Trajan
Trajan
Children
   Natural - (none)
   Adoptive - Hadrian
Hadrian
Children
   Natural - (none)
   Adoptive - Lucius Aelius
   Adoptive - Antoninus Pius

Trajan was the son of Marcia and Marcus Ulpius Traianus, a prominent senator and general from the famous gens Ulpia. The family had settled in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, comprising modern Spain and Portugal), in the province of Hispania Baetica in what is now Andalusia (in modern Spain), a province that was thoroughly Romanized and called southern Hispania. Trajan himself was just one of many well-known Ulpii in a line that continued long after his own death. His elder sister was Ulpia Marciana and his niece was Salonina Matidia. Also known as the Nervan dynasty, the Ulpian dynasty (after their common gens nomen Ulpius), or combined with the subsequent Antonine dynasty to form the Nervan-Antonian Dynasty. ... For other uses, see Nerva (disambiguation). ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... Lucius Aelius as Caesar. ... Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus Pius (September 19, 86–March 7, 161) was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. ... Marcus Ulpius Traianus Major (about 30 - before 100) (Latin: Major, the elder) was a Roman senator who lived in the first century and father of Emperor Trajan. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... The Ulpius clan were one of the clans of Ancient Rome. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Roman province of Hispania Baetica, 120 CE In Hispania, which in Greek is called Iberia, there were three Imperial Roman provinces, Hispania Baetica in the south, Lusitania, corresponding to modern Portugal, in the west, and Hispania Tarraconensis in the north and northeast. ... For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ... Ulpia Marciana (48 – 112/114) was the elder sister of Roman Emperor Trajan. ... This denarius celebrates Matidia Augusta. ...


He was born on September 18, 53, in the city of Italica. As a young man, he rose through the ranks of the Roman army, serving in some of the most contentious parts of the Empire's frontier. In 76–77, Trajan's father was Governor of Syria (Legatus pro praetore Syriae), where Trajan himself remained as Tribunus legionis. Trajan was nominated as Consul and brought Apollodorus of Damascus with him to Rome around 91. Along the Rhine River, he took part in the Emperor Domitian's wars while under Domitian's successor, Nerva, who was unpopular with the army and needed to do something to gain their support. He accomplished this by naming Trajan as his adoptive son and successor in the summer of 97. According to the Augustan History, it was the future Emperor Hadrian who brought word to Trajan of his adoption.[1] When Nerva died on January 27, 98, the highly respected Trajan succeeded without incident. is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 53. ... The Roman amphitheatre at Italica seated 25,000 Italicas amphitheatre pit Pits were filled with water for the naumachia A walkway in Italica A hallway that circles the ampitheatre The House of the Birds complete with mosaic floor The House of the Planetarium The city of Italica (north of... The Roman army was a set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ... Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by several elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... Apollodorus of Damascus, a famous Greek architect, engineer, designer and sculptor, flourished during the 2nd century AD. He was a favourite of Trajan, for whom he constructed Trajans Bridge over the Danube (104) for the campaign in Dacia. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Rhine canyon (Ruinaulta) in Graubünden in Switzerland Length 1. ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... For other uses, see Nerva (disambiguation). ... The Augustan History (Lat. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Roman emperor Nerva succeeded by Trajan Tacitus finished his Germania (approximate date) Births Deaths January 27: Nerva, Roman emperor Apollonius of Tyana, Greek/Roman philosopher and mathematician (b. ...


Emperor

Relation with the Senate

As issued by the Roman Senate, to the "Optimus Princeps" Trajan.
As issued by the Roman Senate, to the "Optimus Princeps" Trajan.

The new emperor was greeted by the people of Rome with great enthusiasm, which he justified by governing well and without the bloodiness that had marked Domitian's reign. He freed many people who had been unjustly imprisoned by Domitian and returned a great deal of private property that Domitian had confiscated; a process begun by Nerva before his death. His popularity was such that the Roman Senate eventually bestowed upon Trajan the honorific of optimus, meaning "the best". Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x492, 79 KB) Summary Coin Source: http://ru. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x492, 79 KB) Summary Coin Source: http://ru. ... The As (plural Asses) was a bronze, and later copper, coin used during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire, named after the homonymous weight unit (12 unciae = ounces), but not immune to weight depreciation. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... An honorific is a word or expression that conveys esteem or respect and is used in addressing or referring to a person. ...


Dio Cassius, sometimes known as Cassius Dio, reports that Trajan drank heavily and was a pederast. "I know, of course, that he was devoted to boys and to wine, but if he had ever committed or endured any base or wicked deed as the result of this, he would have incurred censure; as it was, however, he drank all the wine he wanted, yet remained sober, and in his relation with boys he harmed no one." [2] This sensibility was one that influenced even his governing, leading him to favour the king of Edessa out of appreciation for his handsome son: "On this occasion, however, Abgarus, induced partly by the persuasions of his son Arbandes, who was handsome and in the pride of youth and therefore in favour with Trajan, and partly by his fear of the latter's presence, he met him on the road, made his apologies and obtained pardon, for he had a powerful intercessor in the boy." [3]. Dio Cassius Cocceianus (c. ... Pederasty or paederasty (literally boy-love, see Etymology below) refers to an intimate or erotic relationship between an adolescent boy and an adult male outside his immediate family. ... Tenth_century icon of Abgar with the mandylion, the image of Christ Abgar V or Abgarus V of Edessa (born between 4 BC - AD 7 and reigned AD 13 -50) is a historical ruler of the kingdom of Osroene, holding his capital at Edessa. ...


Dacian Wars

Main article: Dacian Wars

It was as a military commander that Trajan is best known to history. In 101, he launched a punitive expedition into the kingdom of Dacia, on the northern bank of the Danube River, defeating the Dacian army near Tapae. During the following winter Decebalus launched a counter-attack across the Danube further downstream, but this was repulsed. Trajan's army advanced further into Dacian territory and forced King Decebalus to submit to him a year later, after Trajan took the Dacian capital of Sarmizegethusa. Domitian had campaigned against Dacia from 85 to 89 without securing a decisive outcome, and Decebalus had brazenly flouted the terms of the peace which had been agreed on conclusion of this campaign. Combatants Dacians Roman Empire Commanders Decebal Trajan Strength around 100,000 (based on population estimate) 70,000-80,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown The Dacian Wars (101-102, 105-106) were two short wars between the Roman Empire and Dacia during Emperor Trajans rule. ... Trajans Column Picture taken in May 2003 in Rome. ... Trajans Column Picture taken in May 2003 in Rome. ... Trajans Column is a monument in Rome raised by Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Senate. ... boobs Births Herodes Atticus, Greek rhetoritician Ptolemy, Greek mathematician, astronomer and geographer. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078 m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500 m³/s Area watershed 817,000 km² Origin Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg... The Battle of Tapae (101) was the decisive battle of the first Dacian War, in which Roman Emperor Trajan effectively defeated Dacian King Decebaluss army. ... Decebalus, from Trajans Column Decebalus (ruled 87 – 106) (Decebal in Romanian) was a Dacian king. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Sarmizegethusa was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Dacia. ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ...


Trajan now returned to Rome in triumph and was granted the title Dacicus Maximus. The victory was celebrated by the Tropaeum Traiani. Decebalus though, after being left to his own devices, in 105 undertook an invasion against Roman territory by attempting to stir up some of the tribes north of the river against her. Trajan took to the field again and after building with the design of Apollodorus of Damascus his massive bridge over the Danube, he conquered Dacia completely in 106. Sarmizegethusa was destroyed, Decebalus committed suicide, and his severed head was exhibited in Rome on the steps leading up to the Capitol. Trajan built a new city, "Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegethusa", on another site than the previous Dacian Capital, although bearing the same full name, Sarmizegethusa. He resettled Dacia with Romans and annexed it as a province of the Roman Empire. Trajan's Dacian campaigns benefited the Empire's finances through the acquisition of Dacia's gold mines. The victory is celebrated by Trajan's Column. Tropaeum Traiani Tropaeum Traiani is a monument in Adamclisi, Romania. ... Events Roman Empire Trajan starts the second expedition against Dacia. ... Apollodorus of Damascus, a famous Greek architect, engineer, designer and sculptor, flourished during the 2nd century AD. He was a favourite of Trajan, for whom he constructed Trajans Bridge over the Danube (104) for the campaign in Dacia. ... Drawings of the still-standing pillars Trajans Bridge was the first bridge built on the lower Danube river, east from the Iron Gates, near what is now the city of Drobeta-Turnu Severin, Romania and Kladovo, Serbia. ... For other uses, see number 106. ... Decebalus, from Trajans Column Decebalus (ruled 87 – 106) (Decebal in Romanian) was a Dacian king. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... The Capitoline Hill (Capitolinus Mons), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the most famous and smallest of the seven hills of Rome. ... Trajans Column is a monument in Rome raised by Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Senate. ...


Expansion in the East

At about the same time, one of Rome's client kings, the last king of Nabatea, Rabbel II Soter, died. This might have prompted Trajan's annexation of Nabatea, although the reasons for annexation are not known, nor is the exact manner of annexation. Some epigraphic evidence suggests a military operation, with forces from Syria and Egypt. What is clear, however, is that by 107, Roman legions were stationed in the area around Petra and Bostra, as is shown by a papyrus found in Egypt. The Empire gained what became the province of Arabia Petraea (modern southern Jordan and north west Saudi Arabia). Petra, the Nabataean capital The Nabataeans, a people of ancient Arabia, whose settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the border-land between Syria and Arabia from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. ... Rabel II Soter (ar-Rabil) was the last King of the Nabateans, ruling from 70 until 106 AD. After the death of his father, Malichus II, ar-Rabil ascended to the throne while he was still a child. ... For other uses, see number 107. ... This article is about the Jordanian site of Petra. ... Bosra (alternative Bostra, Busrana, Bozrah, Bozra, Busra Eski Sham, Busra ash-Sham, Nova Trojana Bostra) is an ancient city in southern modern-day Syria. ... Arabia Petraea Arabia Petraea, also called Provincia Arabia or simply Arabia, was a frontier province of the Roman Empire beginning in the second century; it consisted of the former Nabataean kingdom in modern Jordan, southern modern Syria Sinai, and northwestern Saudi Arabia. ...


Period of peace

Coin showing the Forum of Trajan.
Coin showing the Forum of Trajan.

The next seven years, Trajan ruled as a civilian emperor, to the same acclaim as before. It was during this time that he corresponded with Pliny the Younger on the subject of how to deal with the Christians of Pontus, telling Pliny to leave them alone unless they were openly practicing the religion. He built several new buildings, monuments and roads in Italia and his native Hispania. His magnificent complex in Rome raised to commemorate his victories in Dacia (and largely financed from that campaign's loot)—consisting of a forum, Trajan's Column, and a shopping centre—still stands in Rome today. He was also a prolific builder of triumphal arches, many of which survive, and rebuilder of roads (Via Traiana and Via Traiana Nova). Trajan Æ Sestertius. ... Trajan Æ Sestertius. ... Gayus Plinius Colonoscopy Caecilius Secundus (63 - ca. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Trajans Forum Trajans Forum (Latin: Forum Traiani) is chronologically the last of the Imperial fora of Rome. ... Trajans Column is a monument in Rome raised by Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Senate. ... Trajans Market, 2006 Trajans Market (Mercatus Traiani) is a large complex of ruins in the city of Rome, located on the Via dei Fori Imperiali, at the opposite end to the Colosseum. ... The Roman emperor Trajan built triumphal arches all over the Roman empire during his reign. ... For Arabian road, see Via Traiana Nova Extension by the emperor Trajan of the Via Appia from Beneventum, reaching Brundisium by a shorter route (ie via Canusium and Barium rather than via Tarentum). ... For road of similar name in Italy, see Via Traiana Nova (Italy) Trajanic rebuild of the Kings Highway (ancient). ...


One notable act of Trajan was the hosting of a three-month gladiatorial festival in the great Colosseum in Rome (the precise date of this festival is unknown). Combining chariot racing, beast fights and close-quarters gladiatorial bloodshed, this gory spectacle reputedly left 11,000 dead (mostly slaves and criminals, not to mention the thousands of ferocious beasts killed alongside them) and attracted a total of five million spectators over the course of the festival. For other uses, see Gladiator (disambiguation). ... The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section. ...


Maximum extent of the Empire

The extent of the Roman Empire under Trajan (117)

In 113, he embarked on his last campaign, provoked by Parthia's decision to put an unacceptable king on the throne of Armenia, a kingdom over which the two great empires had shared hegemony since the time of Nero some fifty years earlier. Trajan marched first on Armenia, deposed the king and annexed it to the Roman Empire. Then he turned south into Parthia itself, taking the cities of Babylon, Seleucia and finally the capital of Ctesiphon in 116. He continued southward to the Persian Gulf, whence he declared Mesopotamia a new province of the Empire and lamented that he was too old to follow in the steps of Alexander the Great. Image File history File links RomanEmpire_117. ... Image File history File links RomanEmpire_117. ... Trajan subdued a Judean revolt, then fell seriously ill, leaving Hadrian in command of the east. ... Events Trajan starts an expedition against Armenia. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... Hegemony (pronounced or ) (Greek: ) is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... The name Seleucia may denote any one of several cities in the Seleucid Empire. ... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: ‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Madain: المدائن) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years... Events Roman Emperor Trajan completes his invasion of Parthia by capturing the cities of Seleucia, Ctesiphon and Susa, marking the high-water mark of the Roman Empires eastern expansion. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


But he did not stop there. Later in 116, he captured the great city of Susa. He deposed the Parthian king Osroes I and put his own puppet ruler Parthamaspates on the throne. Never again would the Roman Empire advance so far to the east. Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Coin of Osroes I. The date ΗΚΥ is year 428 of the Seleucid era, corresponding to 116–117. ... Parthamaspates, the son of Osroes I, spent much of his life in Roman exile. ...

Bust of Trajan, Glyptothek, Munich.
Bust of Trajan, Glyptothek, Munich.

It was at this point that the fortunes of war—and his own health—betrayed Trajan. The fortress city of Hatra, on the Tigris in his rear, continued to hold out against repeated Roman assaults. He was personally present at the siege and it is possible that he suffered a heat stroke while in the blazing heat. The Jews inside the Roman Empire rose up in rebellion once more, as did the people of Mesopotamia. Trajan was forced to withdraw his army in order to put down the revolts. Trajan saw it as simply a temporary setback, but he was destined never to command an army in the field again, turning his Eastern armies over to the high ranking legate and governor of Judaea, Brinius Carnix Maximus. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 460 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1689 × 2200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 460 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1689 × 2200 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Glyptothek is a museum in Munich, Germany, which was commissioned by the Bavarian King Ludwig I to house his collection of Greek and Roman sculptures (hence Glypto-, from the Greek root glyphein, to carve). ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Hatra (al-aar الحضر) is an ancient ruined city in the former Iranian province of Khvarvaran, today part of Iraq, located at 35°34′ N 42°42′ E. It was an important fortified city of the Iranian Parthian Empire, and withstood repeated attacks by the Roman Empire. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ...


Late in 116, Trajan grew ill and set out to sail back to Italy. His health declined throughout the spring and summer of 117, and by the time he had reached Selinus in Cilicia which was afterwards called Trajanopolis, he suddenly died from edema on August 9. Some say that he had adopted Hadrian as his successor, but others that it was his wife Pompeia Plotina who hired someone to impersonate him after he had died. Hadrian, upon becoming ruler, returned Mesopotamia to Parthian rule. However, all the other territories conquered by Trajan were retained. Trajan's ashes were laid to rest underneath Trajan's column, the monument commemorating his success. Trajan subdued a Judean revolt, then fell seriously ill, leaving Hadrian in command of the east. ... Selinunte is an ancient Greek archaeological site in the south province of Trapani, in the island of Sicily. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... This page is about the condition called edema. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... Pompeia Plotina Claudia Phoebe Piso or Pompeia Plotina or Plotina (died c. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ...


Trajan's legacy

Eugène Delacroix. The Justice of Trajan (fragment).
Eugène Delacroix. The Justice of Trajan (fragment).

Unlike many lauded rulers in history, Trajan's reputation has survived undiminished for nearly nineteen centuries. The Christianization of Rome resulted in further embellishment of his legend: it was commonly said in medieval times that Pope Gregory I, through divine intercession, resurrected Trajan from the dead and baptized him into the Christian faith. An account of this features in the Golden Legend. Theologians, such as Thomas Aquinas, discussed Trajan as an example of a virtuous pagan. In the Divine Comedy, Dante, following this legend, sees the spirit of Trajan in the Heaven of Jupiter with other historical and mythological persons noted for their justice. He also features in Piers Plowman. An episode, referred to as the justice of Trajan was reflected in several art works. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (565x789, 637 KB)Delacroix. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (565x789, 637 KB)Delacroix. ... Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... “Saint Gregory” redirects here. ... For the Arthur Sullivan oratorio, see The Golden Legend (oratorio). ... Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... For other uses see The Divine Comedy (disambiguation), Dantes Inferno (disambiguation), and The Inferno (disambiguation) Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... For the planet see Jupiter. ... Page from a 14th century Psalter, showing drolleries on the right margin and a plowman at the bottom. ... The justice of Trajan is a common name for the episode with Roman Emperor Trajan, based upon Dio Cassius account (Roman History, XIX, 5). ...


Notes

  1. ^ Augustan History, Life of Hadrian 2.5–6.
  2. ^ Dio Cassius, Epitome of Book LXVIII; 6.4
  3. ^ ibid. 21.2–3

References and further reading

  • Ancell, R. Manning. "Soldiers." Military Heritage. December 2001. Volume 3, No. 3: 12, 14, 16, 20 (Trajan, Emperor of Rome).
  • Bennett, J. Trajan: Optimus Princeps, 2nd Edition, Routledge 2001
  • Bowersock, G.W. Roman Arabia, Harvard University Press, 1983
  • Fuller, J.F.C. A Military History of the Western World. Three Volumes. New York: Da Capo Press, Inc., 1987 and 1988.
    • v. 1. From the earliest times to the Battle of Lepanto; ISBN 0-306-80304-6: 255, 266, 269, 270, 273 (Trajan, Roman Emperor).
  • Isaac, B. The Limits of Empire, The Roman Army in the East, Revised Edition, Oxford University Press, 1990
  • Kennedy, D. The Roman Army in Jordan, Revised Edition, Council for British Research in the Levant, 2004
  • Lepper, F.A. Trajan's Parthian War. London: Oxford University Press, 1948.

Military Heritage is a glossy, bi-monthly history magazine published by Sovereign Media. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Trajan

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Primary sources

Secondary material

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Nerva
Roman Emperor
98 – 117
Succeeded by
Hadrian
Five Good Emperors
96 – 180
Nervan-Antonian Dynasty
96 – 192
Nervo-Trajanic Dynasty
96 – 138
Political offices
Preceded by
Domitian
Marcus Cocceius Nerva
Consul of the Roman Empire
91
with Manius Acilius Glabrio
Succeeded by
Domitian
Quintus Volusius Saturninus
Preceded by
Marcus Cocceius Nerva
Lucius Verginius Rufus
Consul of the Roman Empire
98
with Nerva
Succeeded by
Aulus Cornelius Palma Frontonianus
Quintus Sosius Senecio
Preceded by
Aulus Cornelius Palma Frontonianus
Quintus Sosius Senecio
Consul of the Roman Empire
100 – 101
Succeeded by
Lucius Iulius Ursus Servianus
Lucius Licinius Sura
Preceded by
Lucius Iulius Ursus Servianus
Lucius Licinius Sura
Consul of the Roman Empire
103
with Marcus Laberius Maximus
Succeeded by
Sextus Attius Suburanus Aemilianus
Marcus Asinius Marcellus
Preceded by
Gaius Calpurnius Piso
Marcus Vettius Bolanus
Consul of the Roman Empire
112
with Titus Sextius Africanus
Succeeded by
Lucius Publilius Celsus
Gaius Clodius Crispinus


  Results from FactBites:
 
Trajan Gallery | contemporary international and American art. (114 words)
Established in 1999, Trajan Gallery extends a dynamic presentation of contemporary international and American art to the Carmel gallery scene.
Featuring an impressive scope of stylistic categories, Trajan's stable of artists reflects a rich aesthetic diversity, inclusive of traditional landscape painting, Neo-Fauvism, bronze sculpting and the vanguard of modern graphic processes.
Trajan Gallery is in the heart of Carmel, California on the Ocean Avenue at San Carlos.
Trajan (559 words)
Trajan was one of the ablest of the Roman emperors; he was stately and majestic in appearance, had a powerful will, and showed admirable consideration and a chivalrous kindliness.
In the middle of the great open space was the colossal equestrian statute of Trajan; the free area itself was surrounded by rows of columns and niches surmounted by high arches.
At the end of the structure was the Bibliotheca Ulpia, in the court of which stood the celebrated Trajan's Column with its reliefs representing scenes in the Dacian wars.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m